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The Attack

The trip across Laguna de Bay was planned to take two or three hours. But it was not until the wee morning hours that the first banca finally touched shore near Los Baños after an eight-hour journey due to light winds that failed to fill the sails. One of the bancas was still in the middle of the lake at daybreak and making little progress. The Filipino crew spent the rest of the day trying every trick in the book to get the heavily laden vessel to its destination, but it was well into the evening when the banca reached shore. The paratroopers of the recon platoon had spent most of the day crouching uncomfortably beneath the side rails of the ship to avoid being seen by the Japanese patrol boats that still ruled the waters.

After reaching shore with only a portion of his men, Skau began making plans to carry out his mission with the small force that had landed with him. While his men rested out of sight, Skau met with the guerrilla leaders and two escaped internees in a schoolhouse in the barrio of Nanhaya. Ben Edwards, one of the former prisoners, sketched the layout of the camp on the school blackboard for the paratroopers. Assuming that the last banca would arrive in time for the rescue, Skau broke his group into six teams and assigned from eight to 12 guerrillas to each one. Edwards and the other internee, Freddy Zervoulakos, each accompanied one of the teams. Late that evening, the third banca finally reached shore. Shortly after midnight, the recon platoon teams began moving out from their rendezvous point at the schoolhouse for their attack positions.

The amphibious element boarded amtracs and moved out at 0500 on February 23. Fifty-four amtracs from the 672nd Amphibian Tractor Battalion set out across Laguna de Bay from Mamatid, their noisy engines giving notice that the attacking force was on its way. In the pitch-black, pre-dawn darkness, a lack of landmarks forced the tractor drivers to navigate solely by compass.

At Nichols Field outside Manila, the paratroopers boarded nine C-47s at 0530. Half an hour later, the pilots started their engines. After takeoff, each of the jump planes orbited over the field until all nine were airborne and had joined the formation. At 0640 the C-47s headed southeast over Laguna de Bay toward Los Baños. Fifteen minutes later, the pilots signaled a six-minute warning by turning on the red paratrooper jump lights in the cargo compartments of their airplanes. At 0700 Ringler stepped from the door of the lead C-47; the Los Baños raid was in progress.

As the jump planes passed over the camp, the Japanese sentries were in the process of changing the guard, and the internees were lined up for morning roll call. The plan called for the recon platoon to attack the sentry positions and other Japanese strongholds as the troopers were floating to earth, but only two of the five teams were in position at H-hour. At the sight of the drop planes over Los Baños, the other three teams had to abandon stealth and rushed headlong for the camp. Nevertheless, the attack went off more or less as planned. By 0715, when Ringler had finished organizing his men and the first of the jump teams reached the camp perimeter, Los Baños was already under attack from three sides. A number of the guards, most of whom had turned out without weapons for morning calisthenics, were killed, while others fled for the hills.

By the time the amtracs arrived from the shores of Laguna de Bay, the gun battle was practically over. Guards of the overwhelmed Japanese garrison had either been killed, were hiding, or had fled. Among the latter was Warrant Officer Sadaaki Konishi, the tyrannical second-in-command at the camp. Largely because of Konishi's policy of withholding food, the paratroopers found a starving horde of internees, many of whom weighed barely 100 pounds.

1 posted on 02/23/2003 12:02:12 AM PST by SAMWolf
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To: MistyCA; AntiJen; Victoria Delsoul; SassyMom; bentfeather; GatorGirl; radu; souris; SpookBrat; ...

The original evacuation plan had been for a task force made up of men from the 188th Glider Regiment under Colonel Robert Soule to fight their way down National Highway 1 to Los Baños, then evacuate the internees overland to Manila. The amtrac battalion was only to deliver the bulk of Major Burgess' paratrooper battalion, then return to Mamatid empty while the rescuers returned with the internees. After an hour at the camp, however, Burgess determined from the sound of firing that Soule's task force was still at least three hours away from Los Baños. At the same time, he was well aware that thousands of Japanese troops were within striking distance of his location.

At the last minute the plans were changed--Burgess decided not to wait for the task force. The internees were to be evacuated by amtrac, and the paratroopers would return to Manila with Soule's task force. Burgess directed the amtrac commander, Lt. Col. Joe Gibbs, to order his men to load their vehicles with internees, then evacuate them to Mamatid and shuttle back and forth until both the internees and members of the raiding party were all withdrawn to safety.

Organizing the liberated prisoners, most of whom were milling about the camp with little sense of order, was a problem; the internees were ecstatic about being rescued, but were hardly in a mood to fall into any kind of formation. Major Burgess observed that the internees seemed to be drifting in advance of fires that had been started in some of the barracks during the raid, so he ordered his men to set fire to the camp in such a manner that the fires would lead the internees in the direction of the main gate, where the amtracs were waiting.

By 0900, two hours after the commencement of the raid, some order had begun to appear among the internees. Those who could do so had begun the two-mile walk to the beach, while those who were unable to make the hike were loaded aboard amtracs for the journey. After the infirm were evacuated, several amtracs began to aid the walking by providing a lift to the beach.

