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The FReeper Foxhole Remembers Navajo CodeTalkers - Dec 21st, 2002 ^

Posted on 12/21/2002 12:12:15 AM PST by SAMWolf

U.S. Military History, Current Events and Veterans Issues

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In the FReeper Foxhole, Veterans or their family members should feel free to address their specific circumstances or whatever issues concern them in an atmosphere of peace, understanding, brotherhood and support.

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Navajo Code Talkers
The Code That Was Never Broken

The Call

It is easy to forget what the world was like in the early 1940s. With the United States being slowly pulled into the escalating conflict in Europe, we suddenly found ourselves faced with a two-front war as the Japanese Empire attacked Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, followed by the Axis Powers declaration of war just four days later.

One of the intelligence weapons the Japanese possessed was an elite group of welltrained English speaking soldiers, used to intercept U.S. communications, then sabotage the message or issue false commands to ambush American troops. Military code became more and more complex – at Guadalcanal, military leaders complained that it took two and a half hours to send and decode a single message.

The use of Native American languages in coded military communications was not new to World War II; Choctaw Indians, for example were used as Code Talkers in World War I. The idea of using Navajo as code in World War II came from a veteran of World War I, Philip Johnston. Johnston, knowledgeable in the use of Native American languages during the first world war, knew of the military's search for a code that would withstand all attempts to decipher it. He was also the son of a missionary, raised on the Navajo reservation, spoke fluent Navajo, and believed Navajo answered the military requirement for an undecipherable code as it was an unwritten language of extreme complexity. After an impressive demonstration, the Marine Corps called upon the Navajo Nation to support the military effort by recruiting and enlisting Navajo men to serve as Marine Corps Radio Operators.

The "first twenty-nine," as they are sometimes referred to, are the first twenty-nine enlistees credited with the development of the original code, consisting of approximately 200 terms. It was designed to be short and concise and used or combined standard native words to create new terms for military hardware. But what proved to be most inventive, and confusing to the enemy, was the incorporation of an innovative alphabet to cover unforseen contingencies. Using this method, the Navajo Code Talker could use distinctly different words for the exact same message, making the code extremely complex, but at the same time improving the speed of vital military communications. Due to its very flexibility, development of the code continued under subsequent Navajo Code Talkers, growing to over 600 terms. By the end of the war the Navajo code, and the very technique by which it was developed, became the most innovative, successful, and closely guarded military secret code of its time.

First twenty-nine Navajo U.S. Marine Corps code-talker recruits being sworn in at Fort Wingate, NM.

Between the creation and the code's evolution is a distinction worthy of note. While all Navajo Code Talkers deserve recognition for their contribution to the code's use and continuing development, the original twenty-nine members gave birth to the idea, setting the standard for this living code.

The Code

To decipher a message coded by the Navajo Code Talkers, the recipient first translated the Navajo words into English, and then used the first letter of each English word to decipher the meaning. Because different Navajo words might be translated into different English words for the same letter, the code was especially difficult to decipher. For example, for the letter "A," the Code Talker could use "wol-la-chee" (ant), "be-la-sana," (apple), or "tse-nill" (ax). Some military terms that had no equivalent in Navajo were assigned their own code word. The word America, for example, was "Ne-he-mah" (Our mother). Submarine became "besh-lo" (iron fish).

Military commanders credited the Code with having saved the lives of countless American soldiers and with the successful engagements of the U.S. in the battles of Guadalcanal, Tarawa, Saipan, Iwo Jima, and Okinawa. At Iwo Jima, Major Howard Connor, 5th Marine Division signal officer, had six Navajo Code Talkers working around the clock during the first forty-eight hours of the battle. Those six sent and received more than 800 messages, all without error. Major Connor declared, "Were it not for the Navajos, the Marines would never have taken Iwo Jima."

KEYWORDS: freeperfoxhole; marines; navajocodetalkers; veterans; wwii
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The Legislation

Honoring the Navajo Code Talkers

Last year, I introduced the bill, "Honoring the Navajo Code Talkers Act," which was signed into law on December 22, 2000. It authorizes the President of the United States to award a gold medal, on behalf of the Congress, to each of the original twenty-nine Navajo Code Talkers, as well as a silver medal to each man who later qualified as a Navajo Code Talker. These medals are to express recognition by the United States of America and its citizens of the Navajo Code Talkers who distinguished themselves in performing a unique, highly successful communications operation that saved countless lives and assisted in hastening the end of World War II in the Pacific theater.

Senator Jeff Bingaman

It has taken too long to properly recognize these soldiers, whose achievements have been obscured by twin veils of secrecy and time. As they approach the final chapter of their lives, it is only fitting that the nation pay them this honor. That's why I introduced this legislation – to salute these brave and innovative Native Americans, to acknowledge the great contribution they made to the Nation at a time of war, and to finally give them their rightful place in history.

With each new successive generation of Americans, it is easy to forget what the world was like in the early 1940's. On December 7, 1941, the United States was faced with entering an escalating World War as the Japanese Empire attacked Pearl Harbor.

One of the intelligence weapons the Japanese military possessed was an elite group of welltrained English speaking soldiers, used to intercept U.S. communications, then sabotage the message or issue false commands to ambush American troops. Military code became more and more complex – at Guadalcanal, military leaders complained that it took two and onehalf hours to send and decode a single message.

After being convinced of the possibility of success by the son of a missionary who was raised on the Navajo reservation, the Marine Corps called upon the Navajo Nation to support the military effort by recruiting and enlisting Navajo men to serve as Marine Corps Radio Operators. These Navajo Marines, who became known as the Navajo Code Talkers, used the Navajo language to develop a unique code to communicate military messages in the South Pacific. The code developed by these Native Americans proved unbreakable and was used throughout the Pacific theater.

