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George Bush's Theology: Does President Believe He Has Divine Mandate?
Pew Forum on Religion and Public Life ^ | February 12, 2003 | Deborah Caldwell

Posted on 02/12/2003 8:35:27 PM PST by rwfromkansas

In the spring of 1999, as George W. Bush was about to announce his run for President, he agreed to be interviewed about his religious faith -- grudgingly. "I want people to judge me on my deeds, not how I try to define myself as a religious person of words."

It's hard to believe that's the same George W. Bush as now. Since taking office -- and especially in the last weeks -- Bush's personal faith has turned highly public, arguably more so than any modern president. What's important is not that Bush is talking about God but that he's talking about him differently. We are witnessing a shift in Bush's theology – from talking mostly about a Wesleyan theology of "personal transformation" to describing a Calvinist "divine plan" laid out by a sovereign God for the country and himself. This shift has the potential to affect Bush's approach to terrorism, Iraq and his presidency.

On Thursday (Feb.6) at the National Prayer Breakfast, for instance, Bush said, "we can be confident in the ways of Providence. ... Behind all of life and all of history, there's a dedication and purpose, set by the hand of a just and faithful God."

Calvin, whose ideas are critical to contemporary evangelical thought, focused on the idea of a powerful God who governs "the vast machinery of the whole world."

Bush has made several statements indicating he believes God is involved in world events and that he and America have a divinely guided mission:

-- After Bush's Sept. 20, 2001, speech to Congress, Bush speechwriter Mike Gerson called the president and said: "Mr. President, when I saw you on television, I thought -- God wanted you there." "He wants us all here, Gerson," the president responded.

In that speech, Bush said, "Freedom and fear, justice and cruelty, have always been at war, and we know that God is not neutral between them." The implication: God will intervene on the world stage, mediating between good and evil.

At the prayer breakfast, during which he talked about God's impact on history, he also said, he felt "the presence of the Almighty" while comforting the families of the shuttle astronauts during the Houston memorial service on Feb. 4.

-- In his State of the Union address last month, Bush said the nation puts its confidence in the loving God "behind all of life, and all of history" and that "we go forward with confidence, because this call of history has come to the right country. May He guide us now."

In addition to these public statements indicating a divine intervention in world events, there is evidence Bush believes his election as president was a result of God's acts.

A month after the World Trade Center attack, World Magazine, a conservative Christian publication, quoted Tim Goeglein, deputy director of White House public liaison, saying, "I think President Bush is God's man at this hour, and I say this with a great sense of humility." Time magazine reported, "Privately, Bush even talked of being chosen by the grace of God to lead at that moment." The net effect is a theology that seems to imply that God is intervening in events, is on America's side, and has chosen Bush to be in the White House at this critical moment.

"All sorts of warning signals ought to go off when a sense of personal chosenness and calling gets translated into a sense of calling and mission for a nation," says Robin Lovin, a United Methodist ethicist and professor of religion and political thought at Southern Methodist University in Dallas. Lovin says what the president seems to be lacking is theological humility and an awareness of moral ambiguity.

Richard Land, a top Southern Baptist leader with close ties to the White House, argues that Bush's sense of divine oversight is part of why he has become such a good wartime leader. He brings a moral clarity and self-confidence that inspires Americans and scares enemies. "We don't inhabit that relativist universe (of European leaders)," Land says. "We really believe some things are good and some things bad."

It's even possible that Bush's belief in America's moral rightness makes the country's military threats seem more genuine because the world thinks Bush is "on a mission."

Presidents have always used Scripture in their speeches as a source of poetry and morality, according to Michael Waldman, President Clinton's chief speechwriter, author of "POTUS Speaks" and now a visiting professor at Harvard's Kennedy School of Government.

Lincoln, he says, was the first president to use the Bible extensively in his speeches, but one of the main reasons was that his audience knew the Bible -- Lincoln was using what was then common language. Theodore Roosevelt, in his 1912 speech to the Progressive Party, closed with these words: "We stand at the edge of Armageddon." Carter, Reagan and Clinton all used Scripture, but Waldman says their use was more as a "grace note."

Bush is different, because he uses theology as the guts of his argument. "That's very unusual in the long sweep of American history," Waldman says.

Bush has clearly seen a divine aspect to his presidency since before he ran. Many Americans know the president had a religious conversion at age 39, when he, as he describes it, "came to the Lord" after a weekend of talks with the Rev. Billy Graham. Within a year, he gave up drinking and joined a men's Bible study group at First United Methodist Church in Midland, Texas. From that point on, he has often said, his Christian faith has grown.