As the internees moved out of the camp, Major Burgess and his troopers began a systematic search to ensure that all internees were accounted for and that none were still in the camp. The soldiers did as thorough a job as possible. Because many of the Filipino guerrillas disappeared into the jungle after the raid, many Americans liberated at Los Baños never knew to what extent the irregular troops had contributed to their release.

By mid-day, the Soule task force had advanced in the face of enemy resistance to a point just outside Los Baños. By then the evacuation by amtrac was proceeding quite well, as the officers of the task force could see from activities on the lake. Colonel Soule elected to halt his advance at the San Juan River and to maintain a bridgehead in the event the paratroopers had to withdraw by land as planned.

From Los Baños, the internees proceeded to the village of San Antonio, where the head of the marching column arrived at about 1000. From there, the amtracs, filled with evacuees, formed up into columns of three and slid into the waters of the lake for the two-hour journey to Mamatid. While on the lake, several of the amtracs came under fire from Japanese shore positions. Little damage was done, although one amtrac had to offload its cargo of evacuees and be towed to shore by another vessel.

By noon the remainder of the internees and the rear guard of the 1st Battalion had reached San Antonio. Burgess still had not made contact with Soule, nor was he in contact with the 11th Division headquarters. Essentially, he was on his own. Around that time General Swing flew over the beach in a light liaison aircraft. After Burgess advised the general by radio that the raid had been successful and that he planned to evacuate the remainder of the group and his own men with the amtracs that were on their way back to San Antonio, the young major was flabbergasted at his commander's reply: Could he perhaps liberate the entire town of Los Baños, then move west to link up with the 188th and keep possession of the territory they had gained?

Burgess was in the middle of contested territory with what, for all practical purposes, was a raiding party, and with strong enemy forces within easy striking distance. He did not answer the general's request, but after carefully considering his situation, he simply switched his radio off and did not acknowledge that he had received the message.

At around 1500 the last amtrac shoved off from San Antonio with the final load of internees and troops. At Mamatid the internees moved to the former New Bilibid prison, where they prepared for the journey to their homes in the United States and elsewhere.

While the liberation of the internees from Los Baños went off without a hitch, there is a dark epilogue to the story. After the 11th Airborne Division paratroopers left the area, the Japanese moved back in. Ironically, the first Americans to re-enter the vicinity of Los Baños were the same paratroopers who had liberated the camp only days before. What they found in the barrios surrounding the camp this time was both nauseating and pitiful. Whole families had been tied to the stilts supporting their houses, then the dwellings had been set ablaze, collapsing around their helpless former inhabitants. Burgess estimated that more than 1,500 Filipinos had been cruelly killed, evidently in retaliation for the rescue of the internees.

There is some question as to the identity of those who did the killing. The Japanese in the area were reinforced by pro-Japanese Filipino units commanded by Japanese officers and NCOs. Many of the villages in the region were pro-Japanese "Makapili" as well--residents at odds with their countrymen who favored a return to American control.

One Japanese soldier later identified as having played a part in the reprisals in the area--including the murder of an American family that had lived near Los Baños and had not been interned--was Warrant Officer Sadaaki Konishi, the sadistic second-in-command of the camp at Los Baños. After the war, Konishi was implicated by certain Filipinos, tried for his crimes, and then executed as a war criminal.
2 posted on 02/23/2003 12:03:00 AM PST by SAMWolf (To look into the eyes of the wolf is to see your soul)
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To: SAMWolf