Their accomplishment was even more heroic given the cultural context in which they were operating. Subjected to alienation in their own homeland and discouraged from speaking their own language, they still stepped forward and developed the most significant and successful military code of the time.

Navajo Indian communication men with the Marines on Saipan landed with the first assault waves to hit the beach.

The Code was so successful that military commanders credited it with saving the lives of countless American soldiers and the successful engagements of the U.S. in the battles of Guadalcanal, Tarawa, Saipan, Iwo Jima, and Okinawa. At Iwo Jima, Major Howard Connor, 5th Marine Division signal officer, declared, "Were it not for the Navajos, the Marines would never have taken Iwo Jima." Major Connor had six Navajo Code Talkers working around the clock during the first 48hours of the battle. Those six sent and received over 800 messages, all without error.

In fact, the code was so successful that the Department of Defense kept the Code secret for 23 years after the end of World War II, when it was finally declassified in 1968 – and there lies the foundation of the problem.

If their achievements had been hailed at the conclusion of the war, proper honors would have been bestowed at that time. But the Code Talkers were sworn to secrecy, an oath they kept and honored, but at the same time, one that robbed them of the very accolades and place in history they so rightly deserved. Their ranks include veterans of Guadalcanal, Saipan, Iwo Jima, and Okinawa; they gave their lives at New Britain, Bougainville, Guam, and Peleliu. But, at the end of the war, these unsung heroes returned to their homes on buses – no parades, no fanfare, no special recognition for what they had truly accomplished – because while the war was over, their duty – their oath of secrecy – continued. When the secrecy surrounding the code was finally declassified, only then did a realization of the sacrifice and valor of these brave Native Americans begin to emerge.

Through the presentation of this distinguished award, the Congress expresses the gratitude of an entire nation to these brave and innovative veterans for their contributions and sacrifice in the struggle for freedom and democracy. After long last, we may finally mark that place in history so long overdue the Navajo Code Talkers.

1 posted on 12/21/2002 12:12:15 AM PST by SAMWolf
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To: souris; SpookBrat; Victoria Delsoul; MistyCA; AntiJen; SassyMom; bentfeather; GatorGirl
Congressional Gold Medal Ceremony - July 26, 2001

The Congressional gold medal ceremony was held in the Capitol Rotunda on July 26, 2001, witnessed by a standing-room-only audience. Members of Congress, the Marine Corps, Code Talker family members, and invited guests crowded into the chamber to participate in this historic event, at which President Bush presented gold medals to the first twenty-nine Navajo Code Talkers.

John Brown, Jr. speaking for the Code Talkers
Among those honored were: John Brown Jr., Crystal, N.M.; Chester Nez, Albuquerque, N.M.; Allen Dale June, West Valley City, Utah; and Lloyd Oliver, Phoenix, Ariz. Joe Palmer, also one of the original 29, was unable to attend for health reasons. The following Code Talkers were represented at the ceremony by family members: Charlie Y. Begay, Roy L. Begay, Samuel H. Begay, John Ashi Benally, Wilsie H. Bitsie, Cosey S. Brown, John Chee, Benjamin Cleveland, Eugene R. Crawford, David Curley, Lowell S. Damon, George H. Dennison, James Dixon, Carl N. Gorman, Oscar B. Ilthma, Alfred Leonard, Johnny R. Manuelito, William McCabe, Jack Nez, Frank Denny Pete, Nelson S. Thompson, Harry Tsosie, John Willie and William Dean Wilson.

John Brown, Jr. poses with proud Marine escorts.

John Brown, Jr. spoke on behalf of the recipients, thanking the President and the Congress. He was interrupted several times as the audience rose to their feet to cheer and applaud. "It seems fitting to be here in the Capitol Rotunda, such a historic place, where so many heroes have been honored. I am proud that the Navajo Code Talkers today join the ranks of those great Americans" Brown said. "Of the original 29 Code Talkers" he continued, "there are just 5 of us that live today -- Chester Nez, Lloyd Oliver, Alan Dale June, Joe Palmer, and myself. We have seen much in our lives; we have experienced war and peace; we know the value of freedom and democracy that this great nation embodies. But, our experiences have also shown us how fragile these things can be, and how we must stay ever vigilant to protect them. As Code Talkers -- as Marines -- we did our part to protect these values. It is my hope that our young people will carry on this honorable tradition as long as the grass shall grow and the rivers flow."

Senator Bingaman described the Congressional gold and silver medals as among the most distinguished honors the Congress can bestow. In this case, he added, he also considers it a celebration of human ingenuity and innovation, especially when faced with what seemed to be insurmountable odds. "As a nation," he said, "we are but a product of those who have come before us, and of their accomplishments, their contributions, and their sacrifice in the struggle for freedom and democracy. Through the presentation of this distinguished award, the Congress expresses the gratitude of an entire nation to these brave and innovative veterans."

Alan Dale June accepts medal from President Bush.

As we face our current struggles and uncertain times ahead, we may take comfort in knowing we have such notable and excellent examples to follow.
2 posted on 12/21/2002 12:13:17 AM PST by SAMWolf
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To: All
Congressional Silver Medal Ceremony

The Navajo Nation took great interest in conducting the presentation of the silver medals to the Navajo Code Talkers as, according to President Kelsey Begaye, this was a celebration of all Navajo people. On November 24, 2001, the Nation held the ceremony at the Fair Grounds in Window Rock, Arizona, with over 3,000 people in attendance to witness this historic occasion.

