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Fresh debate over human origins
BBC News ^ | 24 December 2002 | staff

Posted on 12/26/2002 8:02:36 AM PST by PatrickHenry

The theory that we are all descended from early humans who left Africa about 100,000 years ago has again been called into question.

US researchers sifting through data from the human genome project say they have uncovered evidence in support of a rival theory.

Most scientists agree with the idea that our ancestors first spread out of Africa about 1.8 million years ago, conquering other lands.

What happened next is more controversial.

The prevailing theory is that a second exodus from Africa replaced all of the local populations, such as Europe's Neanderthals.

Some anthropologists, however, advocate the so-called multiregional theory, that not all the local populations were replaced.

They think some of these ancient people interbred with African hominids, contributing to the gene pool of modern humans.

The new evidence, published online in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, is based on an analysis of data from the human genome project - the effort to map the entire human genetic blueprint.

Blood and bones

Researchers led by Henry Harpending, professor of anthropology at Utah University, studied small differences in human DNA known as single nucleotide polymorphisms.

Studying when these mutations appeared gives a window into the ancient past, allowing scientists to trace the rise and fall of early humans in different parts of the world.

"The new data seem to suggest that early human pioneers moving out of Africa starting 80,000 years ago did not completely replace local populations in the rest of the world," he says. "There is instead some sign of interbreeding."

The study suggests that there was a bottleneck in the human population when ancestors of modern humans colonised Europe about 40,000 years ago.

This is a puzzle because earlier human genetic studies have backed the idea that a rapidly expanding African population spread globally and replaced all local populations.

One possibility is that there was limited interbreeding between humans migrating from Africa and local populations in Europe and elsewhere.

'Open question'

Commenting on the research, Professor Chris Stringer, Head of Human Origins at London's Natural History Museum, said that in the last few years the multiregional model of human evolution had been called into question by new data, much of it genetic, showing our species had a recent African origin.

He told BBC News Online: "Arguments now centre on whether we are recently and entirely Out of Africa, or just mainly so.

"Some replacement models, and some genetic data, suggest no interbreeding at all with archaic peoples outside of Africa, while other replacement models allow limited interbreeding with the locals over the short time scale in which they overlapped.

"This new research suggests there could have been some interbreeding, but as the authors recognise, it could have been limited, and whether it happened at all is still an open question."

TOPICS: Culture/Society; Miscellaneous; Philosophy
KEYWORDS: archaeology; creationism; crevolist; evolution; ggg; godsgravesglyphs; history; multiregionalism; neandertal; origins
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To: laredo44
Sorry if you have never thought beyond brainwashing---indoctrination---mind engineering...

you have to take off the evo trick glasses---

you've got your 'truth/reality blockers' on too tight!
41 posted on 12/26/2002 12:36:15 PM PST by f.Christian
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To: Gary Boldwater
I'm asking. What's the answer?

Pay in advance. Cash on the barrelhead. No returns, no exchanges, no warranty. As is, where is. No, the merch may not be examined before purchase. There will no further explanations on this deal.

42 posted on 12/26/2002 12:40:42 PM PST by RightWhale
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To: laredo44
I wouldn't mind knowing

Sometimes ignorance is bliss.

43 posted on 12/26/2002 12:41:44 PM PST by RightWhale
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To: PatrickHenry
"In truth, if you are given the choice of the universe suddenly appearing out of nothing or being created by a super-intelligence like God, the more logical of the two is God -- if for no other reason than that it works. (Makes sense. Is logical.)"

"But scientists can't bring themselves to face the truth."

"They have become the... priests, bishops and cardinals---of the Age of Secularism."

"They have established themselves in the federally financed temples of the Church of Education, an institution very much like the hierachy of the once-official Church of England. They condemn any faith other than their own. God is heresy to them, and must be expunged from the society. Those who wish to receive a degree must worship only at the alter of "pure" science -- which, by the parameters established by the priests, themselves, cannot answer the most important questions of all.."

44 posted on 12/26/2002 12:43:33 PM PST by f.Christian
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To: stanz
Have you ever been diagnosed as bi-polar

450 mg of eskalith CR about eighteen times a days oughta do the trick.

I enjoy getting pinged to these threads...but this is the reason I rarely respond. Not meaning you, of course.

45 posted on 12/26/2002 12:47:04 PM PST by Focault's Pendulum
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To: laredo44
To: f.Christian


I took a few minutes to decipher that post, and I must say I agree with a lot of what you said.


These were the Classical liberals...founding fathers-PRINCIPLES---stable/SANE scientific reality/society---industrial progress...moral/social character-values(private/personal) GROWTH(limited NON-intrusive PC Govt/religion---schools)!


Where you and I diverge is on the Evolution/Communism thing. You seem to view Darwin and evolution as the beginning of the end for enlighted, moral civilization, while I think Marx, class struggle, and the "dictatorship of the proletariat" are the true dangers.

God bless you, I think we both have a common enemy in the BRAVE-NWO.

452 posted on 9/7/02 8:54 PM Pacific by Dakmar

46 posted on 12/26/2002 12:50:01 PM PST by f.Christian
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To: RightWhale
Sometimes ignorance is bliss.

Super duper helpful! Thanks ever so much.