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Birthdates which occurred on February 23:
1417 Paul II [Pietro Barbo], Italy, Pope (1464-71)
1614 Jacob Colijn(s) Dutch coat of arms painter
1615 Cornelis Galle II Flemish engraver/illustrator, baptised
1633 Samuel Pepys London England, navy expert/composer (Diary, Memoirs)
1649 John Blow composer of 1st English opera (Venus & Adonis) (baptized)
1685 George Friedrich Händel Halle Germany, organist/baroque composer (Messiah)
1700 Wilhelmus Schortinghuis Dutch theologist (Profound Christianity)
1730 Christian Joseph Lidarti composer
1734 Mayer Amschel Rothschild Frankfurt, founder (House of Rothschild)
1776 John Walter II London, chief proprietor (The London Times, 1812-47)
1787 Emma Willard US, opens school for young ladies (Hall of Fame)
1792 Istvan Ferenczi Hungarian sculptor
1811 George Washington Hewitt composer
1817 George Watts London, painter
1818 Major General Jeremy F Gilmer General/Chief Engineer Confederate War Department
1824 Herman N van der Tuuk Dutch philologist (Tobasch' Grammar)
1824 Lewis Cass Hunt Brigadier General (Union volunteers), died in 1886
1831 Hendrik W Mesdag Dutch painter (Panorama Mesdag)
1834 Gustav Hermann Nachtigal German physician/colonizer/consul in Tunisia
1838 Gilbert Moxley Sorrel Brigadier General (Confederate Army), died in 1901
1840 Carl Menger Austrian economist
1848 Thomas Paine Westendorf composer
1859 Theodor Batthyányi Hungarian statesman/contra revolutionary
1863 Franz von Stuck German painter (Der Krieg)
1865 Barney Dreyfuss baseball owner (Pittsburgh Pirates)
1868 William E B Du Bois Great Barrington MA, civil rights writer (Souls of Black Folk)
1869 Nadezhda Konstantinova Krupskaya Russian revolutionary (Social-Democrat)
1873 Dmitri Arakishvili composer
1874 Konstantin Päts Estonian PM (1921-23, 1932-33), dictator (1933-40)
1875 Jozef E Stokvis journalist/Dutch MP (SDAP)
1876 Agnes M Royden writer
1876 Wadi' Sabra composer
1879 Agnes Arber English biologist/philosopher (Mind & the Eye)
1879 Norman Lindsay Creswick Victoria, artist/novelist
1880 Edgar Istel composer
1881 Titus [Anno S] Brandsma Dutch philosopher
1882 Ladislav Vycpalek composer
1883 Victor Fleming Pasadena CA, director (Wizard of Oz, Gone With Wind)
1883 Karl Jaspers Oldenburg Germany, existentialist philosopher
1884 Frank Cellier Surbiton England, actor (Quiet Wedding, Big Blockade)
1884 Herman Courtens Belgian painter
1886 Albert Edward Sammons composer
1886 Ventura García Calderón Peruvian diplomat/author
1887 Oskar Frederik Lindberg composer
1889 Cyril Delevanti England, actor (Lucius-Jefferson Davis, Black Eye)
1889 Frederik M baron of Asbeck Dutch lawyer (League of Nations)
1892 Kathleen Harrison actress (Fast Lady, Big Money, West 11)
1895 Richard Goolden London England, actor (School for Husbands)
1898 Reinhard Herbig German archaeologist
1899 E Langgässer writer
1899 Erich Kästner Dresden German author (Emil & the Detective)
19-- Catherine Larson actress (Ryan's Hope)
1900 Elinor Remick Warren composer
1901 Aartje W "Mien" van It Sant-van Bommel author (Mieke-serial)
1903 Grigori V Aleksandrov Russian director (Veselye Rebjata)
1904 William L Shirer historian (Rise & Fall of 3rd Reich)
1904 Leopold Trepper Polish/Israeli spy/founded (CP Palestina)
1905 Leonidas Zoras composer
1907 Anthony Standerwick Heal businessman
1908 Sir William McMahon PM of Australia (Liberal) (1971-72)
1909 Frank Ward cricketer (Australian leggie late 30s)
1911 G Mennen Williams Detroit MI, Sup Court Justice/(Governor-D-MI, 1949-60)
1911 Walter Ernest Allen writer/critic
1913 Charles Leonard US, pentathlete (Olympics-1936)
1913 Earl of Lincoln
1914 Margaret Farrer CEO (Central Midwives Board)
1915 Heinrich Schirmbeck German author (Das Spiegellabyrinth)
1916 George Abel Canada, ice hockey player (Olympics-gold-1972)
1916 Martindale Sidwell organist/conductor
1916 William Walsh academic
1917 Kenneth Tobey actor (Chuck-Whirlybirds)
1918 Dom Aelred Watkin headmaster (Downside School)
1919 Johnny Carey soccer star
1919 Lord Ezra
1920 Hall Overton Bangor MI, composer (Enchanted Pear Tree)
1920 David Wright poet
1920 Lord St Levan
1923 Gery Florizoone Flemish poet
1924 Lejaren Hiller composer
1925 Ian Smith cricket leg-spinner (South Africa 1947-58 average 64.08)
1925 Louis Stokes (Representative-D-OH, 1969- )
1926 Regine Crespin French vocalist (Sheherazade, Les Nuits D'ete)
1927 Ivan Hrusovsky composer
1928 Duke of Beaufort
1928 Vasily Grigoryevich Lazarev Siberia USSR, cosmonaut (Soyuz 12, 18A)
1929 Elston Howard Yankee catcher (1st black New York Yankee/1963 AL MVP)
1929 Eduard W "Ed" Bauer [Eddy Evers], Dutch actor (Bluejackets)
1929 Régine Crespin Marseilles France, operatic soprano
1929 Richard Moryl composer
1930 Harry Boldt German Federal Republic, equestrian dressage (Olympics-gold-1976)
1930 Johnny Seven New York NY, actor (Ironside, Amy Prentiss)
1930 Gerry Davis writer
1930 Imre Gyongyossy film Maker
1930 Jef Geeraerts Flemish writer (Black Venus)
1931 Tom Wesselman US sculptor (Great American Nudes)
1933 Donna J Stone poet
1933 Lee Quencey Calhoun Laurel MS, 110 meter hurdler (Olympics-gold-1956, 60)
1934 Lady Digby
1937 David Ward president (Law Society)
1937 Lord Tugendhat