The event was significant for several reasons – this is the first time in over 70 years that Congress has authorized the award of Silver Medals, as well as the first time 3-inch diameter Silver Medals have been struck. Each medal weighs 8.1 troy ounces of 99.9 percent pure silver, and is identical in design to that of the Gold. In all, approximately 225 Congressional Silver Medals were presented to Navajo Code Talker veterans or their family members.

However, the search for the remaining Navajo Code Talkers continues, as World War II service records are found and brought to the United States Marine Corps for verification. Earlier this year, Mr. David Tsosie became the most recent member officially identified as part of this heroic group of veterans and, on March 9, 2002, Senator Bingaman traveled to Bloomfield, New Mexico, to present him with this prestigious award.

"Because Code Talkers were sworn to secrecy, they were not properly honored until a few short months ago - some 50 years after the end of World War II. But for Mr. Tsosie, the wait has been even longer," Bingaman said. "I applaud the Pentagon and Marine Corps for taking a closer look at their records, and coming up with information that provides what we suspected all along: that Mr. Tsosie is very much worthy of a Congressional Silver Medal. But most of all, I thank Mr. Tsosie for his invaluable service to our country."
3 posted on 12/21/2002 12:14:02 AM PST by SAMWolf
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To: All
'Were it not for the Navajos, the Marines would never have taken Iwo Jima.'

-- Major Howard Connor, 5th Marine Division signal officer
Connor had six Navajo code talkers working around the clock during the first two days of the battle. Those six sent and received more than 800 messages, all without error.

4 posted on 12/21/2002 12:14:25 AM PST by SAMWolf
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To: SAMWolf
This is fantastic, Sam! Thanks for this thread!
5 posted on 12/21/2002 12:21:33 AM PST by MistyCA
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To: SAMWolf
Link to Code Talker's Dictionary Click Here
6 posted on 12/21/2002 12:28:11 AM PST by MistyCA
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To: SAMWolf

7 posted on 12/21/2002 12:32:37 AM PST by MistyCA
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To: SAMWolf

U.S. Marine Corps Hymn
In Navajo
October 5, 1944

8 posted on 12/21/2002 12:37:00 AM PST by MistyCA
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To: MistyCA
Thanks for the link Misty.
9 posted on 12/21/2002 12:40:28 AM PST by SAMWolf
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To: SAMWolf

Medal Honoring Navajo Code Talkers

10 posted on 12/21/2002 12:42:26 AM PST by MistyCA
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To: SAMWolf
You are welcome, Sam. :)
11 posted on 12/21/2002 12:43:00 AM PST by MistyCA
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To: SAMWolf
On This Day In History

