Skip to comments.MAN OF THE SHROUD
Posted on 08/03/2002 6:33:43 AM PDT by NYer
The Shroud of Turin is a centuries old linen cloth that bears the image of a crucified man. A man that millions believe to be Jesus of Nazareth. Is it really the cloth that wrapped his crucified body, or is it simply a medieval forgery, a hoax perpetrated by some clever artist? Modern, twentieth century science has completed hundreds of thousands of hours of detailed study and intense research on the Shroud. It is, in fact, the single most studied artifact in human history, and we know more about it today than we ever have before. And yet, the controversy still rages.
Arguments against the Shroud's authenticity are prima facia, supported by carbon 14 dating and a prevailing view of the way things are in the world. On the other hand, the case for authenticity is a compelling preponderance of scientific and historic evidence. So daunting is the evidence that we can only wonder if, as postmodernists suggest, "no such thing as objective truth exists, that historic reality is an inherently enigmatic and endlessly negotiable bundle of free-floating perceptions."1 The alternative is to consider, as C. S. Lewis contends: rare exceptions to nature are possible.
On this hot and sultry day in August, I decided to post this thread for those who enjoy mystery, adventure and the thrill of discovery. There are many web sites devoted to this topic. I suggest you begin here:
SHROUD OF TURIN
Feast of the Holy Shroud, May 4
This feast is mainly celebrated in Europe since 1506
An Office and Mass "de Sancta Sindone" was formally approved by Julius II in the Bull "Romanus Pontifex" of 25 April, 1506, in the course of which the pope speaks of "that most famous shroud in which our Saviour was wrapped when He lay in the tomb and which is now honourably and devoutly preserved in a silver casket". (Older Catholic Encyclopedia)
Recent Historical Investigations on the Sudarium of Oveido," published by Mark Guscin, a member of the multi-disciplined Investigation Team of the Centro Español de Sindonología and the British Society for the Turin Shroud, summarized the forensic findings to date. Here are some highlights of that report:
"It seems to be a funeral cloth that was probably placed over the head of the corpse of an adult male of normal constitution. The man whose face the Sudarium covered had a beard, moustache and long hair, tied up at the nape of his neck into a ponytail."
"The man was dead. The mechanism that formed the stains is incompatible with any kind of breathing movement."
"the man was wounded before death with something that made his scalp bleed and produced wounds on his neck, shoulders and upper part of the back."
"The man suffered a pulmonary oedema as a consequence of the terminal process. The main stains are one part blood and six parts fluid from the pulmonary oedema."
"the only position compatible with the formation of the stains on the Oviedo cloth is both arms outstretched above the head and the feet in such a position as to make breathing very difficult, i.e. a position totally compatible with crucifixion. We can say that the man was wounded first (blood on the head, shoulders and back) and then 'crucified.'"
"on reaching the destination, the body was placed face up and for unknown reasons, the cloth was taken off the head."
Using an electron microscope, they found that they could make out the letters "UCAI" on the coins(called leptons); the letters "UCAI" were part of a roman word that was only inscribed on coins issued by--get this--Pontius Pilate in upper Palestine between 29-31 A.D.
Correct, it is a piece of cloth bearing the image of a man who was subjected to the same persecution and crucifixion as Christ.
Have you visited the link? What observations are you willing to share with the other posters on this thread. If you are only going to make abject statements, then it would be the equivalent of me saying: RMrattlesnake is not real.
Though the lepta (plural of lepton) minted in Palestine were Roman produced coins, the inscription of Tiberius Caesar would have been written in Greek as TIBERIOU KAISAROS. Was the C, where a K was expected, a misspelling? This was a problem that seemed to preclude positive identification until an actual lituus lepton was found with the aberrant spelling. Several have since been found.
There will always be skeptics ... St. Thomas was the first. Thank you, HumanaeVitae, for the information on the book. I have not read it but will pick up a copy.
