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Evolution Is Biologically Impossible
www.irc.org ^ | Joseph Mastropaolo, Ph.D

Posted on 06/24/2002 2:56:50 PM PDT by Texaggie79

IMPACT No. 317


Evolution Is Biologically Impossible

by Joseph Mastropaolo, Ph.D.*

Institute for Creation Research, PO Box 2667, El Cajon, CA 92021
Voice: (619) 448-0900 Fax: (619) 448-3469

"Vital Articles on Science/Creation" November 1999
Copyright © 1999 All Rights Reserved.


Charles Darwin was daydreaming when he wrote that he could visualize "in some warm little pond," with all sorts of salts and electricity, the spontaneous generation of the first living cell.1 Darwin's dream of the magical powers of salts and electricity may have come from his grandfather. Mary Shelley wrote of him in 1831 in her introduction to Frankenstein. "They talked of the experiments of Dr. Darwin . . . who preserved a piece of vermicelli in a glass case, till by some extraordinary means it began to move with voluntary motion." She goes on to speculate that galvanism (electricity) was the extraordinary means.2All theories need testing, so I bought some vermicelli pasta, kept it in salt water in a test tube for a month, and never saw any motion, voluntary or otherwise. I also used a tesla coil to conduct "galvanism" through it to a fluorescent bulb. The bulb lit and the vermicelli eventually began to cook, but never came to life.

"Darwin's bulldog," Thomas Huxley, had a vision of himself on the early earth as "a witness of the evolution of living protoplasm from non-living matter."3 In Huxley's day, the cell was blissfully considered simply a blob of protoplasm. Huxley also may have read Mary Shelley's subtitle to Frankenstein, "The Modern Prometheus."2 Prometheus was the Greek mythical Titan, who formed a man of clay, then animated it. This myth may be the earliest reference to abiogenesis, the animation of inorganic materials. In order not to leave that possibility untried, I fashioned a clay man and directed the tesla-coil spark over it to light the bulb. The clay man was not animated.

Evolutionists currently invoke the "primeval soup" to expand the "warm little pond" into a larger venue, the oceans. They aim to spontaneously generate the first cell so they must thicken the salt water with (take a breath) polysaccharides, lipids, amino acids, alpha helixes, polypeptide chains, assembled quaternary protein subunits, and nucleotides, all poised to self-combine into functional cellular structures, energy systems, long-chain proteins and nucleic acids.4Then during an electrical storm, just the right mix of DNA, mRNA, ribosomes, cell membranes and enzymes are envisioned in the right place at the right time and the first cell is thunderbolted together and springs to life.5 That marvelous first cell, the story goes, filled the oceans with progeny competing in incredible polysaccharide, lipid, amino acid, nucleotide, and cannibalistic feasts. The predators thereby thinned the soup to the watery oceans we have today while the prey escaped by mystically transmuting themselves into the current complex animals and plants, or perhaps vice versa because no one was there to record it. We are assured by the disciples of Darwin and Huxley that the "once upon a pond" story to obtain a blob of protoplasm is still sufficient for the spontaneous generation of the cell as we know it today. All demur when asked for evidence. All balk when asked to reverse-engineer a cell in the laboratory in spite of the fact that laboratories rival nature and reverse engineering is orders of magnitude easier than engineering an original design. One wonders why they balk if cell stuff is so easily self-generated and carbon molecules seem to have such an innate tendency to self-combine.

To test simply the alleged self-combining tendency of carbon, I placed one microliter of India (lampblack) ink in 27 ml. of distilled water. The ink streaked for the bottom of the test tube where it formed a dark haze which completely diffused to an even shade of gray in 14 hours. The carbon stayed diffused, not aggregated as when dropped on paper. At this simple level, there is no evidence that the "primeval soup" is anything but fanciful imagination.

In science, the burden of evidence is on the proposer of the theory. So although the evolutionists have the burden of providing evidence for their fanciful tales, they take no responsibility for a detailed account or for any evidence demonstrating feasibility. Contrarily, they go so far as to imply that anyone holding them to the normal requirements of science is feebleminded, deranged, or evil. For example, Professor Richard Dawkins has been quoted as saying, "It is absolutely safe to say that, if you meet somebody who claims not to believe in evolution, that person is ignorant, stupid, or insane (or wicked, but I'd rather not consider that)."6 Instead of taking proper responsibility for the burden of evidence, the evolutionist propagandizes by the intimidation of name calling.