Birthdates which occurred on December 21:
1117 Thomas Becket archbishop of Canterbury
1518 Mark van Vaernewijck Flemish nobleman/politician
1537 Johan III king of Sweden (1569-92)
1573 Mathurin Régnier French poet (Macette)
1616 Pietro Andrea Ziani composer
1628 Samuel Friedrich Capricornus composer
1639 Jean Racin writer
1728 Hermann Friedrich Raupach composer
1756 Thomas Anton Kunz composer
1800 Barnwell Rhett Robert (Confederacy), died in 1876
1804 Benjamin Disraeli (Tory) British PM (1868, 1874-80)
1810 Ludwig Schuncke composer
1815 Thomas Couture French painter/author
1818 Amalia wife of king Otto of Greece
1818 Lewis H Morgan US, etnologist (Systems of Consanguinity)
1823 Jean Henri Fabre France, entomologist (insects & spiders)
1826 Ernst Pauer composer
1832 John Henry Ketcham Bvt Major General (Union volunteers), died in 1906
1840 Mehmed N Kemal Turkish journalist (Vatan)
1848 Edward Everett Rice composer
1849 James Lane Allen US writer (Kentucky Cardinal)
1850 Zdenek Fibich composer
1853 Isolde Kurz German writer/poetess (Meine Mutter)
1859 Gustave Kahn France, poet (claimed to have invented vers libre)
1860 Henrietta Szold founder (Hadassah)
1867 John Winter Thompson composer
1872 Albert P Terhune US, novelist (Lad, a Dog)
1874 Juan Bautista Sacasa President of Nicaragua (1932-36)
1879 Joseph Stalin [Dzoegashvili] Russian dictator; murdered 11,000,000
1879 Theodore Limperg business economist (substitute value)
1886 George Norman Peterkin composer
1886 Hermann A J Kees German Egyptologist (Problems of Egyptology)
1890 Fred M Vinson US Supreme Court Justice (1946-53)
1891 John W McCormack (D) Speaker of the House (1962-70)
1892 Dame Rebecca West [Cicily I F Andrews] England, journalist/novelist/critic/feminist (Meaning of Treason)
1892 Walter Hagen Rochester NY, PGA golfer (US Open 1914, 1919)
1895 Paul Hoffer composer
1896 Carl Romme Dutch catholic foreman/KVP-Minister of Socialist Business
1896 Constantine Rokossovski Russian marshal/vice-premier of Poland
1896 Leroy Robertson composer
1898 Eugène Dabit French writer/painter (Hôtel du Nord)
1898 Ira S Bowen US physicist/astronomer (Mount Wilson/Palomar)
1899 Guy Wilkerson Texas, actor (Dead or Alive, West of Texas, Shootin' Iron)
19-- Danielle Von Zerneck actress (General Hospital)
19-- Devon Ericson Salt Lake City UT, actress (Studs Lonigan, Chisholms)
19-- Ray Acevedo rocker (Menudo-Cannonball)
1900 Oda Schaefer German author/poet (Die Windharfe, Ladies Only)
1900 Wischnewski writer
1901 Juan A de Zunzunegui y Loredo Spanish writer
1901 Robin Irvine London England, actor (Easy Virtue)
1905 Anthony Powell England, novelist (Infants of the Spring)
1907 Garmt Stuiveling Dutch literary (Poet in Love)
1908 Pat Weaver Los Angeles CA, TV Executive, started Today show
1909 George Ball Iowa, lawyer/UnderSecretary of state
1909 Seichô Matsumoto Dutch Japanese detective/playwright (10 to Sen)
1911 Josh Gibson pro baseball player, "Negro Babe Ruth" (hit 800+ homeruns)
1911 Paul Burkhard composer
1913 Raich Carter soccer star
1916 Eve Perrick journalist
1916 John Boon publisher
1917 Alicia Alonso Havana Cuba, ballerina (American Ballet Theatre)
1917 Andre Eglevsky choreographer (Limelight)
1917 Heinrich Böll Germany, writer (Group Portrait with Lady, Nobel '72)
1918 Donald Regan White House staffer/US Secretary of Treasury (1981-85)
1918 Kurt Waldheim Nazi/4th UN Secretary-General (1972-81)/Austrian President (1986-92)
1919 Gert Fredriksson Sweden, 1K kayak (Olympics-gold-1948, 52, 56)
1921 Alica Alonso Havana, ballerina
1921 James Tye safety expert
1921 Joan Dickson cellist
1922 Paul Winchell New York NY, ventriloquist (Jerry Mahoney, Knucklehead Smith)
1924 Joe Paterno football coach (Penn State, SI Sportsman of 1986)
1924 Johan W "Jo" van Marle KNVB-chairman (1980-93)
1924 Rita Reys [Maria Reijs] Dutch jazz singer
1926 Pedro Gonzales-Gonzalez Aguilares TX, actor (Rio Bravo)
1926 John Herbert McDowell composer
1927 Michael Carreras film director
1928 Ed Nelson New Orleans LA, actor (Peyton Place, Along Came a Spider)
1928 Thomas Rajna composer
1929 Jack Philip Cannon composer
1930 Willem R "Wim" van der Zee Secretary of Council of Churches
1931 David Baker Indianapolis IN, composer (Reflections)
1931 Caroline Kaart [Paterson Raitt] Dutch alto singer
1932 Ilja Zeljenka composer
1933 Huib Eversdijk Dutch 2nd chamber member (CDA)
1933 Jackie Hendriks cricketer (West Indian wicket-keeper of 60's)