1937 Tom Osborne college football coach
1938 Diane Varsi San Mateo CA, actress (Peyton Place)
1938 Sylvia Chase St Paul MN, newscaster (ABC Weekend News, 20/20)
1939 Josef Feistmantl Austria, lugeist (Olympics-gold-1964)
1939 Majel Barrett Columbus OH, actress (Christine Chapel-Star Trek)
1939 Edmund Boyd Fisher publisher
1940 Peter Fonda actor (Easy Rider, Lilith, Wild Angels, Trip)
1940 Jermyn P Brooks CEO (Price Waterhouse Europe)
1941 William Hjörtsberg New York NY, writer (Gray Matters, Fallen Angel)
1941 Frank Gerstenberg Edinburgh, principal (George Watson's College)
1941 Robin Bynoe cricketer (West Indies opening batsman in 4 Tests 1959-67)
1942 Beau Boulter (Representative-R-TX, 1985- )
1942 Colin Sanders founder (Solid State Logic)
1942 John Lewis Head Master (Eton College)
1943 Fred Biletnikoff NFL wide receiver (Oakland Raiders)
1943 Jada Rowland New York NY, actress (Penny-Hamptons, Amy-Secret Storm)
1943 Bobby Wayne Mitchell Chatham VA, PGA golfer (1971 Cleveland Open)
1944 Johnny Winter [John Dawson], Leland MS, guitarist (Silver Train)
1944 James Cousins British MP
1944 Mike Maxfield rocker (Billy J Kramer & The Dakotas)
1945 Frank Murray police Officer
1946 Rusty Young California, rock steel guitarist (Poco-Heat of the Night)
1947 Anton Mosimann chef
1947 Colin Sanders British computer engineer (Solid State Logic)
1947 Geoff Cope cricketer (England off-spinner 1977-78)
1947 Shakira Caine Guyana, actress (Man Who be King)/Miss Guyana (1967)
1948 Bill Alexander theatre director
1949 Anna-Maria Müller German DR, Luge (Olympics-gold-1972)
1949 Larry Demps US R&B vocalist (Dramatics-Me & Mrs Jones)
1949 Marc Garneau Québec City Canada, PhD/astronaut (STS 13, 77)
1949 Maureen Hicks British MP
1949 Terry "Tex" Comer Burnley Lancashire England, bassist/guitarist (Ace-How Long)
1950 Neil Jordan Sligo Ireland, novelist (Dream of a Beast, Past)
1950 Steve Priest London, rock bassist (Sweet Hayes)
1951 Ed "Too Tall" Jones NFL linebacker (Dallas Cowboys)
1951 Nicholas Kenyon controller (BBC Radio 3)
1951 Patricia Richardson Bethesda MD, actress (Home Improvement, Double Trouble)
1952 Brad Whitford Massachusetts, rock guitarist (Aerosmith-Jamie Got a Gun)
1953 Sallie L Baliunas astrophysicist
1955 Howard Jones rock pianist/vocalist (Things Can Only Get Better)
1956 Maren Jensen Glendale CA, actress (Battlestar Galactica)
1958 David Sylvian vocal/guitar (Sylvian Sylvian, Japan-Adolescent Sex)
1958 Lorraine Michaels Canterbury England, playmate (April, 1981)
1958 Ria Brieffies Dutch vocalist (Dolly Dots)
1959 John Arthur Wilson Ceres CA, PGA golfer (1994 Anheuser-Busch-4th)
1960 Cindy Figg-Currier Mt Pleasant MI, golfer (1994 British Open-6th)
1960 Gloria von Thurm un Taxis Munich German Federal Republic, Princess
1960 Maria Gloria von Schönberg-Glauchau wife of prince Thurn un Taxis
1960 Naruhito crown prince of Japan
1962 Melinda Mays Augusta GA, playmate (February 1983)
1962 Michael Wilton rock guitarist (Queensrÿche-The Warning)
1963 Bobby Bonilla New York NY, outfielder (New York Mets, Baltimore Orioles, Marlins)
1963 Debbie Kruck Danbury CT, Ms Fitness USA (1994)
1963 Reza Abdoh theatre director
1963 Robert Collins keyboard player
1964 Byron Evans NFL linebacker (Philadelphia Eagles)
1964 Dana Katherine Scully fictional character (X-Files)
1964 John Norum rocker
1965 Helena Sukova Prague Czechoslovakia, tennis star (1985 US Open Women's Doubles)
1965 Kristin Davis actress (Melrose Place)
1965 Sylvie Guillem France, ballerina (Royal Ballet)
1966 Marc Price actor/comedian (Skippy-Family Ties)
1966 John Druce Peterborough, NHL right wing (Philadelphia Flyers, Los Angeles Kings)
1967 Gord Murphy Willowdale, NHL defenseman (Florida Panthers)
1967 Pam Blundell fashion designer
1967 Steven C Stricker Edgerton WI, PGA golfer (1994 Northern Telecom-2nd)
1968 Stephanie Seymour San Diego CA, actress/model (Sunny Side Up)
1969 Ed McDaniel NFL linebacker (Minnesota Vikings)
1969 Michael Campbell Hawera New Zealand, Australasia golfer
1971 Jason Keller Scarsdale NY, actor (Jason-Out of the Blue)
1971 Shane Keller Scarsdale NY, actor (Shane-Out of the Blue)
1971 Carin Hjalmarsson Koch Kungalv Sweden, golfer (1995 Pinewild-7th)
1971 Torsten Kienass Berlin Germany, hockey defenseman (Team Germany)
1972 Greg Hill NFL running back (Kansas City Chiefs)
1972 Jamie Watson NBA forward (Utah Jazz)
1972 Ryan Grigson NFL guard/tackle (Detroit Lions)
1972 Steve Papin WLAF running back (Scotland Claymores)
1973 Robert Pipkins Staten Island NY, luger (Olympics-1994)
1974 Herschelle Gibbs cricketer (South African Test batsman 1996)
1974 Kenyon Cotton full back (Baltimore Ravens)
1975 Bohdan Utihrach Czechoslovakia, tennis star
1975 Chris Garner NBA guard (Toronto Raptors)
1975 Michael Tricario actor (Randy-Wonder Years)
1975 Pat Barnes quarterback (Kansas City Chiefs)
1976 Dmitriy Dudarev hockey forward (Team Kazakhstan Olympics-1998)
1976 Jeff O'Neill Richmond Hill, NHL center (Hartford Whalers)
1977 Angie Trostel Oxford OH, diver (Olympics-96)
1977 Dally Randriantefy Antananarivo Madag, tennis star (1993 Marseille)
1978 Karolina Rantamaki ice hockey left wing (Finland, Olympics-98)
1980 Yvonne Tousek Kitchener Ontario, gymnastic (Olympics-96)

