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Clues to Roman Illnesses in 2,000-Year-Old Cheese
abcnews ^

Posted on 10/10/2002 11:02:29 AM PDT by chance33_98


Clues to Roman Illnesses in 2,000-Year-Old Cheese

Oct. 9 — By E. J. Mundell

NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - A tiny piece of cheese, carbonized in the volcanic eruption that killed the citizens of Pompeii, is yielding up secrets as to how ancient Romans ate, lived and died.

Using an electron microscope, anthropological researcher Dr. Luigi Capasso of the State University G. d'Annunzio in Chieti, Italy, has been able to pinpoint goats' milk cheese as a prime source of brucellosis--a debilitating joint disease that ravaged the ancient world.

"Roman cheese was an important and continuous source of possible infectious disease in the Roman world, including brucellosis," he told Reuters Health.

The findings are published in a recent issue of the Journal of Infection.

One night in late August, 79 AD, inhabitants of the great Roman city of Pompeii and the nearby coastal city of Herculaneum were woken by one of the most devastating volcanic eruptions in history as Mount Vesuvius hurled tons of lava and searing ash upon the coastal plain. In Herculaneum, archaeologists have uncovered the remains of 250 people who huddled in caves as they attempted to flee to the sea, their escape cut off by a 25-foot wall of volcanic mud.

The intense heat and then rapid cooling of the mud has left the bones--and even outlines of organs--of these victims in a remarkable state of preservation, allowing medical archaeologists much insight into diseases afflicting Romans in the first century.

According to Capasso, the bones of nearly one in five (17%) inhabitants of Herculaneum display lesions indicating a disease of the joints called brucellosis, caused by infection with the Brucella melitensis bacterium.

Brucella, primarily found in animals like sheep or goats, can be passed to humans via milk or milk products. The disease is relatively rare today, although it remains a source of debilitating arthritic illness in countries such as Yemen or Oman that rely heavily on goat or sheep herding for their milk supply.

But why did so many Romans suffer from this disease? The answer may come from a tiny dehydrated and carbonized piece of cheese, measuring 5 centimeters in diameter, unearthed in Herculaneum and dating from the time of the eruption.

"The cheese is perfectly preserved," Capasso said, so much so that he could still distinguish on the cheese's surface an impression of the basket in which it had been contained.

Capasso used an electron microscope to examine the internal structure of the cheese, and identified two distinct types of bacterial colonies. One, long and arranged in chains, is obviously the common Lactobacilli necessary to the cheese-making process. The other appears spherical, "arranged in large colonies"--very similar in form to Brucella.

Although the carbonization of the cheese makes it impossible to definitely identify the bacterium as Brucella, Capasso says his study "reveals, for the first time, a quantity of bacteria that shows food could, as is now the case, be the reason for human (carriage of Brucella) in an ancient time."

This type of medical archaeology has yielded up other secrets as to ailments afflicting everyday Romans two millenia ago. According to Capasso, "studies of ancient human bones can provide a vivid picture of the state of health of an ancient population."

In a previous study, human remains from the Herculaneum disaster have confirmed that many Romans suffered from head lice, lung ailments due to air pollution, and bone disorders linked to slave labor, as well as numerous diseases and nutritional deficits.


TOPICS: Culture/Society; Miscellaneous
KEYWORDS: cheese; cheesewatch

1 posted on 10/10/2002 11:02:29 AM PDT by chance33_98
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To: blam; callisto; Ernest_at_the_Beach; LostTribe; RightWhale; Rutabega; PoisedWoman; Yeti; ...
((((((growl)))))



2 posted on 10/10/2002 11:05:02 AM PDT by Sabertooth
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To: chance33_98; MeeknMing
Oh man. This is too easy.


3 posted on 10/10/2002 11:08:09 AM PDT by TxBec
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To: chance33_98

A Roamin' Moose.

4 posted on 10/10/2002 11:11:00 AM PDT by martin_fierro
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To: Sabertooth
Thanks for the ping bump.
5 posted on 10/10/2002 11:11:48 AM PDT by blam
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To: chance33_98
In a previous study, human remains from the Herculaneum disaster have confirmed that many Romans suffered from head lice, lung ailments due to air pollution, and bone disorders linked to slave labor, as well as numerous diseases and nutritional deficits

I wonder how you can have massive air pollution without FACTORIES LOL

6 posted on 10/10/2002 11:15:59 AM PDT by Nat Turner
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To: chance33_98
In a previous study, human remains from the Herculaneum disaster have confirmed that many Romans suffered from head lice, lung ailments due to air pollution, and bone disorders linked to slave labor, as well as numerous diseases and nutritional deficits.