To set a better example, let us take up the evolutionist's burden of evidence to see where it leads. Our first observation is that apparently all functions in a living organism are based largely upon the structures of its proteins. The trail of the first cell therefore leads us to the microbiological geometry of amino acids and a search for the probability of creating a protein by mindless chance as specified by evolution. Hubert Yockey published a monograph on the microbiology, information theory, and mathematics necessary to accomplish that feat. Accordingly, the probability of evolving one molecule of iso-1-cytochrome c, a small protein common in plants and animals, is an astounding one chance in 2.3 times ten billion vigintillion. The magnitude of this impossibility may be appreciated by realizing that ten billion vigintillion is one followed by 75 zeros. Or to put it in evolutionary terms, if a random mutation is provided every second from the alleged birth of the universe, then to date that protein molecule would be only 43% of the way to completion. Yockey concluded, "The origin of life by chance in a primeval soup is impossible in probability in the same way that a perpetual motion machine is impossible in probability."7

Richard Dawkins implicitly agreed with Yockey by stating, "Suppose we want to suggest, for instance, that life began when both DNA and its protein-based replication machinery spontaneously chanced to come into existence. We can allow ourselves the luxury of such an extravagant theory, provided that the odds against this coincidence occurring on a planet do not exceed 100 billion billion to one."8The 100 billion billion is 1020. So Dawkins' own criterion for impossible in probability, one chance in more than 1020, has been exceeded by 50 orders of magnitude for only one molecule of one small protein. Now that Professor Dawkins has joined the ranks of non-believers in evolution, politesse forbids inquiring whether he considers himself "ignorant, stupid, insane, or wicked."

Let us proceed to criteria more stringent. For example, Borel stated that phenomena with very small probabilities do not occur. He settled arbitrarily on the probability of one chance in 1050 as that small probability. Again according to this more stringent criterion, we see that evolving one molecule of one protein would not occur by a wide margin, this time 25 orders of magnitude.9

Let us go further. According to Dembski, Borel did not adequately distinguish those highly improbable events properly attributed to chance from those properly attributed to something else and Borel did not clarify what concrete numerical values correspond to small probabilities. So Dembski repaired those deficiencies and formulated a criterion so stringent that it jolts the mind. He estimated 1080 elementary particles in the universe and asked how many times per second an event could occur. He found 1045. He then calculated the number of seconds from the beginning of the universe to the present and for good measure multiplied by one billion for 1025 seconds in all. He thereby obtained 1080 x 1045 x 1025 = 10150 for his Law of Small Probability.9

I have not been able to find a criterion more stringent than Dembski's one chance in 10150. Anything as rare as that probability had absolutely no possibility of happening by chance at any time by any conceivable specifying agent by any conceivable process throughout all of cosmic history. And if the specified event is not a regularity, as the origin of life is not, and if it is not chance, as Dembski's criterion and Yockey's probability may prove it is not, then it must have happened by design, the only remaining possibility.

Now to return to the probability of evolving one molecule of one protein as one chance in 1075, we see that it does not satisfy Dembski's criterion of one chance in 10150. The simultaneous availability of two molecules of one protein may satisfy the criterion, but they would be far from the necessary complement to create a living cell. For a minimal cell, 60,000 proteins of 100 different configurations would be needed.5,10 If these raw materials could be evolved at the same time, and if they were not more complex on average to evolve than the iso-1-cytochrome c molecule, and if these proteins were stacked at the cell's construction site, then we may make a gross underestimation of what the chances would be to evolve that first cell. That probability is one chance in more than 104,478,296, a number that numbs the mind because it has 4,478,296 zeros. If we consider one chance in 10150 as the standard for impossible, then the evolution of the first cell is more than 104,478,146 times more impossible in probability than that standard.

Reproduction may be called a regularity because billions of people have witnessed billions of new individuals arising that way, and in no other way, for thousands of years. The origin of life was a unique event and certainly not a regularity. Therefore, according to mathematical logicians, the only possibilities left are that life either was generated by chance or by deliberate design. The standard for impossible events eliminated evolution so the only remaining possibility is that life was designed into existence. The probability of the correctness of this conclusion is the inverse of the probability that eliminated evolution, that is, 104,478,296 chances to one.

Although the certainty of design has been demonstrated beyond doubt, science cannot identify the designer. Given a designer with the intelligence to construct a cell and all life forms, it is not logical that he would construct only one cell and leave the rest to chance. The only logical possibility is that the designer would design and build the entire structure, the entire biosphere, to specified perfection. That seems to be as far as science can go.