Less well known is that, in 1995, soon after he was elected Texas governor, Bush sent a memo to his staff, asking them to stop by his office to look at a painting entitled "A Charge to Keep" by W.H.D. Koerner, lent to him by Joe O'Neill, a friend from Midland. The painting is based on the Charles Wesley hymn of the same name, and Bush told his staff he especially liked the second verse: "To serve the present age, my calling to fulfill; O may it all my powers engage to do my Master's will." Bush said those words represented their mission. "What adds complete life to the painting for me is the message of Charles Wesley that we serve One greater than ourselves."

By 1999, Bush was saying he believed in a "divine plan that supersedes all human plans." He talked of being inspired to run for president by a sermon delivered by the Rev. Mark Craig, pastor of Bush's Dallas congregation, Highland Park United Methodist Church.

Craig talked about the reluctance of Moses to become a leader. But, said Mr. Craig, then as now, people were "starved for leadership" -- leaders who sacrifice to do the right thing. Bush said the sermon "spoke directly to my heart and talked about a higher calling." But in 1999, as he prepared to run for president, he was quick to add in an interview: "Elections are determined by human beings."

Richard Land recalls being part of a group of about a dozen people who met after Bush's second inauguration as Texas governor in 1999.

At the time, everyone in Texas was talking about Bush's potential to become the next president. During the meeting, Land says, Bush said, "I believe God wants me to be president, but if that doesn't happen, it's OK." Land points out that Bush didn't say that God actually wanted him to be president. He said he believed God wanted him to be president.

During World War II, the American Protestant thinker Reinhold Niebuhr wrote about God's role in political decision-making. He believed every political leader and every political system falls short of absolute justice -- that the Allies didn't represent absolute right and Hitler didn't represent absolute evil because all of us, as humans, stand under the ultimate judgment of God. That doesn't mean politicians can't make judgments based on what they believe is right; it does mean they need to understand that their position isn't absolutely morally clear.

"Sometimes Bush comes close to crossing the line of trying to serve the nation as its religious leader, rather than its political leader," says C. Welton Gaddy, president of the Interfaith Alliance, a clergy-led liberal lobbying group.

Certainly, European leaders seem to be bothered by Bush's rhetoric and it possibly does contribute to a sense in Islamic countries that Bush is on an anti-Islamic "crusade."

Radwan Masmoudi, executive director of the Washington-based Center for the Study of Islam and Democracy, worries about it. "Muslims, all over the world, are very concerned that the war on terrorism is being hijacked by right-wing fundamentalists, and transformed into a war, or at least a conflict, with Islam. President Bush is a man of faith, and that is a positive attribute, but he also needs to learn about and respect the other faiths, including Islam, in order to represent and serve all Americans."

In hindsight, even Bush's inaugural address presaged his emerging theology. He quoted a colonist who wrote to Thomas Jefferson that "We know the race is not to the swift nor the battle to the strong. Do you not think an angel rides in the whirlwind and directs this storm?" Then Bush said: "Much time has passed since Jefferson arrived for his inauguration. The years and changes accumulate, but the themes of this day he would know, `our nation's grand story of courage and its simple dream of dignity.'

"We are not this story's author, who fills time and eternity with his purpose. Yet his purpose is achieved in our duty, and our duty is fulfilled in service to one another. Never tiring, never yielding, never finishing, we renew that purpose today; to make our country more just and generous; to affirm the dignity of our lives and every life.

"This work continues. This story goes on. And an angel still rides in the whirlwind and directs this storm."


TOPICS: Current Events; Evangelical Christian; Religion & Culture; Religion & Politics
KEYWORDS: bush; catholiclist; providence; religion
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To: sinkspur; Siobhan; Polycarp
It comes entirely from my desire to belittle Polycarp's Fallwellian-Robinsonian notion that God needs to hurl down some hellfire to teach sinners a lesson.

That's up to God, of course, but He's done it before, and terrible things are predicted in the Bible. Usually, in the Bible, when things get really bad sin-wise, God steps in to teach a lesson.

141 posted on 02/14/2003 9:59:45 AM PST by yendu bwam
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To: sinkspur
Attacking a person's work, even in a backhanded way, is an evil thing to do. Work is prayer. You would do well to leave a person's profession out of your posts -- unless, of course, appearing childish and juvenile is something you wish to accomplish.
142 posted on 02/14/2003 10:00:13 AM PST by Siobhan ( Pray the Divine Mercy Chaplet )
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To: Siobhan
And if you recognize that most of the world is "anti-Catholic" are you suggesting that we should shut up and accept the back of the bus or second-class citizenship?