So that's why they talk about "Republican Rome."

7 posted on 10/10/2002 11:18:37 AM PDT by stndngathwrthistry
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To: Nat Turner
Dirt floors, perhaps?
8 posted on 10/10/2002 11:20:19 AM PDT by Ernest_at_the_Beach
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To: Ernest_at_the_Beach
Some were. Others were tile and mosaic. Beautiful work. Bet the wood smoke from so many fires could get pretty bad, though. Fascinating place.
9 posted on 10/10/2002 11:23:41 AM PDT by mewzilla
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To: TxBec
Oh man. This is too easy.

Careful. It ain't easy bein' cheesy.

10 posted on 10/10/2002 11:25:17 AM PDT by Constitution Day
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To: chance33_98
Whoever said it was healthy to eat 2,000 year old cheese?
11 posted on 10/10/2002 11:26:43 AM PDT by weegee
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To: Nat Turner
The Romans smelted huge amounts of lead, which lead to a good amount of air pollution. Cores taken from glaciers in Greenland found particles from these smelting facilities.
12 posted on 10/10/2002 11:27:46 AM PDT by Pyro7480
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To: chance33_98
They may have had all those diseases-- but they weren't ravaged with obesity. Head lice or 50 extra lbs. Not sure who is worse off.
13 posted on 10/10/2002 11:27:50 AM PDT by Plutarch
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To: chance33_98
I FORMAGGI
dal latte di buon pascolo
i formaggi più pregiati

Dal latte al formaggio
Formaggi e nutrizione
Mappa dei formaggi
più tipici

DAL LATTE AL FORMAGGIO

Il latte, di buon pascolo, e soprattutto quel suo derivato assai egregio che è il formaggio, viene oggigiorno sempre più proposto dai nutrizionisti per assicurare all'organismo proteine alternative pregiate, che l’opinione dell’uomo della strada reputa abbondanti solo nelle carni. La carne ha sì proteine, cioè i principi nutritivi di base dell'alimentazione, le sostanze che, essendo "plastiche" per eccellenza, rafforzano la carrozzeria umana nella fase di accrescimento evolutivo, riparando le usure giornaliere in ogni organo e apparato. Ma proteine ha anche il latte e, in grande concentrazione, un buon formaggio. Per buon formaggio ha da intendersi un delicato prodotto dell’arte casearia, a partire dalla materia prima, che è il latte.

Quanto migliore è la qualità del latte, tanto risulta ottimale il prodotto della caseificazione. La qualità dei pascoli rappresentano un fattore determinante per le mucche da latte. La fragranza dei pascoli si trasfonde in quel latte, e da questo passa al burro, al formaggio, alle ricotte.


FORMAGGI e NUTRIZIONE

I formaggi sono alimenti ottenuti dal latte intero o parzialmente scremato o scremato, in seguito a coagulazione acida o presamica (ad opera di enzimi presenti nello stomaco dei ruminanti). Il coagulo (cagliata) subisce poi una serie di trattamenti diversi a seconda del tipo di formaggio che si vuole produrre. I formaggi freschi hanno un contenuto di acqua più elevato dei formaggi stagionati che, in quanto tali, hanno subito una concentrazione dei nutrienti che sono in essi contenuti. Essendo dei derivati del latte, i formaggi contengono gli stessi principi nutritivi di questo alimento (ad eccezione del lattosio e di una parte di proteine del siero che sfuggono alla cagliata), ma in quantità notevolmente più abbondanti: costituiscono pertanto la miglior fonte di calcio alimentare e sono eccellenti apportatori di proteine di elevato valore biologico, nonché di lipidi. Questi ultimi raggiungono quantità variabili tra il 16 e il 40 per cento e oltre.