Deaths which occurred on February 23:
0155 Polycarp disciple of Apostle John, arrested & burned at stake
1447 Eugene IV [Gabriele Condulmer], Italian Pope (1431-47), dies
1468 John Gutenberg German inventor (boekdrukkunst), dies
1554 Henry Grey Duke of Suffolk, Lady Jane Grey's father, executed
1607 Herman Herbertsz vicar, dies at about 60
1660 Charles X Gustaaf king of Sweden (1654-60), dies at 37
1662 Johann Crüger German organist/composer/music theorist, dies at 63
1669 Lieuwe van Aitzema Frisian historian, dies at 68
1682 Abraham de Wicquefort Dutch diplomat/historian, dies at 75
1704 Georg Muffat French/German organist/composer, dies at 50
1718 François Fagel Dutch field marshal/mayor of Nimegen, dies at 63
1766 Stanislaw Leszcynski duke of Lutherans/king of Poland, dies
1792 Joshua Reynolds English portrait painter (Simplicity), dies at 68
1797 Antoine d'Auvergne French opera composer (Coquette Trompée), dies at 83
1806 John Alcock composer, dies at 90
1807 François Guichard composer, dies at 61
1821 John Keats Romantic poet, dies of tuberculosis at 25 in Rome
1821 Marie-Anne Collot French sculptor, dies
1828 Mihály Fazekar Hungarian botanist/literary (Book of Spices), dies
1848 John Quincy Adams 6th US President (1825-1829), dies of a stroke at 80
1855 Carl Friedrich Gauss mathematician, dies
1867 George Thomas Smart composer, dies at 90
1884 Tambo Tambo Australian aboriginal/US circus attraction, dies at 23
1897 Woldemar Bargiel composer, dies at 68
1900 William Butterfield architect of the Gothic revival, dies
1902 Samuel R Gardiner British historian (Oliver Cromwell), dies at 72
1903 Albert Cahen composer, dies at 57
1903 Friedrich Grutzmacher composer, dies at 70
1906 Johann Hoch US murderer, executed
1913 Jimmy Sinclair cricketer (3 centuries in 25 Test South Africa career), dies
1915 Robert Smalls Reconstruction congressman, dies at 75 in South Carolina
1916 George Clement Martin composer, dies at 71
1920 Alexander Alexandrovich Il'yinsky composer, dies at 61
1922 Henri Landru executed for having 11 wives, in France
1924 Thomas Woodrow Wilson 28th US President (1913-21), dies
1927 Sveinbjorn Sveinbjornsson composer, dies at 79
1930 Horst Wessel German Nazi lyricist (Fahne Hoch), dies at 22
1930 Mabel Normand actress/director (Extra Girl), dies at 35
1931 Nellie Melba [Helen Mitchell], Australian soprano, dies
1934 Augusto Sandino Nicaraguan patriot, assassinated by National Guard
1934 Edward William Elgar English composer (Coronation Ode), dies at 76
1935 Jan Duiker Dutch architect (Hotel Gooiland), dies at 44
1937 Claude Buckenham cricketer (21 wickets in 4 Tests for England 1909-10), dies
1942 Stefan Zweig Austrian writer (Die Welt von Gestern), dies at 60
1944 Leo Hendrick Baekeland inventor (Bakelite), dies
1945 Aleksei Tolstoi Russian poet/writer (Pjotr Peroyj), dies at 62
1945 Aubrey Cousins Canadian sergeant (Victoria Cross), dies in battle
1955 Paul Claudel French poet/playwright (L'otage), dies at 86
1961 Wilf Ferguson cricket leg spinner (34 wickets for West Indies), dies
1965 Stan Laurel comedian (Laurel & Hardy), dies in California of heart attack at 74
1968 Edna Ferber US author (Giant, Showboat), dies at 80
1968 Fannie Hurst US author (Anatomy of Me), dies at 78
1969 Abd al-Aziz Abd al-Rahman al-Faisal al-Saud King Saudia, dies at 67
1969 Joseph Messner composer, dies at 75
1971 King Lockwood dies of stroke at 73
1972 Michael Taube composer, dies at 81
1974 Florence Rice actress (Girl in 1313, Carnival), dies at 63
1976 Fuzzy Knight actor (Gun Town, Ragtime Cowboy Joe), dies at 74
1976 L S Lowry painter, dies
1980 Robert Vandekerckhove Belgian politician, dies at 62
1983 Adrian Boult conductor, dies
1985 Alexander Scourby actor (Jesus, Shaggy Dog, Giant), dies at 71
1987 Esmond Knight actor (Black Narcissus, Henry V), dies at 80
1990 Annelien Kappeyne van de Coppello Dutch MP (Liberal), dies at 53
1990 James Gavin commandant US 82nd Airborn Division (Normandy), dies at 82
1990 Jose Napoleon Duarte President of Salvador (1984-89), dies at 62
1992 Jacquelyn Hyde actress (Dark, House of Terror), dies at 61
1992 Markos Vafiades leader (ELAS, 1943-49), dies
1993 Edwin Louis Battle actor (Almost Blue, Chase), dies of stroke at 33
1994 Stuart Berger doctor (Immune Power Diet), dies from obesity at 40
1995 Art Kane photographer, dies at 69
1995 David Melvin English Franklin singer, dies at 52
1995 James Herriot Scot author (All Creatures Great & Small), dies at 78
1995 Norman Hunter writer, dies at 95
1995 Peter Guy Wykeham Fighter Pilot-Barnes dies at 79
1996 Freddie Stocks cricket (center on debut & wicket on 1st ball, Notts), dies
1996 George Alan Dawson jazz drummer/teacher, dies at 66
1996 Joseph Walker Barr banker/politician, dies at 78
1997 Oscar Lewenstein impressario, dies at 80
1997 Tony Williams jazz musician, dies at 51
1998 Philip Abbott actor (Arthur Ward-FBI), dies at 74