Life was designed. It did not evolve. The certainty of these conclusions is 104,478,296 (1 followed by 4,478,296 zeros) to one. This evidence suggests a Designer who designed and built the entire biosphere and, for it to function, the entire universe. Primary and secondary sources from history properly provide additional information on the Designer because the biological sciences are not equal to that task.

References

1 Darwin, F., ed (1888) The Life and Letters of Charles Darwin, London: John Murray, vol. 3, p. 18.
2 Shelley, Mary W. (1831) Frankenstein: or, The Modern Prometheus, London: Henry Colburn and Richard Bentley, Introduction, p. 9.
3 Huxley, Thomas H. (1870) "Biogenesis and Abiogenesis" in (1968) Collected Essays of Thomas H. Huxley, vol. 8, Discourses Biological and Gelogical, New York: Greenwood Press, p. 256.
4 Behe, Michael J. (1996) Darwin's Black Box: The Biochemical Challenge to Evolution, New York: Touchstone, pp. 262-268.
5 Denton, Michael (1986) Evolution: A Theory in Crisis, Bethesda, Maryland: Adler & Adler, p. 263.
6 Johnson, Phillip E. (1993) Darwin On Trial, Downers Grove, Illinois: InterVarsity Press, p. 9.
7 Yockey, Hubert P. (1992) Information Theory and Molecular Biology, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 255, 257.
8 Dawkins, Richard (1996) The Blind Watchmaker: Why the Evidence of Evolution Reveals a Universe Without Design, New York: W.W. Norton & Co., p. 146.
9 Dembski, William A. (1998) The Design Inference: Eliminating Chance Through Small Probabilities, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 5,209,210.
10 Morowitz, H. J. (1966) "The Minimum Size of Cells" in Principles of Biomolecular Organization, eds. G.E.W. Wostenholme and M. O'Connor, London: J.A. Churchill, pp. 446-459.

* Dr. Mastropaolo is an adjunct professor of physiology for the ICR Graduate School.

This "Impact" was converted to HTML, for Web use, from the original formatted desktop article. Comments regarding typographical errors in the above material are appreciated. Corrections can be faxed or emailed to Webmaster, fax: (619) 448-3469.

All ICR staff members adhere to a Statement of Faith in the form of two documents: "Tenets of Scientific Creationism," and "Tenets of Biblical Creationism." (see Impact No. 85)

As a missionary organization, ICR is funded by God's people. The majority of its income is provided by individual donors who desire to proclaim God's truth about origins. Gifts can be designated for research, the graduate school, seminars, or any special part of the ICR ministry. All others will be used where most needed. We pledge to use them wisely and with integrity.

If you would like to receive our free monthly newsletter "Acts & Facts," or our free quarterly devotional Bible-study booklet "Days of Praise," use this form. If you would prefer to receive our online/email versions of the Days of Praise devotional and Acts & Facts newsletter, you can use this form. at (619) 448-0900.


We believe God has raised up ICR to spearhead Biblical Christianity's defense against the godless dogma of evolutionary humanism. Only by showing the scientific bankruptcy of evolution, while exalting Christ and the Bible, will Christians be successful in "the pulling down of strongholds; casting down imaginations, and every high thing that exalteth itself against the knowledge of God, and bringing into captivity every thought to the obedience of Christ" (II Corinthians 10:4,5).

Member, Evangelical Council for Financial Accountability



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1 posted on 06/24/2002 2:56:51 PM PDT by Texaggie79
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To: edwin hubble; longshadow; blam; jlogajan; A. Pole; e_engineer; Doctor Stochastic; Physicist; ...
mmm mmmm fun.....
2 posted on 06/24/2002 2:57:15 PM PDT by Texaggie79
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To: Texaggie79
Why discuss this? All these 'criticisms' of evolution are obsolete, having been answered by the evolution community.

Note however, that strictly speaking, "Evolution" itself is not about how reproducing life was first created but about the methods by which genetic characteristics change over time.