1933 Miklos Kocsar composer
1934 Hanif Mohammad cricketer (prolific Pakistani batsman 1952-69)
1935 Phil Donahue Cleveland OH, talk show host (Phil Donahue Show)
1937 Jane Fonda New York NY, actress (Barbarella, Klute), physically fit
1937 Harald Crown Prince, son of King Olav V, heir apparent of Norway
1938 Larry Bryggman Concord CA, actor (Dr John Dixon-As the World Turns)
1940 Paul [Ray Hildebrand] Texas, singer (Hey Paula)
1940 Frank Zappa Baltimore MD, composer/musician/satirist (Mothers of Invention, Catholic Girls)
1942 Carla Thomas US singer (Let Me Be Good to You)
1943 Albert Lee rocker
1943 Jack Nance actor (Rubbed Out)
1943 Walter Spanghero French rugby player
1944 Jared Martin New York NY, actor (Varian-Fantastic Voyage, Dusty-Dallas)
1944 Michael Tilson Thomas Los Angeles CA, conductor (New York Philharmonic for Young People)
1945 Doug Walters cricketer (Aussie batting genius 1965-81 Extrovert)
1945 Millie Hughes-Fulford Wells TX, astronaut (STS 40)
1946 Christopher Keene Berkeley CA, conductor (La Traviata)
1946 Carl Dean Wilson Hawthorne CA, rock vocalist (Beach Boys-Barbie)
1946 Josh Mostel New York, actor (Windy City, Animal Behavior, Money Pit)
1948 Barry Gordon Brookline MA, actor (Gary-Archie Bunker's Place)
1948 Carol Potter New York NY, actress (Beverly Hills 90210, Maggie Clinton-Today's FBI)
1948 Dave Kingman baseball player (Mets, Yankees, Giants)
1948 Samuel L Jackson actor (Amos & Andrew, White Sand, Pulp Fiction)
1948 Willem Vermeend Dutch economist/UnderSecretary of Finance (1994-)
1952 Dennis Boutsikaris Newark NJ, actor (Batteries Not Included)
1952 Steve Furniss US swimmer (Olympics-bronze-1972)
1953 Andras Schiff Budapest Hungary, pianist (Tchaikovsky-1974)
1953 Arie Luyendyk Netherlands, Indy-car racer (1990 Indianapolis 500)
1953 Betty Wright US gospel/singer/TV hostess (Little Miss Broadway)
1953 Tina Brown journalist (New Yorker)
1954 Chris Evert Lloyd Mills Fort Lauderdale, tennis pro 'Miss Pokerface'
1955 Jane Kaczmarek Milwaukee WI, actress (Lois-Malcolm in the Middle, Mary-Hometown)
1956 Kevin Burnham Hollis NY, 470 yachter (Olympics-8th-1992, 96)
1956 Lee Roy Parnell Abilene TX, country singer (Oughta be a Law)
1957 Joshua Mostel New York NY, actor (Delta House, At Ease)
1957 Lisa Gerritsen Los Angeles CA, actress (Bess-Mary Tyler Moore Show)
1957 Ray Romano Queens NY, actor (Ray Barone-Everybody Loves Raymond)
1959 Florence Griffith Joyner Los Angeles CA, runner (3 Olympics-gold-1988)
1960 Andy Van Slyke baseball player
1960 Michael Swain Elizabeth NJ, judoka (Olympics-bronze-88)
1960 Roger McDowell Cincinnati OH, pitcher (New York Mets, Baltimore Orioles)
1961 Trevor Bayliss cricketer (New South Wales batsman)
1962 Christy Forester Lookout Mountain GA, country singer (Forester Sister-Men)
1964 Ed Jongsma Dutch pop bassist (Sleeze Beez-Look Like Hell)
1964 Joey Kocur Calgary, NHL right wing (Vancouver Canucks)
1964 Keith Taylor NFL safety (Washington Redskins)
1965 Andy Dick Charleston SC, actor (Matthew-Newsradio)
1965 Gabrielle Glaser musician (Luscious Jackson)
1965 Rodney Thomas WLAF cornerback (Barcelona Dragons)
1965 Sue Thomas Texarkana TX, LPGA golfer (1991 Orix Hawaiian Ladies-14th)
1967 Kristi Cooke Marion OH, Miss Ohio-America (1991)
1967 Ervin Johnson NBA center (Seattle Supersonics, Milwaukee Bucks)
1967 Terry Mills NBA forward (Miami Heat, Detroit Pistons)
1968 Khrystyne Haje Santa Clara CA, actress (Simone-Head of the Class)
1968 Anthony Lynn NFL running back (Denver Broncos-Superbowl 32)
1969 Chuck Smith NFL defensive end (Atlanta Falcons)
1969 Julie Delpy actress (Before Sunrise)
1969 Leon Searcy NFL offensive tackle (Pittsburgh Steelers, Jackson Jaguars)
1970 Irving Spikes NFL running back (Miami Dolphins)
1970 Monique Ambers WNBA forward (Phoenix Mercury)
1970 Ronnie Woolfork WLAF linebacker (Frankfurt Galaxy)
1971 Ernest Hunter NFL running back (Cleveland Browns)
1971 Irena Slavutskay Israel, athlete (Olympics-1996)
1971 Jey Phillips WLAF DB (Amsterdam Admirals)
1971 Tommie Boyd NFL/WLAF receiver (Detroit Lions, Rhein Fire)
1973 Mike Alstott fullback (Tampa Bay Buccaneers)
1974 Karrie Webb Ayr Queensland Australia, LPGA golfer (1994 Australian Strokeplay)
1974 Raymond Austin cornerback/safety (New York Jets)
1978 Amber Corwin Harbor City CA, figure skater (1997 Nationals - 5th)
1978 Michael Vitar Los Angeles CA, actor (D2, D3, Sunset Grill, Sandlot Kids)