I formaggi costituiscono quindi da soli un ottimo secondo piatto e non devono essere consumati in aggiunta a questo o come «fine pasto». Alcuni tipi di formaggio possono venire inoculati con particolari microrganismi, quali muffe, che conferiscono al prodotto sapore ed aroma caratteristici (gorgonzola, robiole, roquefort eccetera). La ricotta, formaggio che deve essere consumato freschissimo, si ottiene per riscaldamento (ricotta) a 70/75° C del siero di latte (cioè della parte che rimane dalla lavorazione del formaggio) di pecora o di vacca, dopo aggiunta di un acidificante. Il contenuto lipidico della ricotta di pecora è più elevato di quello della ricotta di vacca e, conseguentemente, anche il loro apporto energetico è differente.

(da Atlante ragionato di alimentazione Istituto SCOTTI BASSANI
per la ricerca e l’informazione scientifica e nutrizionale - Milano)


14 posted on 10/10/2002 11:29:11 AM PDT by AAABEST
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To: Pyro7480
so my lil FORD Expedition isnt that bad after all LOL
15 posted on 10/10/2002 11:31:46 AM PDT by Nat Turner
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To: chance33_98
lung ailments due to air pollution

Did the archaeologists find any Roman SUVs?

16 posted on 10/10/2002 11:32:14 AM PDT by steve-b
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To: chance33_98
Cheese eating, but no one called them surrender monkees.
17 posted on 10/10/2002 11:35:54 AM PDT by Plutarch
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To: Constitution Day
"Who Moved My Cheese?"- Julius Caesar, Authorisis originalis
18 posted on 10/10/2002 11:36:08 AM PDT by blackdog
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To: chance33_98
Actaully I'm almost surprised to read that poor health was not caused by Republicans' refusal to support state sponsored comprehensive health care, family leave, etc.
19 posted on 10/10/2002 11:36:41 AM PDT by weegee
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20 posted on 10/10/2002 11:37:53 AM PDT by Anti-Bubba182
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To: Nat Turner
I wonder how you can have massive air pollution without FACTORIES LOL

Cooking fires. And IIRC, the chimney hadn't been invented yet.

21 posted on 10/10/2002 11:39:24 AM PDT by r9etb
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To: chance33_98; *cheesewatch; Lazamataz
Abandon Thread!

Abandon Thread!

This is not a drill.

WE HAVE STRUCK CHEESE!

22 posted on 10/10/2002 11:46:05 AM PDT by LibKill
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To: chance33_98
They also found fossilized remains of that famous book "Earth in the Balance", written in latin, by Lavidius da Gore warning of the increasing global warming.
23 posted on 10/10/2002 11:52:10 AM PDT by aShepard
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24 posted on 10/10/2002 12:01:31 PM PDT by weegee
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To: WhyisaTexasgirlinPA
oh no, there is a down side to cheese. besides meeses and mooses.

t
25 posted on 10/10/2002 12:06:38 PM PDT by P7M13
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To: P7M13
"Roman cheese was an important and continuous source of possible infectious disease in the Roman world"

What an interesting place Rome must have been at that time........ lol......... continuous source of possible infectious disease.......

26 posted on 10/10/2002 12:29:50 PM PDT by WhyisaTexasgirlinPA
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To: Nat Turner
I wonder how you can have massive air pollution without FACTORIES LOL

There had to be foundries to forge all that cool armor and swords. Lead was used to line the aquaducts.

Tanneries were foul places. Additionally there must have been plenty of kilns to fire for production of tiles for roofs, aquaducts, ect, not to mention art, urns and vases.

Finally, we know the Romans loved their bathhouses, they had to be heated also.

Of course, most likely the biggest culprit was the SUC, Sport Utility Chariot.

27 posted on 10/10/2002 12:31:19 PM PDT by TC Rider
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To: Nat Turner
I wonder how you can have massive air pollution without FACTORIES LOL

Um, the Romans had factories. If I recall correctly, pollution from some of their lead smelters was so bad, traces of it can easily be detected in Arctic ice cores.

28 posted on 10/10/2002 12:33:20 PM PDT by andy_card
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To: WhyisaTexasgirlinPA
So, Rome invented not only SUCs but CTDs also....after all,
it was a republican senate composed of rich old white guys.

t
29 posted on 10/10/2002 12:34:02 PM PDT by P7M13
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To: Pyro7480
The Romans smelted huge amounts of lead, which lead to a good amount of air pollution. Cores taken from glaciers in Greenland found particles from these smelting facilities.