3 posted on 06/24/2002 3:03:20 PM PDT by spqrzilla9
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To: Texaggie79
just out of curiosity, are you ignorant, stupid, or insane?
4 posted on 06/24/2002 3:03:36 PM PDT by KayEyeDoubleDee
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To: Texaggie79
Well, for one thing, the origin of life from simple organic and inorganic precursors into living cells is not expected to have gone from zero to a full eukaryotic cell in one fell swoop. For another thing, the argument about the origin of life, and the science of how new species had and have originated are two different issues. So, trying to condemn the theory and fact of evolution by talking about issues on the origin of life itself is misleading.
5 posted on 06/24/2002 3:05:11 PM PDT by RonF
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To: Texaggie79
And why'd you have to go and get that other thread pulled by posting the big bud?
6 posted on 06/24/2002 3:05:55 PM PDT by KayEyeDoubleDee
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To: KayEyeDoubleDee
Why choose? He can have it all!
7 posted on 06/24/2002 3:05:56 PM PDT by Vladiator
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To: Texaggie79
Evolution Is Biologically Impossible
Institute for Creation Research, PO Box 2667, El Cajon, CA 92021

This is not an academic institution with the credentials to discuss scientific inquiry.

8 posted on 06/24/2002 3:05:59 PM PDT by stanz
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To: KayEyeDoubleDee
Me? I just read the title. I don't care much for evolution threads......
9 posted on 06/24/2002 3:06:30 PM PDT by Texaggie79
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To: Texaggie79
Same old same old. This same analysis can be applied to some pretty basic chemical reactions, with the conclusion that they are unlikely enough not to have occurred (although not as unlikely as the numbers they cook up for DNA). The only way to rescue the argument is to have tiny angels pushing the atoms into place.
10 posted on 06/24/2002 3:07:35 PM PDT by Physicist
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To: KayEyeDoubleDee
You mean like this ?
11 posted on 06/24/2002 3:09:45 PM PDT by Texaggie79
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To: Texaggie79
Taking a test tube and cooking it for a few years is not the same as having tide pools over all the coasts of the earth over billions of years.

Even if evolution were not true, it is a useful theory because of comparative anatomy. Further I don't think a kind and loving god would place all the evidence of comparative anatomy around the world and give us logical reasoning brains and expect us not to conclude that evolution is a useful and probably correct theory just for the fun of tricking us.

Finally, if the burden of proof rest with the one proposing the theory, then I would like to see someone prove the existence of god or else everyone must become aetheits.

12 posted on 06/24/2002 3:09:49 PM PDT by staytrue
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To: Texaggie79; NC_Libertarian
Egad! If you do the Pot Smokers Lounge thing under the auspices of an Evolution-v-Creationism thread, the moderators will never know. I'll be that not even the moderators pay much attention to these threads.

On the other hand, this is like my third post to this one...

13 posted on 06/24/2002 3:12:39 PM PDT by KayEyeDoubleDee
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To: Texaggie79
If there were any truth to the evolution myth, we would have all evolved into the same animal. There would be no dogs, bees, trees, cats, birds, etc. We would have all evolved into the same kind of creature. As it is, God created the earth to sustain life, not the other way around. That is my story [for 51 years now] and I am sticking to it.
14 posted on 06/24/2002 3:14:33 PM PDT by buffyt
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To: Texaggie79
Mighty big Axe that guy is grinding. I once put some dog urine into a test tube with some cow dung and yeast. Maybe it wasn't living but it had a life of it's own....
15 posted on 06/24/2002 3:15:43 PM PDT by mad_as_he$$
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To: buffyt
Your post assumes that evolution has a "goal". That is false.
16 posted on 06/24/2002 3:17:30 PM PDT by spqrzilla9
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To: KayEyeDoubleDee
If I were still a pot smoker, and I wanted a lounge thread about it, I would just make a daily thread over in GI titled 4:20.
17 posted on 06/24/2002 3:18:57 PM PDT by Texaggie79
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To: Texaggie79
Anybody that cites Dembski as a credible source for mathematics (or chemistry for that matter) has pretty much poisoned their own arguments. As has been pointed out before, Dembski has numerous mathematical failings in his writing. I don't even have to disagree with ID to find fault with Dembski -- his mathematics are just plain wrong (and obviously so to a mathematician in the relevant fields) and he discredits his entire argument by it.
18 posted on 06/24/2002 3:19:48 PM PDT by tortoise
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To: spqrzilla9
Note however, that strictly speaking, "Evolution" itself is not about how reproducing life was first created but about the methods by which genetic characteristics change over time.

This is a consistent problem with Creationists; really, how life BEGAN, and how life EVOLVED, are two completely different debates. But they chose to focus on the how life BEGAN debate, and call it a debate on "Evolution" because they're slightly less obviously full of it and have a slightly better chance of looking good in that debate.

19 posted on 06/24/2002 3:19:51 PM PDT by John H K
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To: Texaggie79

Evolution Is Biologically Impossible

Absolute, breathtaking, stupidity.