Deaths which occurred on December 21:
0918 Conrad I Duke of Franconia/German King (911-918), dies
1308 Henry I the Child, 1st landgrave of Hessen (1256-1308), dies
1375 Giovanni Boccaccio Italian poet (Vita di Dante, Decameron), dies
1429 Jacquemart de Bléharies Tournay "heretic", burned to death
1579 Juan de Juanes [Vicente Juan Maçip] Spanish ecclesiastical painter, dies at 56
1597 Petrus Canisius Dutch jesuit/saint, dies at 76
1674 Rutger van Haersolte viceroy of Overijsselse, dies at about 66
1734 Philipp Hyacinth Lobkowitz composer, dies at 54
1736 Alessandro Galilei Italian architect (Cappella Corsini), dies at 45
1755 Caspar Ruetz composer, dies at 47
1765 Joseph Thaddäus Stammel Austrian sculptor, dies at 70
1820 Charles-François Dumonchau composer, dies at 45
1859 Nicolaas C Kist Dutch church historian/archivist, dies at 66
1864 William Henry Fry composer, dies at 51
1889 Joseph B Lightfoot English theologist/bishop of Durham, dies at 61
1890 Niels Vilhelm Gade Danish composer, dies at 73
1906 Adalbert von Goldschmidt composer, dies at 58
1907 Oskar Lassar German dermatologist (public baths), dies at 58
1914 A O Jones cricketer (12 Tests for England 1899-1909), dies
1920 Claude Tozer cricketer (dashing New South Wales batsman, shot to death
1921 P B S Pinchback major Reconstruction politician, dies at 84
1927 Jack Saunders cricketer (79 wickets-14 Tests for Australia 1902-08), dies
1928 Harry Butt cricketer (England wicket-keeper vs South Africa 1895-96), dies
1928 Luigi Cadorna Italian fieldmarshal (WWI, Caporetto), dies at 78
1931 John-French Cantré Flemish wood carver/painter/cartoonist, dies at 45
1933 Knud J V Rasmussen Danish Pole explorer (Thule), dies at 54
1935 Kurt Tucholsky German journalist/writer (Panter, Tiger & Co), dies at 45
1937 Frank Kellog US foreign minister (Nobel 1929), dies at 80
1940 F[rancis] Scott [Key] Fitzgerald author (Great Gatsby, Zelda), dies of a heart attack in Hollywood at 44
1942 Leendert Round sculptor (Giraffen, Blijdorp), dies at 63
1945 George S Patton US general (Sicily/Normandy), dies in car accident in Heidelberg at 60
1948 Seishiro Itagaki Japanese general/Minister of War, hanged
1955 Dorothy Bernard actress (Margaret-Life With Father), dies at 65
1956 Lewis M Terman psychologist (Genetic studies of genius), dies at 79
1957 Eric Coates composer, dies at 71
1958 H[arry] B[yron] Warner actor (10 Commandments, New Moon), dies at 83
1958 Lion Feuchtwanger philosopher/writer (Der falsche Nero), dies at 74
1963 Jack Hobbs cricketer (61 Tests for England), dies
1965 Claude Adonai Champagne composer, dies at 74
1967 Louis Washkansky dies 18 days after 1st heart transplant at 55
1967 Stuart Erwin actor (Trouble With Father), dies of heart attack at 64
1972 Horace Mann Bond president of Lincoln University (Pennsylvania), dies at 70
1974 Richard Long actor (Professor-Nanny & the Professor), dies at 47
1975 William Lundigan announcer (CBS Mystery Theater), dies at 61
1976 Edward Bartlett cricketer (West Indies Test batsman in 5 Tests 1928-31), dies
1979 Bill Anderson cricketer (Test for New Zealand 1946, scored five & one), dies
1980 Marc Connelly playwright (One Minute Please), dies at 90
1983 Rod Cameron actor (Santa Fe Passage, Stampede), dies at 73
1987 Robert Paige actor (Son of Dracula, Pardon My Sarong), dies
1988 Bob Steele [Robert Bradbury] dies after short illness at 60
1988 Nicholas Tinbergen Dutch/British biologist, dies at 81
1989 Jan Cikker composer, dies at 78
1992 Albert King US blues singer/guitarist (Crosscut Saw), dies at 71
1992 Nathan Milstein Ukrainian/US violist (Beethoven, Bach), dies at 87
1992 Stella Adler US actress (Love on Toast), dies at 90
1992 Sybil Andrews English/Canada painter, dies at 94
1993 Philip Christison British general (Rangoon), dies at 100
1994 Dean Rusk US Secretary of State, dies at 85
1994 Shauna McDonald Brown British TV producer, dies at 37
1995 Robert Francis Vere Heuston professor of law, dies at 72
1995 Trenchard Cox museum director, dies at 90
1996 Margaret E Rey author of children's books, dies at 90
1996 Olga Maria Nicolis di Robilant patron of the arts, dies at 96
1997 Bruce Woodcock boxer, dies at 76
1997 Juzo Itami film director/actor (Lord Jim, Yuuguremade), dies at 64
1997 Michael Lyne air-marshal, dies at 78

