Skip to comments.Allegiance: the duty a citizen owes to his or her government- Potentially Disqualifying Conditions
Posted on 02/20/2003 8:30:37 PM PST by chance33_98
Allegiance is the duty a citizen owes to his or her government. If allegiance is in doubt, an individual's willingness to safeguard classified information is also in doubt.
Criticism of the U.S. Government is protected by freedom of speech. Expression of unpopular or antigovernment beliefs does not show lack of allegiance. An allegiance issue arises only when a person acts or prepares to act on those beliefs in a manner that violates the law.
Some persons proclaim their allegiance to the United States while their actions clearly demonstrate disloyalty. Interviews with 24 Americans arrested for espionage determined that almost all considered themselves "good Americans." They did not prefer any foreign country and rationalized their espionage as not really hurting anyone. In their minds, allegiance to the United States was never an issue. Ref 1 The truth, of course, is just the opposite. Espionage against the United States is the clearest possible demonstration of disloyalty.
Similarly, some antigovernment militia members, white supremacists, and tax protesters refer to themselves as Patriots. They defend a distorted interpretation of the Constitution, while actually undermining the Constitution by taking the law into their own hands and trying to force their values on others. While professing loyalty to the "country," many of these self-styled "Patriots" reject allegiance to what they view as an illegal government.
Individuals holding a security clearance have a right to hold unpopular opinions, including opinions that are distasteful to the overwhelming majority of Americans and contrary to government policy. They also have a right to seek change in government policies or programs.
They do not have the right to engage in force or violence, either actual or threatened, or to take the law into their own hands in any other way, in order to further their beliefs. Allegiance to the United States is evaluated by what one does or is prepared to do, not what one believes
Statements individuals make about their intentions, or about their beliefs in opposition to government policy, must be carefully evaluated. Actions, threats and support that raise security concerns include those which aim to overthrow the government by force or violence, or to prevent others from exercising their rights by force or violence. Beliefs, even strong beliefs, in opposition to government programs or policies should not raise security concerns unless they lead to some more serious action, conduct or association..
The following are serious allegiance issues:
Unfortunately, extremist attitudes that support use of force against the U.S. Government are not uncommon. A Washington Post-ABC News poll of randomly selected American adults in 1995 found that 6% described the federal government as their "enemy." Similarly, 9% said it is sometimes justified for citizens to take violent action against the government, while 13% said they support the goals and activities of private armed militias. Ref 2
An allegiance issue may be raised by involvement in any illegal act, or the preparation, threat or attempt to commit any illegal act, or the knowing association with any persons or organizations advocating any illegal act, that harms the national security of the United States. Actions that harm the national security of the United States include espionage, treason, sabotage, terrorism, and sedition. For definition of these terms, see Definitions.
This potentially disqualifying factor includes illegal actions motivated only by personal gain, as well as actions intended to aid a foreign country, overthrow the U.S. Government, or alter government policy through force or other unconstitutional means. In some cases this factor may overlap the Foreign Preference guideline.
Espionage - "Spying," or gathering and communicating protected information that will benefit a foreign country or group, usually to the detriment of the United States.
Sabotage - Malicious damage or destruction of any work, structure or machinery, or disruption of production or business, usually with intent to injure or weaken, to make a political point, or to deny use of facilities or materiel.
Sedition - Any act, writing, speech, etc. inciting unlawful or violent change or overthrow of a government.
Terrorism - Use of threats or actual violence as a means of resisting government or trying to intimidate government into making changes.
Treason - Providing aid and comfort to an enemy in wartime.
An allegiance issue may be raised by the actual or threatened use of force or violence in an effort to change government policy or prevent others from exercising their rights under the Constitution or laws of the United States or of any state.
Constitutional rights include the public's right to vote, freedom of speech, right of assembly, and freedom of religion. Intimidation, harassment, or use of force to prevent any person from exercising these rights is a significant allegiance issue. See Example 1.
Federal, state and local law enforcement authorities have a legal right to perform their assigned duties. Intimidation, harassment, use of force, or training and practicing to use force against law enforcement authorities is a significant allegiance issue.
A criminal offense such as disturbing the peace, which is only a misdemeanor and not disqualifying under Criminal Conduct, could be disqualifying when evaluated under Allegiance to the United States. For example, a misdemeanor offense may be a basis for adverse action if it resulted from efforts to prevent others from exercising their constitutional rights, e.g., seeking to prevent members of a minority group from voting.