Which trailerpark was this opinion written in?

20 posted on 06/24/2002 3:20:00 PM PDT by Bandolier
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To: stanz
The main thing that made me NOT believe in evolution [I never would believe in that BS anyway] is that living forms decay back into dirt after they die. Evolution by chance would have never thought of that one. That had to be part of a master plan from the beginnig, not CHANCE like evolution would be.
21 posted on 06/24/2002 3:20:50 PM PDT by buffyt
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Comment #22 Removed by Moderator

To: Physicist
Tiny angels, or the Great Pumpkin, or Gomez The Atom-Pusher... they all have the same amount of credibility.
23 posted on 06/24/2002 3:22:18 PM PDT by Own Drummer
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To: buffyt
If there were any truth to the evolution myth, we would have all evolved into the same animal.

ROFL. This would be true if the Earth were one uniform environment. I suggest you open your door, and look outside a bit. You'll notice various things called "rivers", "plains," "trees", "caves", "oceans," etc. And the temperature and weather, amazingly enough, varies depending on what part of the earth you happen to be in.

Thus, it would be implausible for everything to evolve into "one animal" since it wouldn't be adapted for every possible earth environment.

24 posted on 06/24/2002 3:23:08 PM PDT by John H K
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To: Bandolier
This one:


25 posted on 06/24/2002 3:24:11 PM PDT by Texaggie79
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To: Bandolier
"Which trailerpark was this opinion written in?"

I think the "Evolution is Biologically Impossible" statement was originally made during a Jerry Springer show...

26 posted on 06/24/2002 3:24:32 PM PDT by Own Drummer
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To: 4ourprogeny
Evolution Is Biologically Impossible

And it is.

Uhh..Huhh, yep, I believe that, just on your say so.

If your trailer park has a library, could you quote some sources that don't drink snake venom?

27 posted on 06/24/2002 3:24:38 PM PDT by Bandolier
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To: John H K
I agree, however, I find it virtually impossible that we would be the only species that would develop such intelligence. Surely some other creature would be able to communicate in as detailed speech as we do, so that we could actually have conversations with each other. Surely other creatures would be able to create technology such as ours...........
28 posted on 06/24/2002 3:26:35 PM PDT by Texaggie79
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Comment #29 Removed by Moderator

To: buffyt
If there were any truth to the evolution myth, we would have all evolved into the same animal.

Interesting, but absurd, statement. Since you've been sticking with it for 51 years, I wouldn't touch a thing. It's quite unique.

30 posted on 06/24/2002 3:28:31 PM PDT by Dog Gone
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To: Texaggie79
Nope, wrong trailer park. There are no drunks passed out in the fron yards.

31 posted on 06/24/2002 3:30:34 PM PDT by Bandolier
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To: buffyt
 
If there were any truth to the evolution myth,
we would have all evolved into the same animal.

No, that would have us all competing for
the same ecological niche, overwhelming
it, overpopulating and starving to death. There were
other  niches where, with just a bit
of adapation,  a new critter could emerge
and thrive.

32 posted on 06/24/2002 3:33:02 PM PDT by gcruse
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To: Texaggie79
If you take the object shown in the picture in post #11, dry it, and smoke enough of it, the other intelligent animals will begin talking to you.

33 posted on 06/24/2002 3:33:19 PM PDT by Bandolier
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To: Texaggie79
"I agree, however, I find it virtually impossible that we would be the only species that would develop such intelligence."

Somebody had to be the first one.
34 posted on 06/24/2002 3:33:25 PM PDT by RonF
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To: Texaggie79
Why do you freaks keep posting this crap? Are you THAT blinded by your hope or your need to believe that the bible is absolutely true? Can't there be a God (And there IS) that works through evolution?

I mean REALLY! Why would all these scientists LIE (Or even worse yet, be TOTALLY AND COMPLETELY WRONG) all these years? What's in it for them???

Get over it! The Bible is an OUTSTANDING novel written by a bunch of barely post stone age guys who NEEDED to explain their existances to themselves. That (More than likely) FACT does NOT mean God doesn't exist. Hell, according to you staunch Christians, my dear old grandmother...A woman who did NOTHING but make other people happy for 80 years while fearing and worshiping God...Is burning in hell because she didn't accept YOUR view of the proper way to worship.

Damn...I'm beginning to think you people are as clueless as you say Muslims are...

35 posted on 06/24/2002 3:33:56 PM PDT by Johnny Shear
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To: Texaggie79
I find it virtually impossible that we would be the only species that would develop such intelligence.