47 posted on 12/26/2002 1:13:59 PM PST by laredo44
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To: f.Christian
Sorry if you have never thought beyond brainwashing---indoctrination---mind engineering...

you have to take off the evo trick glasses---

you've got your 'truth/reality blockers' on too tight!

f., pretty much gobblidegook again here. I'm neither brainwashed, nor tricked, nor blocked from reality as you assert free of corroberation, reason, or logic. You either can't explain yourself, or won't. My mistake, I thought you wanted in on this discussion.

48 posted on 12/26/2002 1:28:29 PM PST by laredo44
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To: All
"The 18th and 19th centuries witnessed the rise of the positive(ideological/occult*) sciences, and with this an intensification in skepticism about God and the claims of traditional religion, especially among the educated classes. This inclination became most marked after the publication of The Origin of the Species and The Descent of Man, by the naturalist Charles Darwin. Darwin ascribed man's immediate ancestry to the anthropoids, supposedly through a process of gradual evolution. Man was no longer a creature made in the image of God, but merely a natural extension of certain lower forms of life, a refined gorilla, as it were. It was these circumstances, and this intellectual milieu, that led philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche to declare that "God is dead" and to predict the rise of new and terrible manifestations of barbarism in the century that was to come. As he put it, "For ... we shall have upheavals, a convulsion of earthquakes, a moving of mountains and valleys, the like of which has never been dreamed of ... there will be wars the like of which have never yet been seen on earth." The non-believer Nietzsche would agree wholly with the Christian believer Dostoyevsky about one thing: Without faith in God, all horrors, all of man's worst nightmares, would become possible. And so they did."

"What men... believe---really does matter."

* addition!

49 posted on 12/26/2002 1:42:00 PM PST by f.Christian
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To: Focault's Pendulum
They attracted it. Actually ASKED for it. Oh well. Makes for a horse race, anyway.

Tell me, my Pendular friend...where did typing dogs come from ? Right. Their mothers. Should have known.

I once read that redheads have Neanderthal genes for that. I know a redhead who has jeans from the '60s. Does that count ?
50 posted on 12/26/2002 1:59:48 PM PST by PoorMuttly
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To: PatrickHenry
51 posted on 12/26/2002 2:01:33 PM PST by PatrickHenry
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To: f.Christian
Whose birthday did we just celebrate? Just to remind those who wandered about yesterday with nothing in particular to do.

These out of Africa theories, I suppose, are predicated on a passage through a certain region of the earth, strangely important even today. Plus this is old news even though the source of the doubt may be novel. I wouldn't buy fish from the "fresh" debate BBC.

Man left Africa three times

There were at least three major waves of early human migration out of Africa, our DNA suggests. Apparently the wanderers made love, not war: gene patterns hint that later emigrants bred with residents.

52 posted on 12/26/2002 2:14:01 PM PST by AndrewC
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To: aristeides
Republican Conference Chairman Rick Santorum (Pa.), the Senate GOP's third-ranking leader, said Bush and the Bush, a born-again Christian, supports the party's social agenda, though some advisers worry that high-profile fights over abortion or other divisive issues might turn off independent voters in 2004. The president is eager to advance the cause where he can, aides said, although

he has shown a willingness to soft-pedal some proposals when political opposition grows.
53 posted on 12/26/2002 2:14:44 PM PST by TLBSHOW
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To: PatrickHenry
An Uncertain Year for Cloning Laws

One big factor in the new political calculus is the ascendancy of Senate majority leader Bill Frist (R-Tenn.), who as both a conservative and a physician has been seeking middle ground in the embryo research wars. Scientists believe stem cells offer potential cures for Parkinson's disease, diabetes and other ailments.

Frist supports some kinds of human embryo research but has said he opposes cloning human embryos. Two weeks ago, though -- before the unexpected turn of events that led to the resignation of his predecessor, Sen. Trent Lott (R-Miss.) -- he visited the Massachusetts company that has been at the forefront of human embryo cloning to learn about scientists' progress there. It was the first such visit by a U.S. senator.
54 posted on 12/26/2002 2:19:11 PM PST by TLBSHOW
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To: AndrewC
Whose birthday did we just celebrate?

Good question, go to this thread and find out for sure!! LOL
55 posted on 12/26/2002 2:26:32 PM PST by Aric2000
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To: Gary Boldwater
I am not a supporterm of the out of Africa Theory, a quick look at the distribution of races shoots that one down.
56 posted on 12/26/2002 2:26:46 PM PST by Little Bill
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To: AndrewC
The evoloons parrot these scams like 'manchurian candidates' and the evo media plays them like harps...

unashamedly---they drone on!
57 posted on 12/26/2002 2:30:58 PM PST by f.Christian
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To: PatrickHenry
Mark placer.
58 posted on 12/26/2002 6:12:27 PM PST by Junior
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To: Gary Boldwater
Reminds me of some graffiti I saw in Vietnam a long time ago. It read, "God is dead--Nietzsche." Beneath it was scrawled, "Nietsche is dead--God." Of the two, the second was most likely true.
59 posted on 12/26/2002 6:21:15 PM PST by Hootowl
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To: Gary Boldwater
Who created God?

God, by defintion is uncreated, he is the creator, eternal and outside of time. Either you have faith in that or you don't.

Since you don't seem to be a man of faith perhaps you could answer this.

How did nothing without any catalyst result in an ever expanding universe?

60 posted on 12/26/2002 6:42:08 PM PST by jwalsh07
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