Participation in antigovernment extremist activities should be assessed under this guideline. The so-called "Patriot" movement includes private militias, racist and neo-Nazi groups, tax protesters, "freemen," and common law "courts." Groups that formerly operated independently are now influencing each other and developing overlapping interests as a result of extensive communication via the Internet.
These groups have found a common cause in their "deep distrust of the government and their eagerness to fight back. They are convinced that the American people are being systematically oppressed by an illegal, totalitarian government that is intent on disarming all citizens and creating one world government. They believe that the time for traditional political reform is over, that their freedom will only be secured by resistance to the nation's laws and attacks against its institutions." Ref 3 As of Spring 1997, a private group that monitors extremist activity identified 858 groups in the United States that identify themselves as "Patriots" opposed to a "New World Order" government conspiracy. As the Patriot movement grows, its composition is changing. Armed militias previously dominated the ranks. As of early 1997, organizations that follow a separatist agenda -- common law courts, Sovereignty groups and tax resisters -- comprised the fastest growing segment. To see a list of these Patriot groups on the Internet, go to www. splcenter.org -- then click on Klanwatch and Militia Task Force. Ref 4
Most Patriot followers are law-abiding citizens who join the movement to express their outrage at a government they consider misguided. Their activities remain within the bounds of legitimate, albeit strident, political speech. But these legitimate dissidents support a more radical Patriot underground whose members have been charged with bombings, bank robberies, attempted murder, biological terrorism, illegal weapons possession, fraud, intimidation of public officials, and tax avoidance.
For more information on antigovernment extremist groups, see:
Although a commitment to protect classified information does not require that one agree with U.S. Government policies, it may require that one accept the basic legitimacy of federal, state and local government and their constitutional authority to make and enforce laws. There may be a fundamental conflict of interest between:
Extremist groups vary greatly. Some are more inclined toward threats or violence than others. Some avoid violence entirely and limit themselves to exercising their constitutional right to free speech.
Extremist movements are also very fluid. New groups form and others disappear on a weekly basis. The character of these groups may also change rapidly as circumstances change and different factions vie for control. For example, most antigovernment militias were not formed with a racial agenda. During 1995, however, major racist groups such as Aryan Nations made a concerted effort to infiltrate militias and redirect their efforts toward preparing for an impending race war. Ref 5 There is now considerable cooperation and overlap between many white supremacist groups and other antigovernment extremist groups.
In the event of uncertainty, the case should be referred for legal review. The bottom line should be a common sense, whole-person decision on whether access to classified information "is clearly consistent with the interests of the national security" and meets the other requirements of Section 3.1.(b) of Executive Order 12968.
Private militias are the most well-publicized of all "Patriot" groups. Training for armed confrontation with the government is their major preoccupation. As of Spring 1997, at least 374 antigovernment militias and 488 militia support groups were active, with the heaviest concentrations in the Midwest, Southwest, and along the Pacific coast. Ref 6 Paramilitary training sites have been identified in 23 sites. Many others are believed to be operating in secret. Ref 7 The support groups publish and disseminate literature and hold conferences but do not participate in the paramilitary training.
Private militias which raise security concerns should be distinguished from other groups which may call themselves militias but have no relationship at all to extremist activity. They are hobbyists who dress up in period uniforms to reenact Civil War or Revolutionary War battles.
While individual antigovernment militias differ widely in their philosophical beliefs, the common ground that binds them together is their mistrust and hatred of the federal government. They believe the government is engaged in a conspiracy to disarm the citizenry and impose authoritarian control. "The most ominous aspect of the militias program is the conviction, openly expressed by many of them, that an impending armed conflict with the federal government necessitates paramilitary training and the stockpiling of weapons in preparation for that day of reckoning. Many militia supporters believe that the conspiracy involves not only federal authorities, but also the United Nations, foreign troops and other sinister forces." Ref 8 For additional information on what many militia members believe, see Glossary of Terms Used by Antigovernment Extremist Groups.
Private militias themselves and/or their paramilitary training are illegal in 41 states. Although these laws are seldom enforced, participation in an illegal organization may nevertheless be a security concern. See Laws Regarding Private Militias.