On this day...
1163 Hurricane hits villages in Holland/Friesland, causing floods
1561 Archbishop Granvelle installed
1582 Flanders adopts Gregorian calendar, tomorrow is Jan 1 1583
1620 103 Mayflower pilgrims land at Plymouth Rock
1650 Johan de Witt installed as Dutch pension advisor of Dordrecht
1688 Pro-James II-earl of Devonshire occupies Nottingham
1762 James Cook marries Elizabeth Batts
1784 John Jay becomes 1st US Secretary of State (foreign affairs)
1788 Hue Tay Son becomes emperor Quang Trung of Vietnam
1829 1st stone arch railroad bridge in US dedicated, Baltimore
1835 HMS Beagle sails into Bay of Islands (New Zealand)
1849 1st US skating club formed (Philadelphia)
1864 General Sherman conquers Savannah
1866 Cheyennes, Arapho's, Sioux, Fetterman Massacre
1890 Pim Mulier 1st & only trip to "Alvesteddetocht"
1891 18 students play 1st basketball game (Springfield College)
1898 Scientists Pierre & Marie Curie discover radium
1900 Gerhart Hauptmann's "Michael Kramer" premieres in Berlin
1907 Dutch government of De Master falls due to war budget
1909 University of Copenhagen rejects Cook's claim that he was 1st to North Pole
1909 1st junior high school established (Berkeley CA)
1909 Clyde Fitch's "City" premieres in New York NY
1910 Explosion in coal mine in Hulton England, 344 mine workers dies
1912 Denmark, Norway & Sweden declare neutrality in Comende war
1913 1st crossword puzzle (with 32 clues) printed in New York World
1914 1st feature-length silent film comedy, "Tillie's Punctured Romance" released (starring Marie Dressler, Mabel Normand & Charles Chaplin)
1915 25.83 cm (10.17") of rainfall, Glenora OR (state record)
1918 Red Sox trade Dutch Leonard, Ernie Shore & Duffy Lewis to Yankees for Ray Caldwell & Slim Love, Frank Gilhooey, Al Walters & $15,000
1919 J Edgar Hoover deports anarchists/feminist Emma Goldman to Russia
1920 Jerome Kern/BG DeSylva's musical "Sally" premieres in New York NY
1921 Supreme Court rules labor injunctions & picketing unconstitutional
1923 Nepal changes from British protectorate to independent nation
1925 Eisenstein's movie Potemkin premieres in Moscow
1925 Stork Hendry scores 325 for Victoria against New Zealand
1926 Soccer team DOS Struggle forms
1929 1st US group hospital insurance plan instituted, Dallas TX
1932 Fred Astaire & Ginger Rogers, 1st joint movie (Flying Down to Rio)
1932 Giants sign former outfielder Billy Southworth as a coach
1933 Dried human blood serum 1st prepared, University of Pennsylvania
1933 Newfoundland reverts to being a crown colony
1933 20th Century Fox signs Shirley Temple, 5, to a studio contract
1936 Bradman's 2nd consecutive Test Cricket duck! Australia all out 80
1937 1st feature-length color & sound cartoon premieres (Disney's Snow White)
1937 O'Reilly completes 14-98 for cricket match, New South Wales vs South Australia
1939 Hitler named Adolf Eichmann leader of "Referat IV B"
1941 Chicago Bears win the NFL championship, Ray McLean makes last NFL drop kick for an extra point
1941 David Diamond's 1st Symphony, premieres
1941 German submarine U-567 sinks
1942 US Supreme court declares Nevada separation legal
1944 Cardinals' Marty Marion wins National League MVP
1945 Gould/Comden/Green's "Billion Dollar Baby" premieres at Alvin Theater NYC for 219 performances
1946 "If the Shoe Fits" closes at Century Theater NYC after 20 performances
1946 Earthquake in South Japan, kills 1,086
1946 Frank Capra's "It's a Wonderful Life" premieres
1946 Morton Gould's "Minstrel Show" premieres in Indianapolis
1948 O'Neil Place in the Bronx erroneously renamed O'Neill Place
1948 State of Eire (formerly Irish Free State) declares its independence
1949 Dutch 1st Chamber accept soeveregnty of Indonesia
1950 Cole Porter's musical "Out of this World" premieres at New Century Theater NYC for 157 performances
1951 Joe DiMaggio announces his retirement
1952 Broadway Tunnel opens in San Francisco
1952 WSBT TV channel 22 in South Bend IN (CBS) begins broadcasting
1953 KOMU TV channel 8 in Columbia MO (NBC/PBS) begins broadcasting
1954 Dr Sam Sheppard is convicted of his wife, Marilyn's murder
1957 Indonesia proclaims end to state of war
1958 Charles De Gaulle wins 7 year term as 1st President of 5th Republic of France
1959 10th largest snowfall in NYC history (13.7")
1959 Citizens of Deerfield IL block building of interracial housing
1959 Shah of Persia marries Farah Diba
1959 Tom Landry accepts coaching job with Dallas Cowboys (stays until 1988)
1961 Beatles record "Sweet Georgia Brown" & "Ready Teddy"
1961 JFK & British PM MacMillan meet in Bermuda
1962 Angolin leaves Comecon
1962 US & Cuba accord, releases bay of pigs captive
1966 USSR launches Luna 13; soft-landed in Oceanus Procellarum
1968 Apollo 8 (Frank Borman, Jim Lovell & Bill Anders) 1st manned Moon voyage
1968 David Crosby, Stephen Stills & Graham Nash premiere together in California
1969 Vince Lombardi (Redskins) coaches his last football game, losing
1969 Diana Ross final TV appearance as a Supreme (Ed Sullivan Show)
1970 WUTV TV channel 29 in Buffalo NY (IND) begins broadcasting
1971 UN Security Council chooses Kurt Waldheim as 4th Secretary General
1972 Soviet Union signs a separate peace with East Germany
1973 Israel, Egypt, Syria, Jordan, US & USSR meet in Geneva
1975 1st New York Jet to gain 1,000 yards rushing (John Riggins)
1975 Buffalo Sabres set NHL record of 40 points beating Capitals 14-2 scoring 5 goals vs Washington Capitals in 4:57
1975 "Hello, Dolly" closes at Minskoff Theater NYC after 51 performances
1975 "Very Good Eddie" opens at Booth Theater NYC for 307 performances
1975 64th Davis Cup: Sweden beats Czechoslovakia in Stockholm (3-2)
1975 Madagascar adopts constitution
1976 20th Islander shut-out opponent-Billy Smith 3-0 vs Bruins
1976 Patricia R Harris named Secretary of HUD
1976 UN General Assembly passes a resolution declaring 1979-Year of Child
1976 US performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site
1978 "Broadway Musical" opens/closes at Lunt Fontanne Theater NYC
1978 Police in Des Plaines IL, arrest John Wayne Gacy Jr for murder
1979 Gary Unger plays in record 914th consecutive NHL game
1979 USSR performs nuclear test at Eastern Kazakhstan/Semipalitinsk USSR
1979 Zimbabwe adopts constitution
1980 Harold Carmichael ends NFL streak of 127 consecutive game receptions
1981 Cincinnati beats Bradley 75-73 in 7 OTs (NCAA record)
1983 Loretta Swit weds Dennis Holahan
1983 NBA Indiana Pacers end a 28 game road losing streak
1983 Musical "Tap Dance Kid" with Hinton Battle premieres at Broadhurst Theater NYC for 669 performances
1983 NCAA rules rescinded last 2-minute men's basketball free throw rule
1984 Islander Kelly Hrudy's 1st shut-out win-Whalers 1-0
1984 USSR launches Vega 2 for fly-by of Halley's Comet
1985 ARCO Anchorage runs aground near Port Angeles WA
1985 Heart's "Heart" album goes #1
1985 Alice Miller/Don January win LPGA Mazda Golf Championship
1986 75th Davis Cup: Australia beats Sweden in Melbourne (3-2)
1986 Amy Alcott/Bob Charles win LPGA Mazda Golf Championship
1987 3 white New York teens convicted of manslaughter in death of a black man
1987 Soyuz TM-4 carries 3 cosmonauts (Musa Manarov, Anatoly Levchenko & Vladimir Titov) to space station Mir
1988 Drexel agrees guilt to security felonies, pays a $650 million fine
1988 New York bound Pan Am jumbo jet (Flight 103) explodes over Scotland, killing all 259 people on the plane and 11 people on the ground
1988 Vladimir Titov, Anatoly Levchenko & Musa Manarov return to earth (a year) with Chretien
1989 Romania's dictator Nicolae Ceausescu's final speech (he is executed 12/25)
1989 US invades Panama and ousts General Noriega
1989 Vice-President Quayle sends out 30,000 Xmas cards with word beacon spelled beakon
1990 Steve & Mark Waugh complete 464 partnership for New South Wales vs Western Australia
1991 95 share in Madrid Spain $1.3 billion lottery (#47996)
1991 El Sayid Nosair acquitted of killing Meir Kahane
1991 Soviet Union formally dissolves 11 of 12 republics sign treaty forming Commonwealth of Independent States
1991 US actress Jane Fonda marries CNN-director Ted Turner
1992 Dutch DC-10 in fire at landing on Faro Portugal, 56 die
1994 Bomb goes off on #4 train on Fulton Street NYC
1995 Martina Ertl of Germany wins her 3rd giant slalom world cup
1995 San Francisco Giants announce plans to build a new stadium to open in 2000
1996 Pakistan all out 67 to lose to Tasmania by an inning
1997 Detroit Lions Barry Sanders is 3rd to run for 2,000 yards in a season
1997 Detroit Lions linebacker Reggie Brown, knocked unconscious in game
1997 Lexus Senior Golf Challenge
1997 Wendy's Three-Tour LPGA Challenge
1997 Wendy's Three-Tour Senior Golf Challenges