Wow! I've kept up with the Shroud over the years, but this piece of info is news to me... incredible discovery! Thanks for the name of the book "The Ressurection of the Shroud" - I just put it in my Amazon.com shopping basket.
The discovery of the figures in the Guadalupe Virgin's irises is incredible as well. Both the Shroud of Turin and the image of Our Lady of Guadalupe are gifts from God, IMHO.
I believe the Lord had short hair as was the style of the day. back them.
Apparent Shroud-inspired images of Christ are noticeable on coins struck in 692 CE during the reign of the Byzantine emperor Justinian II. The distinctive front-facing appearance of Jesus on the Shroud is also found on numerous icons, mosaics and frescos from the sixth century on. The most startling example is the Christ Pantocrator icon at Saint Catherine's Monastery, reliably dated to 550 CE.
"Using our Polarized Image Overlay Technique, we have examined hundreds of depictions of Jesus in every type of artistic medium from one-fourth-inch-high faces on coins to gigantic mosaics covering the ceilings of great cathedrals from the sixth century on, and we have been able to show that the Mandylion/Shroud face was used as the prototype for almost all of these images."
Mary and Alan Whanger from their book, The Shroud of Turin: An Adventure in Discovery
It is not Jesus
John 4: 48. Then said Jesus unto him, Except ye see signs and wonders, ye will not believe.
The flagrum, a whip of two or three thongs with small lead pellets attached, was wielded by a torturer who moved round his victim, or by two torturers, one of whom struck from behind. Jesus lost a great deal of Blood, for a reason only mentioned by Saint Luke, "with the unsurpassable precision of a medical doctor", writes Barbet; perhaps because he had questioned Saint John, the beloved disciple who did not fall asleep on the Mount of Olives:
"And being in an agony, He prayed all the more earnestly. And His sweat became as drops of blood trickling down upon the ground." (Lk 22.44)
Fr. Benedict Groeschel appeared on EWTN's program Mother Angelica Live, the other night. He mentioned the shroud, in connection with the crucifixion and burial of Christ. Of course, Fr. Groeschel has a style all his own. Pointing to all the famous artwork we have seen over the years, and the artist's depiction of the crucifixion, he reminded viewers that artists approach their subjects much like a photographer. These are "tableaux". Each person present at the crucifixion has a certain place "in the tableau". In reality, he said, the actual crucifixion of Jesus was something far more barbaric and brutal than any artist would care to render.
He went on to speak about a good friend, a priest, who has a parish in Rhode Island. When his friends parish was condemned by the city council in order to run a highway through that property, this priest set about building a new church. For the "corpus" on the crucifix, he contacted the group that had done the 3D imaging of the Shroud of Turin. He then went on to say that they have now been able to count the number of whiplashes on the man of the shroud - 110! Fr. Groeschel noted, in his inimitable style, that it was miracle enough that this "man of the shroud" was able to walk the Via Dolorosa carrying a crossbar, with his skin tattered into shreds by that number of blows. The normal punishment, according to all public records handed down from that period, would have been 30.
The fire affected the Carbon-14 dating.
Godspeed, The Dilg
4 - The area over the anatomical right eye of the Shroud image (a computer enhancement of the Enrie photograph), showing the letters UCAI and the lituus (the arrow points to the upper third of the critical letter C; the letters are about 1.5 mm high).
5 - A Pontius Pilate lepton ("window's mite") owned by Francis Filas, showing the highly specific lituus, or auger, or astrologer's staff design, the frequent clipped edge from one to four o'clock, and, despite erosion, parts of the letters TIOUCAI (again, the arrow points to the letter C).
6 - The overlapped images, showing the almost perfect congruence of the two indicating that this coin was struck from the same die as the coin over the Shroud image's right eye.
Just ordered it at Amazon.com. Thanks for the recommendation.