Many militia groups have adopted the concept of "leaderless resistance," which means they are organized into small underground cells that operate independently. This makes them difficult to detect or infiltrate. Ref 9
If a person views the U.S. Government as the "enemy" and trains and practices to use military force against federal law enforcement authorities or to cause any other civil disturbance, it may not be advisable to count on that person to guard a sensitive installation or to protect classified information. Training and practice generally demonstrate intent to act. Granting a clearance only because the illegal act has not yet been committed may not be consistent with the common sense intent of the guidelines.
It may not be obvious that Allegiance to the United States is at issue due to militia activity. There is no foreign power involved. Even the most extreme militia members perceive themselves as patriots defending the Constitution. Some are decorated military veterans who have risked their life for their country. They are not preparing to overthrow the government, but to defend themselves against what they see as an oppressive government being subverted by "one-world" or other insidious forces.
A person's past military record or current claims of patriotism do not mitigate the person's involvement "in activities which unlawfully advocate or practice the commission of acts of force or violence to prevent others from exercising their rights under the Constitution or laws of the United States or of any state," including the constitutional right of federal law enforcement personnel to enforce the law.
Federal law prohibits paramilitary training and the manufacture or transport of weapons with the knowledge or intent that they will be used to create a civil disturbance. Ref 10 Federal law differs from most state laws prohibiting paramilitary training in that it applies only to the trainers, not the trainees. Under most state laws governing paramilitary training, participation as a trainee is also illegal.
Laws are on the books in 41 states to ban either the militias themselves or paramilitary training or both. Ref 11
The two types of laws operate differently. Anti-paramilitary training laws ban groups whose members know or intend that a civil disorder will result from their activities. Anti-militia laws ban all unauthorized militias, regardless of whether the participants have any specific criminal intent or knowledge. Anti-militia laws generally require evidence that a group of people are associated together in a formal military-type organization. Anti-paramilitary training statutes, by contrast, can be used against groups as small as two or three people. Both types of laws generally exempt organizations like hunting clubs.
These laws are seldom enforced, but they are relevant to an adjudicative determination that an individual is engaging in either lawful or unlawful militia activities.
The state laws and the legal citations for them are as follows:
Alabama. Anti-militia. Ala. Code § 31-2-125
Arizona. Anti-militia. Ariz. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 26-123.
Arkansas. Anti-paramilitary training. Ark. Code § 5-71-301 to -303.
California. Anti-paramilitary training. Cal. Penal Code § 11460.
Colorado. Anti-paramilitary training. Colo. Rev. Stat. § 18-9-120.
Connecticut. Anti-paramilitary training. Conn. Gen. Stat. § 53-206b.
Florida. Anti-militia and anti-paramilitary training. Fla. Stat. Ann. ch. 870.06, 790.29.
Georgia. Anti-militia and anti-paramilitary training. Ga. Code Ann. §§ 38-2-277, 16-11-150 to -152.
Idaho. Anti-militia and anti-paramilitary training. Idaho Code §§ 46-802, 18-8101 to -8105.
Iowa. Anti-militia. Iowa Code § 29A.31
Illinois. Anti-militia and anti-paramilitary training. Ill. Rev. Stat. ch. 1805, para 94-95.
Kansas. Anti-militia. Kan. Stat. Ann. § 48-203.
Kentucky. Anti-militia. Ky. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 38.440.
Louisiana. Anti-paramilitary training. La. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 117.1.
Maine. Anti-militia. Me. Rev. Stat. Ann. tit. 37-B, § 342.2.
Maryland. Anti-militia. Md. Code Ann. art. 65, § 35.
Massachusetts. Anti-militia. Mass. Gen. L. ch. 33 § 129-132.
Michigan. Anti-paramilitary training. Mich. Comp. Laws § 750.528a.
Minnesota. Anti-militia. Minn. Stat. § 624.61.
Mississippi. Anti-militia. Miss. Code Ann. § 33-1-31.
Missouri. Anti-paramilitary training. Mo. Rev. Stat. § 574.070.
Nebraska. Anti-paramilitary training. Neb. Rev. Stat. § 28-1480 to -1482.
Nevada. Anti-militia. Nev. Rev. Stat. § 203.080.
New Hampshire. Anti-militia. N.H. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 111:15.
New Jersey. Anti-paramilitary training. N.J. Rev. Stat. § 2C:39-14.
New Mexico. Anti-paramilitary training. N.M. Stat. Ann. § 30-20A-1 to -4.