Ooops. Just mentioned the same thing.

30 posted on 10/10/2002 12:34:13 PM PDT by andy_card
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To: chance33_98
bump for later.
31 posted on 10/10/2002 12:35:39 PM PDT by Steve1789
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To: TC Rider
LOL! Good post :-)
32 posted on 10/10/2002 12:39:51 PM PDT by Pyro7480
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To: chance33_98
Behold the power of cheese.
33 posted on 10/10/2002 12:42:04 PM PDT by Redcloak
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To: P7M13
Rome invented not only SUCs but CTDs also

ROFL..........Sport Utility Chariots and Cheese Transmitted Diseases!!!!!!!!!! ROFL...........

34 posted on 10/10/2002 12:44:38 PM PDT by WhyisaTexasgirlinPA
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To: Nat Turner
I wonder how you can have massive air pollution without FACTORIES LOL

Wood smoke. Next January, go to a suburb in any mountainous region within the U.S. Everyone thinks they're Daniel Boone and burns wood even when it's not that cold. The air stinks, it's difficult to breath, and your eyes sting.
35 posted on 10/10/2002 12:53:26 PM PDT by Hemlock
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To: chance33_98
Something to read while eating 2k year old cheese...

Handy Latin Phrases

Non calor sed umor est qui nobis incommodat.
It's not the heat, it's the humidity.

Di! Ecce hora! Uxor mea me necabit!
God, look at the time! My wife will kill me!

Estne volumen in toga, an solum tibi libet me videre?
Is that a scroll in your toga, or are you just happy to see me?

Purgamentum init, exit purgamentum.
Garbage in, garbage out.

Credo nos in fluctu eodem esse.
I think we're on the same wavelength.

Lex clavatoris designati rescindenda est.
The designated hitter rule has got to go.

Te audire no possum. Musa sapientum fixa est in aure.
I can't hear you. I have a banana in my ear.

Sentio aliquos togatos contra me conspirare.
I think some people in togas are plotting against me.

Antiquis temporibus, nati tibi similes in rupibus ventosissimis exponebantur ad necem.
In the good old days, children like you were left to perish on windswept crags.

Caesar si viveret, ad remum dareris.
If Caesar were alive, you'd be chained to an oar.

Quantum materiae materietur marmota monax si marmota monax materiam possit materiari?
How much wood would a woodchuck chuck if a woodchuck could chuck wood?

Nihil curo de ista tua stulta superstitione.
I'm not interested in your dopey religious cult.

Quomodo cogis comas tuas sic videri?
How do you get your hair to do that?

Feles mala! Cur cista non uteris? Stramentum novum in ea posui.
Bad kitty! Why don't you use the cat box? I put new litter in it.

Romani quidem artem amatoriam invenerunt.
You know, the Romans invented the art of love.

(At a barbeque) Animadvertistine, ubicumque stes, fumum recta in faciem ferri?
Ever noticed how wherever you stand, the smoke goes right into your face?

Neutiquam erro.
I am not lost.

Hocine bibo aut in eum digitos insero?
Do I drink this or stick my fingers in it?

Vah! Denuone Latine loquebar? Me ineptum. Interdum modo elabitur.
Oh! Was I speaking Latin again? Silly me. Sometimes it just sort of slips out.

36 posted on 10/10/2002 1:22:15 PM PDT by SGCOS
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To: andy_card
Were the antiwar protestors picketing against BVSH I and BVSH II?
37 posted on 10/11/2002 2:21:06 AM PDT by weegee
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To: TxBec
heh heh !! How 'bout a little moose with that cheese?....

Playin' Ketchup again today......



38 posted on 10/11/2002 6:44:56 AM PDT by MeekOneGOP
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To: SGCOS
Love it. gonna have to print this one out LOL
39 posted on 10/11/2002 6:46:32 AM PDT by TxBec
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To: WhyisaTexasgirlinPA; MeeknMing; TxBec; christine
Did you hear Kraft Foods is opening a new factory in Israel? The product will be called Cheeses of Nazareth.
40 posted on 10/11/2002 9:55:50 AM PDT by Argh
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To: Argh
heh heh !
41 posted on 10/11/2002 11:59:11 AM PDT by MeekOneGOP
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