Why is this? Wouldn't we exterminate any rivals? On the other hand, squids are very smart invertbrates, but they have trouble mastering fire..

36 posted on 06/24/2002 3:35:34 PM PDT by Virginia-American
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To: staytrue
...a kind and loving god...

Ummm...what Bible have you been reading? The God of the Bible cannot be described simply as a "kind and loving God." He is so much more than that. He is an angry God, a wrathful God, and a jealous God as well. A trip through the Bible reveals many varied attributes of God that don't seem to fit into the "box" that modern society likes to place Him into.

While we're discussing your comment, I also wanted to point out that the Bible states that God has made it known to all men through the power of the creation that He exists. I don't think that sounds like a God who is trying to trick anyone into believing in evolution.

37 posted on 06/24/2002 3:35:39 PM PDT by RightFighter
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To: Johnny Shear
Damn, Johnny, pop a 'Lude...we're just having fun.
Don't cut your wrists, man.
38 posted on 06/24/2002 3:37:00 PM PDT by Bandolier
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To: Bandolier
Maybe you can enlighten me. What do the evolutionists say came first, the cell, or the DNA/RNA code to CREATE that first cell?

If the cell came first, don't you need DNA to blueprint that cell? If the DNA coding came first, who wrote it?

Thanks.

39 posted on 06/24/2002 3:38:25 PM PDT by berned
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To: Texaggie79
The Blind Atheist
40 posted on 06/24/2002 3:39:26 PM PDT by Raymond Hendrix
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To: Texaggie79
Evolution Is Biologically Impossible

A 'static' design theory of the universe, the world, matter and the elements that constitute the aforentioned?

Fits right in there with the "Flat Earth concept", the "Earth and Man are the center of the Universe' and other similar and erroneous concepts relegated to the trash heap of history ...

Does this man also discount the theory of germs?

I'll bet not!

41 posted on 06/24/2002 3:39:53 PM PDT by _Jim
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To: John H K
I am not so sure you can so easily seperate how life began with how it evolved. If God created Adam how old was he the day he was created? I mean, if God creates reproducing life how it evolves is entirely connected to how it was created. It starts with age. If you paint a picture and years later someone tries to understand how and when it came into being they must start with the fact that it had a designer or they're going to get WAY off track, no matter how correct their math and science.

It takes faith, either way you go. No one was actually there.

42 posted on 06/24/2002 3:40:32 PM PDT by RAT Patrol
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To: Bandolier; aculeus; Orual; general_re
... sources that don't drink snake venom?

An unsound practice. It's meant to be taken subcutaneously.

43 posted on 06/24/2002 3:40:34 PM PDT by dighton
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To: buffyt
Evolution is not some omnipotent being. Through the process of random mutations and selective pressures, organisms change and adapt over time. Those who fail at survival become extinct. Those who succeed propigate and if they survive, they, too will evolve variations in their behavior and morphology. That's all it is- - -no plan - - -no blueprints. Human dentition has evolved to accomodate a softer diet and less room in the skull due to changes in the cranium shape by eliminating the wisdom teeth in some individuals. This was not a part of any great master plan.
44 posted on 06/24/2002 3:40:55 PM PDT by stanz
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To: berned
What do the evolutionists say came first, the cell, or the DNA/RNA code to CREATE that first cell?

Don't ask them difficult questions. It only confuses them.

45 posted on 06/24/2002 3:41:45 PM PDT by Raymond Hendrix
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To: berned
I would like a pro-evolutionist to explan briefly how either of the following complex systems could have evolved:

1. The human eye

2. The process of blood clotting

Answers must be 3500 words or less and cannot contain any of the phrases "could have," "might have," or "is believed to have."
46 posted on 06/24/2002 3:42:58 PM PDT by RightFighter
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To: RonF
Well the rate the other species are going, they will get where we are........................nev er...
47 posted on 06/24/2002 3:43:35 PM PDT by Texaggie79
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To: KayEyeDoubleDee
No doubt, all three. Just another religious nut.
48 posted on 06/24/2002 3:44:03 PM PDT by Warren
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To: berned
The thing that always stands out to me on these threads is the arrogance and rudeness of the evolution crowd. They take it so personal.
49 posted on 06/24/2002 3:44:30 PM PDT by RAT Patrol
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To: buffyt
Well I'm 54 and I believe in evolution, because God made it possible. You know you can have both.
50 posted on 06/24/2002 3:44:40 PM PDT by XDemocrat
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