New York. Anti-militia and anti-paramilitary training. N.Y. Mil. Law § 240.
North Carolina. Anti-militia and anti-paramilitary training. N.C. Gen. Stat. §§ 127A-151, 14-288.20.
North Dakota. Anti-militia. N.D. Cent. Code § 37-01-21.
Oklahoma. Anti-paramilitary training. Okla. Stat. Ann. tit. 21, § 1321.10.
Oregon. Anti-paramilitary training. Or. Rev. Stat. § 166.660.
Pennsylvania. Anti-paramilitary training. 18 Pa. Cons. Stat. § 5515.
Rhode Island. anti-militia and anti-paramilitary training. R.I. Gen. Laws §§ 30-12-7, 11-55-1 to -3.
South Carolina. Anti-paramilitary training. S.C. Code Ann. § 16-8-10 to -30.
Tennessee. Anti-paramilitary training. Tenn. Code Ann. § 39-17-314.
Texas. Anti-militia. Tex. Govt. Code; Ann. § 431.010.
Virginia. Anti-paramilitary training. Va. Code Ann. §§ 18.2-433.1 to -433.3.
Washington. Anti-militia. Wash. Rev. Code § 38.40.120.
West Virginia. Anti-militia. W.Va. Code § 15-1F-7.
Wyoming. Anti-militia. Wyo. Stat. § 19-1-106.
A new (1995) tactic by extremists who reject government authority is to form their own Common Law "courts" through which they issue arrest warrants, indictments, liens, and even death sentences on public officials. For example, a Montana judge was served notice by a Common Law "court" that she would be "arrested" and tried if she refused to drop three routine traffic tickets issued to a self-described "Freeman." Soon thereafter, she began receiving hate mail, threatening phone calls, and a warning that a contract had been issued for her murder. Ref 12
Common Law "courts" were formed in at least 11 states during 1995 by persons bent on directly challenging government authority. Court members swap information and arrange meetings through the Internet. Many members come from the militia movement. Others are closely aligned with white-supremacy and anti-Jewish groups.
The theory behind the movement is "popular sovereignty," that people are above the law. Common Law "court" decisions are used to intimidate local officials, settle personal scores, and to try to reverse real court decisions regarding such things as divorce decrees and foreclosure notices. People who don't want to pay their bills or obey the law come to the "courts" to be told that they don't have to. Ref 13
"Freemen" are anti-government militants who typically refuse to pay taxes, obtain drivers licenses, buy automobile license plates, or recognize any other government authority. For example, James Nichols, who was arrested in connection with the 1995 bombing of the Oklahoma City federal building, refused to obtain a drivers license, defaced dollar bills in protest against currency, and told a judge that he refused to accept the authority of the court. He criticized others for holding drivers licenses and Social Security cards, as well as for voting and paying taxes. He described others as puppets and "sheeple" for following authority like livestock. Ref 14
An allegiance issue may be raised by membership or willful association with or support for any domestic or foreign organization or group that unlawfully:
Under this potentially disqualifying factor, the emphasis is on association with the organization rather than on the individual's own actions. If an organization is engaged in or advocates illegal activities of the type described above, membership alone may be a security concern that justifies further investigation.
Denial or revocation of clearance based on membership alone would require evidence that the subject joined the group "knowingly" or "advocated" or "participated" in its activities.
DoD Directive 1325.6, "Guidelines for Handling Dissident and Protest Activities Among Members of the Armed Forces," states that military personnel must reject participation in organizations that espouse supremacist causes; attempt to create illegal discrimination based on race, creed, color, sex, religion, or national origin; or advocate the use of force or violence, or otherwise engage in efforts to deprive individuals of their civil rights. Active participation, such as publicly demonstrating or rallying, fund raising, recruiting and training members, and organizing or leading such organizations is incompatible with military service and is, therefore, prohibited.
It is important that judgments about any extremist organization be up to date. The character of these organizations changes rapidly as circumstances and leaders change. Local law enforcement agencies and the FBI should be checked when any organization is suspected of engaging in illegal activities.
Subject is a 50-year old computer technician recently hired by the Army and being processed for access to Top Secret information.