No, but a little class wouldn't be amiss. Whining does not present a good front. This morning's display called for cheese.
143 posted on 02/14/2003 10:00:42 AM PST by Desdemona
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To: Desdemona
No, but a little class wouldn't be amiss. Whining does not present a good front. This morning's display called for cheese.

Are you addressing my posts, Desdemona?

144 posted on 02/14/2003 10:02:36 AM PST by Siobhan ( Pray the Divine Mercy Chaplet )
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To: Siobhan
Are you addressing my posts, Desdemona?

No.
145 posted on 02/14/2003 10:04:05 AM PST by Desdemona
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To: Polycarp; al_c; Admin Moderator; Jim Robinson
The Catholic Caucus would do well in disengaging from it.

I am mostly just a lowly lurker and post only on occasion. However, I have to agree that a lot of anti-Catholicism is allowed to stand in this forum, which is the perfect right of the forum's owner.

I avoid the Never Ending Story thread because of the anti-Catholics who frequent there and the rhetoric the moderators allow. However, after al_c posted about the moderator doing some clean-up work I did a check. Yes, a poster was reprimanded about a single tag line. But many of the posts there over the last week are just plain nasty. And that thread is just one example.

Yes, it is the privilege of the forum owner, and his right, to allow this type of thing to go on. But that does not mean we must participate. I have had enough and I am taking your advice, Polycarp. I won't be back.

Moderator and Jim Robinson - please delete my account.

146 posted on 02/14/2003 10:04:07 AM PST by Rambler
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To: Siobhan
Attacking a person's work, even in a backhanded way, is an evil thing to do.

I didn't attack his work, even in a backhanded way. I remarked that podiatrists might not be the first medical specialty in demand in a third-world country.

Strange, that you would object to this offhanded remark, but apparently don't mind Polycarp's firm wish that America be visited by God's wrath.

Maybe you feel secure that you would be one of the righteous left to pick up the pieces.

147 posted on 02/14/2003 10:08:41 AM PST by sinkspur
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To: Siobhan
"Your cut and paste is woefully wrong as it relates to the Episcopalians on the list." ~ Siobhan

On the contrary, it relates to any American who, like our founders, loves and defends FREEDOM both at home and abroad.

Reiterating:

"The U.S. Constitution is a Calvinist's document through and through."

And because of that, they made sure that in America, one man’s liberty will not depend upon another man’s (religious) conscience (as in Europe)!

Dr. George Bancroft, arguably the most prominent American historian of the 19th century — and not a Calvinist — stated:

"He who will not honor the memory and respect the influence of Calvin knows but little of the origin of American liberty"
148 posted on 02/14/2003 10:10:40 AM PST by Matchett-PI (Those who love the tyranny of Rome are enemies of freedom as America's founders knew.)
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To: sinkspur
As usual, you are mistaken in your assumptions.
149 posted on 02/14/2003 10:11:03 AM PST by Siobhan ( Pray the Divine Mercy Chaplet )
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To: Matchett-PI
Those Episcopalians were no more Calvinists of your ilk than my Irish Wolfhound is a Calvinist, which is to say NOT.
150 posted on 02/14/2003 10:12:28 AM PST by Siobhan ( Pray the Divine Mercy Chaplet )
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To: yendu bwam
Usually, in the Bible, when things get really bad sin-wise, God steps in to teach a lesson.

In hindsight, that's how the Old Testament writers explained cataclysms. That's also how they determined who was just, and who wasn't, until Job came along.

You are free to believe that God is just waiting to drop the hammer on America if you wish.

As for terrible things being predicted, yes. But in a world where terrible things happened in the past, predicting that terrible things will happen in the future is a pretty safe bet.

151 posted on 02/14/2003 10:15:06 AM PST by sinkspur
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To: Matchett-PI
Those Episcopalians were no more Calvinists of your ilk than my Irish Wolfhound is a Calvinist, which is to say NOT.
152 posted on 02/14/2003 10:15:49 AM PST by Siobhan ( Pray the Divine Mercy Chaplet )
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To: sinkspur
In hindsight, that's how the Old Testament writers explained cataclysms.

Absolutely dead wrong.