The image is that of a muscular Jewish male, about five feet eleven inches tall, weighing about 170 pounds, about age 35, whose body is in cadaveric spasm (a type of near instantaneous rigor mortis occurring in those severely traumatized), and who has a spear wound through the right chest into the heart with a post mortem flow of blood and serum from the wound. The appearance of the blood clots shows that the body disappeared from within the Shroud without the cloth being unwrapped. The appearance of the blood clots and the body, as well as the images of the flowers, indicates that this event took place between 24 and 36 hours after death.
The image of a crown of thorns is visible on the Shroud, and history records only one use of a crown of thorns. The image records a remarkable event between 24 and 36 hours after death when the body abruptly disappeared, leaving its image in vertically directed electron corona and soft X-ray radiation. To more certainly identify the Man of the Shroud, the title (the sign over the head) and several letters in Greek and Latin of Jesus of Nazareth are faintly visible on the Shroud.
The images of 28 flowers and thorns on the Shroud, twenty of which grow in Jerusalem, and the other eight within 12 miles of Jerusalem. Most do not grow in Europe at all. Pollens of twenty-five of these species had been previously and independently identified by Dr. Max, a noted Swiss criminalist and botanist, from sticky tape slides that he took from the Shroud in 1973 and 1978. Their common blooming time is March and April.
The book "The Resurrection of the Shroud" runs through the history of the Shroud. It was first known as the Image of Edessa, then the Mandylion, then the "Shroud". Here's an excerpt from the book:
"The rediscovery of the Image of Edess in the sixth century shed valuable light on the cloth's disappearance centuries earlier. According to the "Story of the Image of Edessa", the closth was found in a space above the city's (Edessa's) western gate...when Ma'nu VI (Edessa's ruler) returned to paganism and began persecuting Chrisians...someone hid (the Shroud/Image of Edessa)there for safekeeping since persecution of Christians and destruction of their relics and vestiges were most likely occuring. This choice of a hiding place proved fortuitous, for it not only save the Christian relics from destruction by the pagan ruler, but it also provided a hermeticallly sealed environment for the (Shroud) for the next five centuries...the location turned out to be important for another reason: Edessa suffered severe floods in 201, 303, 413, and 525...fotunately (none of) these floods rose to the level of the western gate, where (the Shroud was hidden)."
I know this is waaay off-topic but I have always thought this was interesting ever since I was told this story.
My wife and I were living in London in early 1998 doing a Christian Counseling course with Youth With A Mission. One of the other people on the course was a shy, affable and very inteligent young woman whom we got to know very well. She came from a fairly well to do family, but she never bragged about it; I think she might have been uncomfortable with how people would relate to her because of her upbringing. Once or twice, however, she did let slip that her family sometimes spent their summers in Scotland, though she offered no more information than that. After three months, we were receiving our assignments for the outreach phase of the school, and my wife and I had felt called to work up in Edinburgh. So, we asked her, since she had spent some time there, about where she spent her summers and what is there to see, if we had a chance to slip away for a weekend.
She told her her family rented out a house in Inverness, near the loch. Well, just as a joke, I asked her if she had ever seen the Loch Ness Monster. She kind of looked down, ackwardly, and replied that yes, indeed she had. She then proceeded to tell us the story (in much more detail than this) that basically her and a few of her brothers were walking along the edge of the loch one evening, as it was getting dark. Ahead, they saw a figure lying across the path. Thinking it might be someone hurt, they quickened their walk towards it. But, as they came closer, they saw that what they thought was a body was actually the neck of a very large creature whose body was still submurged into the loch. They stopped suddenly. The creature then lifted its head, stared at them for a moment, then turned and silently disappeared back into the loch.
She told us that she doesn't like talking about it, espically to Christians, because she is afraid that people would think she was into New Age stuff or even doubt her sanity. But, since seeing it, she starting cautiously tellings others about what she saw, and she told us that there are many others around that loch that told her that they too have seen that creature, some on several occasions.