Sixteen years ago, subject was arrested for disorderly conduct. He and other members of the Patriotic Knights of America (PKA) were harassing voters with "Asian features" and attempting to prevent them from entering a voting location. (Note: The name of the organization has been changed for use in this example. PKA is not the name of any actual organization, so far as is known.) Seven years ago, he was again arrested for disorderly conduct. He and other PKA members were counter-demonstrating at a synagogue against a group protesting the holocaust of World War II. They did not want lies about the alleged holocaust to be told in public, so they pushed and shoved several Jewish protesters out onto the street and attempted to prevent them from protesting.
In a personal interview, subject stated that he joined the PKA 20 years ago because he agreed with its goals, which are to protect the rights of true Americans. Subject defined true Americans as those descended from the people of western Europe and who believe in the Protestant faith. Other people believing in different religions or from different ethnic backgrounds are not true Americans and should not receive the rights granted by the U.S. Constitution.
With respect to his prior arrests, subject explained that any actions are proper if they promote the goal of protecting the interests of true Americans. He is still active in the PKA.
On his Personnel Security Questionnaire, subject answered "No" to the question about affiliation with any organization that advocates or approves use of force or violence to prevent other persons from exercising their rights under the Constitution. He explained that persons who are not true Americans have no rights under the Constitution.
Both of subject's arrests were only for misdemeanors, and the last arrest was seven years ago. However, there has been no remorse or rehabilitation. Subject continues as an active PKA member committed to depriving certain Americans of their constitutional rights. He may well commit additional offenses in the future.
Individual Was Unaware: Membership or association may be mitigated if the individual was unaware of the unlawful aims and severed ties upon learning of these. Some organizations recruit members through broad appeals to furthering peace or defending the Constitution. It may take a while before a new member understands the full extent or significance of the group's activities. See Example 2.
Only Involved in Lawful Aspects: If the individual was involved only with the lawful or humanitarian aspects of a subversive organization, this may be a mitigating factor. Many front organizations have two agendas: a lawful and open agenda for the members and the public to see, and a hidden agenda known only to the leadership. The lawful agenda may be used to raise funds and spot candidates to assist with the hidden agenda.
Brief Period/Curiosity: Concern may be mitigated if the involvement lasted for only a short period of time and was attributable to curiosity or academic interest. A short (less than one year) period of membership during college suggests the type of wide-ranging interest that is common in an academic environment. A student may have joined to write an academic paper about it, or a journalist may have joined to write an investigative report. Participation may have been stimulated by something as innocent as a prospective girl friend or boyfriend in the group.
Not Recent: Passage of time may mitigate some past associations or involvements as long as one did not participate directly in felony criminal activity. Amount of time depends upon age and maturity at the time and the extent and seriousness of the proscribed involvement. Three to five years would be typical, depending upon the circumstances.
Subject was a military policeman being processed for Top Secret clearance. Local agency records show that he was arrested 10 years ago, at age 18, for parading without a permit and refusing to disperse. He was found guilty and fined $75. He was participating in a march by the group Posse Comitatus protesting U.S. tax policies. The group had not obtained a permit to conduct a march on public streets. When ordered to disperse, the group refused to do so. Subject was arrested with other group members.
Records also show that two months later, subject voluntarily reported the following to the police: He had been told that some members of the Posse Comitatus were planning bank robberies and other armed acts against the Federal Government to cause a change in the tax laws.
Subject reported during interview that he was a member of Posse Comitatus for six months. He believed the tax laws did not treat people fairly, so he joined the group to help get these laws changed. He attended several meetings and rallies. The parade where he was arrested was intended to obtain television coverage, but they did not know they needed a permit to march on public streets. When he heard members of the group talking about robbing banks to get money to buy more powerful weapons to attack government installations, subject reported this to the police and resigned from the group.
This case meets several mitigation criteria: brief membership, severed association when learned of illegal activities, passage of 10 years.
Antigovernment extremist groups use a special vocabulary of terms to describe their beliefs, activities, and organizations. Ref 15
Aryan Nations - Radical neo-Nazi group that calls for a racial holy war.
Biochip - Miniature silicon chip encoded with information that many Patriots believe is secretly being implanted in newborns and patients at medical facilities as part of a government plan to track its citizens.
Black Helicopters - Believed by Patriots to be tools of the New World Order used to conduct surveillance on citizens as the first phase of martial law.
Bilderbergers - A group of American and European business and political leaders that meets annually in Switzerland. Patriots view this organization as a key component of a one-world conspiracy.