153 posted on 02/14/2003 10:19:01 AM PST by Siobhan ( Pray the Divine Mercy Chaplet )
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To: All; Jim Robinson
I was surprised when I came to this thread and found out it had been turned into a "everyone's mean to us Catholics" free-for-all.

1) Yes, there are a bunch of anti-Catholics who take pleasure in baiting us; that's why I try not to rise to the bait and refuse to debate with those who are not at the minimum Christian in attitude.

2) Sometimes my fellow Catholics resort to name-calling, which makes us no better than the Catholic bigots.

3) We all voluntarily contribute (financially and opinions) on FR in a forum conceived and maintained by a private individual. We don't have to be here, we want to be.

4) I have received numerous private and public posts from lurkers and others interested in honest dialogue about Catholicism and Christianity in general, without the baiting and the name-calling.

5) I have been offended and saddened by some who claim to be Christians when they gleefully attack my faith with cruelty and ignorance; I offer my pain up to the Lord that He may turn it into something position. He has. I am better versed in my faith today than I was two years ago when I started posting to FR. I am a better Christian because of my friends, as well as the enemies of Catholicism.

6) The only thing I would ask of Jim Robinson and the moderators is that they be as fair as they can, but I understand everyone comes to this forum with their own biases.

7) To my fellow Catholics, I love you all. I have learned so much from you, particularly Polycarp, NYer, Aquinasfan and Salvation. I'm sure there are others I am neglecting. But sometimes we become one of them when we attack. I've deleted many typed words before posting when I've been responding in anger. Maybe we should all look at our attitudes. We don't have to put up with the bashing; I say, we ignore the bashers and simply post the Truth, or engage in dialogue. We all love the Lord, we all love our faith, and we want to defend it. And we should. With love.

8) I'm not lecturing, or at least I hope no one sees this as a lecture. I hope my comments are taken as intended, which is with love.

9) God bless.
154 posted on 02/14/2003 10:21:23 AM PST by Gophack
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To: Siobhan
"Those Episcopalians were no more Calvinists of your ilk than my Irish Wolfhound is a Calvinist, which is to say NOT."

When people insist on making a fools out of themselves, I usually just stand back and watch them hang themselves with their own rope. Hahahaha

155 posted on 02/14/2003 10:22:36 AM PST by Matchett-PI (Those who love the tyranny of Rome are enemies of freedom as America's founders knew.)
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To: Siobhan
It's my understanding that Episcopalians are basically American Anglicans, particularly during the colonization of America because we didn't want "the Church of England", or a government church of any kind, in our country. Some Episcopalian denominations are quite close to Catholicism, which is why many Episcopalian ministers can become Catholic priests when they convert.

But, like many of the Protestant denominations, the Episcopalians have split in their theology, some retaining the early beliefs, and others becoming more "liberal" for lack of a better word.
156 posted on 02/14/2003 10:24:23 AM PST by Gophack
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To: sinkspur; Polycarp
In hindsight, that's how the Old Testament writers explained cataclysms.

I believe that a good many of those were brought about by God, and that He, the Creator of this universe and of us, is able to step into this world in a forceful way when He sees fit. He did so in the great flood, when He took Moses to the top of the mountain and gave him the 10 Commandments and when He sent His son to this earth in human form - and directly intervened in many other cases in the Bible. Our nation and world, in terms of Christian morality, are in a hell-hole of sin (like other certain historical periods), and it wouldn't suprise me in the least if God brought about cataclysmic events to shake us up. But there is no point arguing about it, since what will happen, will. The difference is, you'll be surprised; I won't.

157 posted on 02/14/2003 10:27:56 AM PST by yendu bwam
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To: Gophack
In an amazing turn of events, thank you. You are absolutely correct.

I've done the same, not responding in anger. At least I've tried.

And, IMO, the virtual version of taking toys and going home, gives the "other side" a victory of sorts, if you're inclined to keep score.
158 posted on 02/14/2003 10:29:41 AM PST by Desdemona (from Tobit 4: Do to no one what you yourself dislike. (the pre-cursor to the golden rule))
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To: conservonator
***How 'bout beer?***

Works for Diet Coke too.
159 posted on 02/14/2003 10:31:00 AM PST by drstevej
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To: Rambler
Moderator and Jim Robinson - please delete my account.

You can just turn off your computer if you are unhappy at FR...they are not ringing your door bell.

160 posted on 02/14/2003 10:31:30 AM PST by RnMomof7 (Rom 8:28 And we know that all things work together for good to them that love God,)
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