Note: Some Holidays are only applicable on a given "day of the week"

Nepál : Independence Day/Unity Day (1923)
Plymouth MA : Forefathers' Day (1620)
World : Underdog Day - - - - - ( Friday )

Religious Observances
Roman Catholic, Lutheran, Anglican : Commemoration of St Thomas the apostle
Roman Catholic : Memorial of St Peter Canisius, priest & doctor (optional)

Religious History
1672 Birth of Benjamin Schmolck, German Lutheran clergyman. Though a busy pastor, Schmolck found time to pen 900 hymns, the best remembered of them being "My Jesus, As Thou Wilt."
1672 Birth of Johann Christoph Schwedler, German clergyman and author of the hymn, "Ask Ye What Great Thing I Know." Schwedler penned more than 500 hymns during his life, many stressing the joyÂfilled confidence available to every Christian believer.
1776 Anglican clergyman and hymnwriter John Newton wrote in a letter: 'It is necessary that our sharpest trials should sometimes spring from our dearest comforts, else we should be in danger of forgetting ourselves and setting up our rest here.'
1835 Oglethorpe University was chartered in Milledgeville, Georgia under Presbyterian auspices. In 1913 the campus was moved to Atlanta.
1843 Irish Catholic religious Frances Ward, 33, first arrived in the U.S. in Pittsburgh, where she afterward helped establish successive convents of the Sisters of Mercy, both in Chicago and in Loretto, Pennsylvania.

Thought for the day :
"Nothing is a waste of time if you use the experience wisely."

12 posted on 12/21/2002 5:05:28 AM PST by Valin
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To: All
American soldier killed in firefight in Afghanistan

13 posted on 12/21/2002 6:05:55 AM PST by 68-69TonkinGulfYachtClub
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To: Valin
Thanks for the history, Valin. Ha! I love that thought for the day! How true! :)
14 posted on 12/21/2002 7:12:20 AM PST by MistyCA
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To: 68-69TonkinGulfYatchClub
Thank you for the post and information, Tonk. It is appreciated.
15 posted on 12/21/2002 7:12:56 AM PST by MistyCA
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To: 06isweak; 0scill8r; 100American; 100%FEDUP; 101st-Eagle; 101stSignal; 101viking; 10mm; 10Ring; ...
Drop on in to the FReeper Foxhole!

The FReeper Foxhole is a new Daily Thread in the VetsCoR Forum.

If you would like to be removed from this daily ping list, it takes only two clicks. Click this link and send a BLANK FReepmail to AntiJen. You will be removed promptly.

If you have comments you would like me to read, use this link. Thanks!

16 posted on 12/21/2002 7:33:13 AM PST by Jen
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To: 68-69TonkinGulfYatchClub

American Soldier Killed in Firefight in Afghanistan

<=== Click


Day is done, gone the sun,
From the hills, from the lake,
From the skies.
All is well, safely rest,
God is nigh.

Go to sleep, peaceful sleep,
May the soldier or sailor,
God keep.
On the land or the deep,
Safe in sleep.

Thanks and praise, For our days,
'Neath the sun, Neath the stars,
'Neath the sky,
As we go, This we know,
God is nigh.
17 posted on 12/21/2002 7:38:36 AM PST by Jen
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To: AntiJen; All
U.S. military chief says his army ready

BAGRAM, Afghanistan (Reuters) - The United States' top military commander says his forces are ready for action if called upon to fight a war in Iraq.

On a pre-Christmas visit to the troops at Bagram Air Base, headquarters of U.S. and coalition forces in Afghanistan, General Richard Myers said on Saturday U.S. political leaders had indicated that a war to topple Iraqi President Saddam Hussein was not inevitable.

"That is clearly a political decision, a presidential decision, not my decision," the chairman of the U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff said, in response to a question from reporters.


18 posted on 12/21/2002 7:39:54 AM PST by Oldeconomybuyer
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To: DaughterOfAnIwoJimaVet
I know this is a subject near and dear to your heart, so I figured I'd ping ya...

19 posted on 12/21/2002 7:40:46 AM PST by Chad Fairbanks
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To: SAMWolf
I'm bringing in the ping list.
20 posted on 12/21/2002 7:40:47 AM PST by Sparta
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