Christian Identity - A "religion," often referred to only as Identity, that is a major, radical force in the white supremacy movement. It holds as basic beliefs that Jews are spawn of Eve and Satan, that blacks and other minorities are subhuman "mud people," that Aryans are the true chosen people of God, and that a great race war will result in the extermination of all Jews and minorities. Many Identity "churches" are allegedly stockpiling supplies of military weapons and explosives in preparation for what they believe is an imminent war with the government.
Christian Patriot - Term used by antigovernment extremists and white supremacists to identify themselves.
Common Law - A "legal system" developed by extremists. It is comprised of selected passages from the Bible, Magna Carta, Articles of Confederation, Bill of Rights, and obscure legal citations. Adherents believe their common law supersedes all other government judicial authority. Their common law is very different from the real common law, which is based on custom and court decisions.
County Rule Movement - Also known as the Sagebrush Rebellion, this movement grew out of conflict between local ranchers and federal land managers over grazing rights on federal lands. These groups believe the county should be the highest level of government. Also see Posse Comitatus.
De Facto Government - A government exercising power as if legally constituted. The term is used by Patriots to refer to the federal government, which they believe is not a legitimate government and therefore has no jurisdiction over "sovereign citizens."
Edomites - An Identity term for Jews, derived from the Biblical story of Esau, who relinquished his birthright and later became the forefather of the Edomite race.
Freeman - A Patriot who formally rejects state and federal jurisdiction and regulations.
Fourteen Words - "We must secure the existence of our people and a future for white children." A phrase coined by Order member David Land and widely quoted by white supremacists.
Fourteenth Amendment Citizens - The Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution grants citizenship to all persons born or naturalized in the United states, including blacks. Patriots view people who won citizenship through this amendment as "citizens of the state," not true citizens.
Gideon - Biblical king who threshed his wheat in secret to avoid paying taxes on it; considered by Patriots to be the first tax protester. While in bondage, Gideon was also a rebel leader.
Illuminati - A secret society founded in 18th-century Europe that Patriots see as the origin of an international conspiracy to rule the world. Identity adherents believe the Illuminati is the first part of the satanic Jewish conspiracy.
Identity - See Christian Identity.
Khazarian - An Identity term for Jews that reflects the belief that the Jews are really mongrel people from Khazaria, north of Turkey.
Kingdom of Israel Message - An Identity belief that holds white Anglo-Saxons to be the true Israelites, or chosen people of God, instead of Jews, and the America is their New Jerusalem.
Militias - Term Patriots use to describe their private paramilitary forces, as distinguished from the state-sponsored militias (now National Guards) sanctioned by the Second Amendment.
National Alliance - Now the fastest-growing neo-Nazi organization in the United States.
New World Order - Patriot term for the world government they believe is about to be implemented through an international conspiracy.
"Off the Grid" - A catch phrase used by many Patriots and survivalists to describe their independence from federal and state authority.
One Supreme Court - The body that common law followers believe to be the ultimate judicial authority.
Patriots - Individuals who believe they are the true defenders of the U.S. Constitution, as the federal government is illegitimate, and is run by conspirators who seek to disarm the American public and create a world government.
Posse Comitatus - Latin for "power of the county," signifying refusal to obey or recognize any law enforcement or government authority higher than the county sheriff. Many tax protesters adhere to the Posse Comitatus view, including the belief that the federal government has no authority to collect taxes.
Protocols of the Learned Elders of Zion - Fictional document written in the 18th century by Czarist Russian officials, describing a centuries-old Jewish conspiracy to rule the world. This document continues to be distributed through white supremacist and Patriot mail-order houses.
Quiet Title - Common law "legal" procedure that Patriots believe frees a person from state and federal jurisdiction and regulations.
Sovereignty - To Patriots, this means exemption from federal and state control. "Sovereign citizens" reject the validity of the federal government, the judiciary, and the financial system.
Tenth Amendment - This constitutional amendment reserves all powers not delegated to the federal government to the states or to the people. Many Patriots view this amendment as their legal basis for secession from the federal government.
Trilateral Commission - A group of American, European and Asian business and political leaders that Patriots view as part of an international conspiracy of "elites" that seeks to establish the New World Order.
Yahweh - The name for God used by Identity followers and others.
Yahshua - The name for Jesus used by Identity followers and others.