On this day...
0303 Emperor Diocletian orders general persecution of Christians
1455 Johannes Gutenberg prints 1st book, the Bible (estimated date)
1574 France begins 5th Holy War against Huguenots
1660 Charles XI becomes king of Sweden
1668 Fire in Wiener Hofburg in Vienna, emperor Leopold I rescued
1672 Joan Blaeus publishers destroyed by fire in Amsterdam
1689 Dutch prince William III proclaimed king of England
1778 Baron von Steuben joins the Continental Army at Valley Forge
1792 Humane Society of Massachusetts incorporated (erected life-saving stations for distressed mariners)
1792 Joseph Haydn's 94th Symphony in G, premieres
1804 Conspirators against Napoleon, for restoration of Louis XVIII
1813 1st US raw cotton-to-cloth mill founded in Waltham MA
1820 Cato Street conspiracy uncovered
1821 College of Apothecaries organized in Philadelphia; 1st US pharmacy college
1822 Boston is incorporated as a city
1836 Alamo besieged by Santa Anna; entire garrison eventually killed
1846 Polish revolutionaries march on Cracow, but are defeated
1847 Battle of Buena Vista, México; Zachary Taylor defeats Mexicans
1852 "H M S Birkenhead" sinks off South Africa killing 420 troops
1854 Great-Britain & Orange Free state sign Convention of Bloemfontein
1861 By popular referendum, Texas becomes 7th state to secede from US
1861 Dutch Premier Floris A van Hall resigns
1861 President-elect Lincoln arrives secretly in Washington DC to take office
1869 Louisiana governor signs public accommodations law
1870 Mississippi is re-admitted to US
1874 Major Walter Winfield patents game called "sphairistike" (lawn tennis)
1883 Alabama becomes 1st US state to enact an antitrust law
1883 American Anti-Vivisection Society organized (Philadelphia)
1886 Aluminum manufacturing process developed
1886 London Times publishes world's 1st classified ad
1886 Tsjaikovski's symphony "Manfred" premieres
1887 Congress grants Seal Rocks to San Francisco
1887 French/Italian Riviera struck by Earthquake; 2,000 die
1892 1st college student government established, Bryn Mawr PA
1894 Stanley Cup Montréal AAA's awarded cup by trustees as Ottawa refuses to travel to Toronto to play
1895 William Heard, AME minister & educator, named minister to Liberia
1895 Jaap Eden skates world record 10 km (17:56)
1896 Tootsie Roll introduced by Leo Hirshfield
1898 In France, Emile Zola is imprisoned for writing his "J'accuse" letter accusing government of anti-Semitism & wrongly jailing Alfred Dreyfus
1900 Steamer "Rio de Janeiro" sinks in San Francisco Bay
1900 Battle at Hart's Hill, South-Africa (Boers vs British army)
1903 Cuban state of Guantanamo leased to USA
1904 Control of Panama Canal Zone acquired by US for $10 million
1905 Rotary Club International established by 4 men in Chicago
1906 Tommy Burns beats Marvin Hart for heavyweight boxing champion in 20 rounds
1909 Russian tsar Nicolas II dissolves Finnish Diet
1910 1st radio contest held (Philadelphia)
1910 George Bernard Shaw's "Misalliance" premieres in London
1915 Germany sinks US ships Carib & Evelyn & torpedoes Norwegian ship Regin
1915 Nevada enforces convenient divorce law
1916 Congress authorizes McKinley Memorial $1 gold coin
1916 French artillery kills entire French 72nd division at Samogneux Verdun
1917 February revolution begins in Russia
1919 Benito Mussolini founds the Facist party of Italy
1921 1st US transcontinental air mail flight arrives in New York NY from San Francisco CA
1923 German Republic day with laws against worker
1923 Great Britain lowers import duty on German products from 26% to 5%
1927 President Coolidge creates Federal Radio Commission (FCC predecessor)
1934 Casey Stengel becomes manager of the Brooklyn Dodgers
1934 Coronation of King Leopold III of Belgium
1936 1st rocket air mail flight, Greenwood Lake NY
1938 Joe Louis KOs Nathan Mann in 3 for heavyweight boxing title
1939 Lou Thesz beats E Marshall in St Louis, to become wrestling champion
1940 Russian troops conquer Lasi Island
1940 Walt Disney's animated movie "Pinocchio", released
1942 Japanese sub fires on oil refinery in Ellwood CA
1943 General-Major Bradley arrives in Dakar & Marrakesh
1943 German troops pull back through Kasserine-pass Tunisia
1945 US Marines raise flag on Iwo Jima, famous photo & statue
1945 2nd Dutch government of Gerbrandy forms in London
1945 Canadian troops occupy Kalkar
1945 Operation Grenade General Simpson's 9th Army crosses Ruhr
1947 General Eisenhower opens drive to raise $170 million in aid for European Jews
1954 1st mass inoculation with Salk vaccine (Pittsburgh)
1954 Syrian army drives out President Adib el-Shishakli
1955 Edgar Faure forms French government
1956 20th Congress of CPSU closes in Moscow
1956 Russian party leader Khrushchev attacks memory of Stalin
1957 "Mr Wonderful" closes at Broadway Theater NYC after 383 performances
1958 5-time world driving champion Juan Fangio kidnapped by Cuban rebels
1958 Last Municipal arc light, Mission & 25th removed (installed in 1913)
1958 Arturo Frondizi elected President of Argentina