After knowing her on that school and after, and knowing that she does not have any tendancy towards telling shady stories, let along having a dishonest bone in her body, I can only conclude that she, indeed, saw the Loch Ness Monster.
That is very, very cool. The evidence is overwhelming.
My copy of the book arrived last week. This has to be the most exhaustive and conclusive research ever done on The Shroud. I am not even half way through Chapter 1. It is difficult to read as each detail delves deep into the harsh and brutally painful reality of the suffering inflicted on The Man of The Shroud. From the wounds on his head (counted and numbered) to the angle and placement of the nails in his hands and feet, forensic experts have learned much about the Roman methods of torture. I can't imagine the horror experienced by his mother and disciples, to witness this amount of suffering.
No expense was spared in the research. To cite just one example:
None of the unique scourge mark features are visible on the Shroud with the naked eye. The indented centers and raised edges are perceptible only when these areas of the body image are photographed and enlarged, then examined under a microscope. Ultraviolet light and fluorescence testing are needed to show the serum-fluorescing borders and to observe that scratches and cuts invisible to the unaided eye accompany the scourge marks. These findings are highly significant because they prove that the Shroud could not have been created by an artist in the Middle Ages. A medieval artist would not have had access to photographic equipment, a microscope, or an ultraviolet light source because none of the tools would be invented for several more centuries. There are more than one hundred scourge marks on the man in the Shroud. The inaccurate representation of just one of them would reveal an unnatural physiological reaction and expose the work as an artistic creation.
They found bruises, cuts, abrasions and dirt around the knees, consistent with someone who had fallen under the weight of a heavy beam. I strongly recommend this book and thank HumanaeVitae for having brought it to my attention.
Do you suppose there is a reason why all of this evidence should be made evident at this moment in time?
The shroud even provides indirect confirmation of the resurrection. If the body had decayed in the normal way or even remained in the shroud for more than a few days the shroud would have been discolored and eventually itself decayed. If the body had been stolen or removed, large portions of the shroud would have adhered to the body, as any cloth would adhere to open wounds destroying the image.
Scientist try and discredit the shroud by using Carbon-14 tests, but those are often unreliable. They say it proves the shroud is from the 14th century, and say it proves conclusively that the shroud is a fake. They don't take into account that the shroud had been touched by many people and articles over the centuries...or that there was a fire in the Chambrey house in 1534 where the shroud was being kept. The heat was intense enough to melt the silver tub holding the shroud, yet the shroud didn't catch fire. Therefore, the tube must have been airtight. Both of the previous could have altered the test results.
All in All, I believe it is throughly authentic. =)
I see you already have a copy; Colleen is ordering it from amazon.com.
Short of the Holy Grail, this has to be the most blessed relic. Since the Holy Grail has never been found (there are stories about a cup somewhere in Scotland), that would mean the Shroud IS truly the most blessed relic today.
Colleen, you will not be disappointed.
What is our suffering compared to His?
I'm surprised more Catholics haven't heard of this book. I went out and got it after seeing the author, Mark Antonacci, on EWTN Book Notes. The book itself came out in 2000.
As far as why this information is coming to light, I think number one is that we now have the technology to do it; and number two a new century is arriving. I think the 21st Century will be the oppoisite of the 20th; hopeful and faithful without the massive wars, etc.
Anyway, I was also intrigued by Antonacci because he is a former atheist, like myself.
The introduction to the book was quite a story!! Yes, this would explain the level of scrutiny and indepth analaysis he applies to his investigation. Does he say that as a result of his research, he did find God?
This should be on the top 10 reading list for all catholics and christians. Thank you, again.
I remember in his EWTN interview he states that he first got involved with the Shroud after the STURP project in 1978. After a thourough investigaton of their conclusions he himself concluded that the Shroud was real and converted.
And hey, you're welcome...great book. The history of the Shroud and it's continued miraculous "survivals" of fires, floods, wars etc. is worth the price of the book alone.