Z.O.G. - Zionist Occupational Government., Some Patriots have adopted this white supremacist term for the federal government. It signifies the view that Jews control the government.
The Department of Energy's contract research organization, Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, has completed two major studies on right-wing extremism for DOE's Office of Security and Safeguards. They are Adjudicating security concerns arising from associations with extremist groups: Potential constitutional implications, ORISE 97-0411, and Right-wing extremism and its potential effect on government security, ORISE 97-0589, both dated 1997.
The Southern Poverty Law Center's Klanwatch Project and Militia Task Force claims to have the largest database on violent extremist groups in the country. It publishes the bimonthly Klanwatch Intelligence Report which chronicles activities related to extremist groups and hate crimes. The address is P.O. Box 548, Montgomery, AL 36101-0548. Phone: (334) 364-0286. FAX: (334) 264-0629.
1. Declassified extract from 1993 study of Americans arrested for espionage.
2. Morin, R. (1995, May 18). Anger at Washington cools in aftermath of bombing. The Washington Post.
3. Southern Poverty Law Center (1996). False patriots: The threat of antigovernment extremists. Montgomery, AL: Author, p. 4.
4. Southern Poverty Law Center (1997). Growing in number, hardening in attitude. Intelligence Report, Spring 1997. Montgomery, AL: Author.
5. Southern Poverty Law Center (August 1995). Aryan World Congress focuses on militias and an expected revolution. Klanwatch Intelligence Report, #79.
6. Southern Poverty Law Center (1997). Growing in number, hardening in attitude. Intelligence Report, Spring 1997. Montgomery, AL: Author.
7. Southern Poverty Law Center (1996) False patriots: The threat of antigovernment extremists. Montgomery, AL: Author
8. Halpern, T., Rosenberg, D., Suall, I., Cantor, D., Linzer, L., Kaufman, R. (1995) Beyond the bombing: The militia menace grows. New York: Anti-Defamation League.
9. Southern Poverty Law Center (June 1995). Extremists go underground. Klanwatch Intelligence Report, #78, p. 3.
10. 18 U.S.C. § 231-233.
11. Southern Poverty Law Center (June 1995), State lawsuits can shut down militias. Klanwatch Intelligence Report, #78, p. 1.
12. Southern Poverty Law Center (October 1995). Prominent militia networks launch counter-intelligence campaign. Klanwatch Intelligence Report, #80, p. 4.
13. Heath, T., & Leslie, C. (1995, Sept. 25). A law of their own: Extremists create do-it-yourself courts. Newsweek.
14. Rimer, S., & Bennet, J. (1995, Apr. 24). Rejecting the authority of the U.S. Government. New York Times, National Edition, p. B9.
15. Much of this glossary is quoted from Southern Poverty Law Center (1996). False patriots: The threat of antigovernment extremists. Montgomery, AL: Author, pp. 69-70.
The Militia - America's original Homeland Defense - since 1776
Ummm... the usual meaning of the term is to make one's home independent of utility-supplied power. A good thing if you live in a remote location where no power could, in very bad weather, equal death. I guess those people are all tin-foil-hatters too?
As to the harassment of voters, such action is criminal when the potential voters are American citizens. When the potential voters are not American citizens then such actions are merely enforcing our laws to try to have free elections.
I read through this entire article and found absolutely no real contribution to any understanding of security clearances or what it means to be a patriot.
What catches my eye though is where I found the article (Defense security service). Our government has not problem writing stuff like this about us but when we write about them... ;)
You are a better man than I. I only got about 10% through before I couldn't take any more. When I scanned to the bottom and saw the SPLC, I knew I was right to not waste my time. This is pure garbage and should have had a barf alert. I do agree with you about those who base patriotism on the color of one's skin.
Col. Ulius Louis Amoss's theories of leaderless resistance were based on his knowledge and experiences as a former military Intelligence officer. Knowing of the socialist drive to destroy America from within per se he wrote these ideas down in such a case that would require resistance to an unconstitutional goobermint infested with sedition.
Sadly a POS racist named Beam has used them in a manner that makes lots of folks toss the lesson aside before they see the silver lining in that nazi cloud. I suggest one read and understand the original intent of the theory as originally suggested by Col Amoss while remembering 2 people can "not" keep a secret unless one of them is dead......
Nuff said....Stay Safe !
That's really sad too. I loved him when he recorded the song 'Jungle Love' with his group called 'The Time'. :)