1958 USSR performs nuclear test at Novaya Zemlya USSR
1959 Betsy Rawls wins LPGA Lake Worth Golf Open
1959 KVIE TV channel 6 in Sacramento-Stockton CA (PBS) begins broadcasting
1960 Demolition begins on Brooklyn's Ebbets Field (opened in 1913)
1962 US performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site
1964 Charlie Finley signs a 4 year lease to keep A's in Kansas City
1965 Constance Baker Motley elected Manhattan Borough president
1966 Aldo Moro forms Italian government
1966 Military coup in Syria ends Bitar government
1966 Premier Obote grabs power in Uganda
1967 25th amendment (Presidential succession) declared ratified
1967 John Herbert's "Fortune & Men's Eyes" premieres in New York NY
1967 Ted Workman replaces Senator Keith Davey as CFL commissioner
1967 US troops begin largest offensive of Vietnam War
1968 Wilt Chamberlain becomes 1st NBAer to score 25,000 points
1969 Nayif Hawatimah forms Democratic People's Front for Liberation of Palestine
1969 WWVU (now WNPB) TV channel 24 in Morgantown WV (PBS) 1st broadcast
1970 Guyana becomes a republic (National Day)
1970 Holy Eucharist given by women for 1st time in Roman Catholic service
1971 George Harrison is fined & his driving license is suspended for 1 year as a result of several speeding tickets and a dispute with the police
1971 Lieutenant Calley confesses & implicates Captain Medina
1971 Boston Bruins begin 13 NHL game win streak
1973 Gold goes up $10 overnight to record $95 an ounce in London
1974 Teri Garr appears on Bob Newhart Show in "Confessions of an Orth"
1975 Amy Alcott wins LPGA Orange Blossom Golf Classic
1976 Owners announce spring training won't open without a labor contract
1978 20th Grammy Awards Hotel California, Fleetwood Mac, Debbie Boone win
1979 Frank Peterson Jr named 1st black general in Marine Corps
1979 George Harrison releases "George Harrison" album
1979 "Sarava" opens at Mark Hellinger Theater NYC for 140 performances
1980 Eric Heiden wins all 5 speed skating golds at Lake Placid Olympics
1980 Oil tanker explosion off Pilos, Greece, causes 37-million-gallon spill
1980 13th Winter Olympics games close at Lake Placid NY
1980 France performs nuclear test at Muruora Island
1981 People magazine features drug ordeal of Mackenzie & Papa John Phillips
1981 Spanish coup under Lieutenant-Colonel Antonio Tejero Molina fails
1982 Michael Frayn's "Noises Off" premieres in London
1983 USFL New Jersey Generals sign Heisman winner Herschel Walker (3 years-$5 million)
1983 25th Grammy Awards Rosanna, Toto IV, Men at Work win
1985 Indiana basketball coach Bobby Knight throws a chair during a game
1985 US Senate confirms Edwin Meese III as Attorney General
1986 Despite losing, Red Sox Wade Boggs gets largest arbitration ($1.35M)
1986 Mary Beth Zimmerman wins LPGA Standard Register/Samaritan Golf Classic
1986 Nelli Fiere-Cooman runs world record 60 meter indoor (7.00 seconds)
1987 Supernova 1987A in LMC 1st seen; 1st naked-eye supernova since 1604
1987 Dick Howser retires from managing Kansas City Royals, due to brain tumor
1987 Russian Writers Union accepts Boris Pasternak posthumous as member
1988 15th Winter Olympics games opens in Calgary, Alberta
1988 Chicago gives Cubs right to install lights & play up to 18 night games
1988 Yvonne van Gennip skates female record 3k (4:11.94)
1990 Ian Smith 173 New Zealand vs India, 136 balls, world record for no 9 bat
1991 US insists Iraq publicly announce it is leaving Kuwait by 12 PM EST
1991 Greg Haugen scores a split decision over Hector "Macho" Camacho
1991 Military coup in Thailand, Premier Choonhaven arrested
1991 North Carolina is 1st NCAA basketball team to win 1,500 games
1991 Patty Sheehan wins LPGA Orix Hawaiian Ladies Golf Open
1992 16th Winter Olympics games close in Albertville, France
1992 Andy Flower scores 115 on ODI debut, Zimbabwe vs Sri Lanka
1993 Gary Coleman wins $1,280,000 lawsuit against parents for high fees
1993 India complete a 3-0 series drubbing of England
1993 Sacramento Gold Miners admitted as CFL's 9th franchise (1st US team)
1994 Indians owner Richard Jacobs announces he will pay $10 million to name baseball field (Jacobs Field) at Gateway (becomes official 3/23)
1995 "Uncle Vanya" opens at Circle in Square Theater NYC for 29 performances
1995 Antoine Nduwayo appointed Premier of Burundi
1995 Dow Jones closes above 4,000 for 1st time (4,003.33)
1996 Mark Waugh scores 130 in World Cup vs Kenya, 207 w/brother Steve
1996 Rajindra Dhanraj takes 9-97 for Trinidad against Leeward Islands
1997 Ali Abu Kamal opens fire in Empire State Building & kills 1
1997 American Express Senior Golf Invitational
1997 Jeff Sluman wins Tucson Golf Classic
1997 NBC TV shows "Schindler's List", completely uncensored, 65 million watch
1997 Scientists in Scotland announced they succeeded in cloning an adult mammal, producing a lamb named "Dolly"
1997 Tucson Chrysler Golf Classic
1998 Howard Stern Radio Show premieres in Charleston SC on WAVF 96.1 FM
1998 Supreme Court lets Megan's Law stand
1998 Tornadoes in Florida kills at least 31

Note: Some Holidays are only applicable on a given "day of the week"

Brunei : National Day
Guyana : Republic Day (1970)
US : Iwo Jima Day (1945)
World : Brotherhood Day (1934) - - - - - ( Sunday )

Religious Observances
Ancient Rome : Terminalia; festival of Terminus, god of boundaries
Anglican, Lutheran, Roman Catholic : Memorial of St Polycarp, bishop of Smyrna, martyr
old Roman Catholic : Feast of St Peter Damian, bishop of Ostia/confessor/doctor (2/2)
Lutheran : Commemoration of Bartholomaeus Ziegenbalg, missionary

Religious History
155 Martyrdom of Polycarp, an early Church Father who was a disciple of the Apostle John. Arrested at age 86, Polycarp was burned at the stake for refusing to deny the Christian faith.
1744 Colonial missionary to the American Indians David Brainerd wrote in his journal: 'There is a God in heaven who over-rules all things for the best; and this is the comfort of my soul.'
1775 Anglican hymnwriter John Newton wrote in a letter: 'How great and honorable is the privilege of a true believer! That he has neither wisdom nor strength in himself is no disadvantage, for he is connected with infinite wisdom and almighty power.
1834 Scottish clergyman Robert Murray McCheyne wrote in his journal: 'Rose early to seek God and found Him whom my soul loveth. Who would not rise early to meet such company?'
1970 The Holy Eucharist was distributed by women for the first time in a Roman Catholic service.

Thought for the day :
" Love is sentimental measles. "
8 posted on 02/23/2003 7:17:09 AM PST by Valin (Age and Deceit, beat youth and skill)
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To: Warrior Nurse; JAWs; DryLandSailor; NikkiUSA; OneLoyalAmerican; Tester; U S Army EOD; sonsa; ...
Foxhole ping!

To be removed from this list, send me a blank private reply with "REMOVE" in the subject line. Thanks! Jen
33 posted on 02/23/2003 4:51:11 PM PST by Jen (The FReeper Foxhole - I can dig it!!!)
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To: SAMWolf
While walking to work last week with a gent who works two floors above me, we discovered that his father was in the motorized company that carried my parents and the other 2100+ ex-internees from the landing area on Laguna de Bay to the New Bilibid prison. His mother's cousin was also on the Bataan Death March with my grandfather. Small world.
68 posted on 02/24/2003 7:42:00 AM PST by Andyman
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