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Keyword: asat

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  • China Tests Anti-Satellite Missile

    11/09/2015 11:58:39 AM PST · by McGruff · 52 replies
    The Washington Free Beacon ^ | 11/9/2015 | Bill Gertz
    China recently conducted a flight test of a new missile capable of knocking out U.S. satellites as part of Beijing's growing space warfare arsenal. The test of a Dong Neng-3 exoatmospheric vehicle was carried out Oct. 30 from China's Korla Missile Test Complex in western China, said two defense officials familiar with reports of the test. A Chinese press report also provided details of what was said to be a missile defense interceptor flight test carried out Nov. 1. Photos of the missile's contrails were posted online.
  • China Tests Space Weapons As U.S. Pursues Space Disarmament

    11/18/2014 2:26:59 PM PST · by raptor22 · 8 replies
    Investor's Business Daily ^ | November 18, 2014 | IBD EDITORIALS
    Defense: Members of Congress warn that the State Department is working on arms accords to demilitarize space and ban anti-satellite weapons, leaving Russia and China with a huge lead in military space capabilities. On Jan. 17, 2012, then-Secretary of State Hillary Clinton issued a statement announcing the Obama administration's intention to work with the European Union on an International Code of Conduct for Outer Space Activities. It was supposed to be sort of a "rules of the road" for space-faring nations to deal with issues such as the accumulating space junk jeopardizing satellites and manned space activities such as the...
  • Why Is China Testing Satellite-Hijacking Space Weapons?

    10/03/2013 4:29:19 PM PDT · by James C. Bennett · 25 replies
    Gizmodo ^ | 3 Oct 2013 | Adam Clark Estes
    Last week, China tested out a satellite that's capable of grabbing and capturing other satellites as they orbit the Earth. This normally wouldn't be such a big deal, except that it amounts to China conducting a weapons test in space. And that's worrisome—especially to the Pentagon. So what's up with this space weapons test? First of all, we're not diving into a Star Trek-like future any time soon—at face value, the Chinese satellite test sounds rather benign. Experts are unclear about how exactly the test went down, but it's pretty clear that a satellite with a moveable arm reached out...
  • India's ABM test: proven ASAT capability or a paper tiger?

    03/21/2011 9:50:24 AM PDT · by Sancho1984
    The DC Space Examiner reported on March 6, 2011 that India performed a test of the interceptor missile portion of its ballistic missile defense system. The test, the sixth of the test series, was reportedly a success and a validation of the technology to be integrated into India's defense system. The interceptor is purportedly the final component to be tested. As a byline, V.K. Saraswat, Scientific Adviser to the Defence Minister and the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) Director-General, stated this latest success demonstrated India's capability to effectively neutralize satellites belonging to an adversary.[1] While not the primary purpose...
  • Lockheed Martin submits bid for Space Fence

    11/19/2010 12:00:38 AM PST · by ErnstStavroBlofeld · 11 replies ^ | 11/19/2010 | Brahmand.Com
    Lockheed Martin has submitted its proposal for the next phase of Space Fence, a program that will revamp the way the US Air Force identifies and tracks objects in space. Space Fence will replace the existing Air Force Space Surveillance System, or VHF Fence, which has been in service since the early 1960s. The new system’s initial operational capability is scheduled for 2015. The contract is valued at more than $3.5 billion. For this next phase of the Space Fence program, the Air Force will award up to two preliminary design review contracts worth up to a total of $214...
  • Space Wars: beginning of a new era

    11/18/2010 11:56:49 PM PST · by ErnstStavroBlofeld · 1 replies
    Brahmand.Com ^ | 11/19/2010 |
    On 11 January, 2007, China military tested its anti-satellite weapon or ASAT by hitting Fengyun-1C, a derelict Chinese weather satellite. The satellite was smashed into at least 900 pieces. The experiment drew considerable international criticism. The reports were confirmed by the then National Security Council spokesman Gordon Johndroe. For the first known time in history, a missile launched from the ground destroyed an orbiting satellite. This provocative action by China highlighted a new paradigm shift in the worldwide military strategy.
  • US Warns PRC of Anti-Sat Debris

    10/29/2010 11:02:53 PM PDT · by ErnstStavroBlofeld · 12 replies
    DoD Buzz ^ | 10/28/2010 | Colin Clark
    Earlier this month, the State Department learned that debris from the Chinese weather satellite destroyed in their 2007 anti-satellite test would be coming uncomfortably close to another — functioning — Chinese satellite. So, like any good neighbor, State told China about the possibility of a collision. In technical terms, the US shared conjunction analysis with our PRC brethren. But, as often happens with the fabulously opaque Chinese government, the US isn’t sure if China heard us or believed us. At a conference on space debris last week in Germany, a U.S. military officer spoke with someone presumed to be a...
  • India’s missile defense / anti-satellite nexus

    07/14/2010 4:30:21 PM PDT · by James C. Bennett
    The Space Review ^ | 5/10/2010 | Victoria Samson
    While China’s 2007 anti-satellite (ASAT) test and its missile defense intercept test earlier this year have attracted much attention and concern, another emerging space power has also been expressing its interest in developing those capabilities yet attracting very little notice: India. Given enthusiastic statements by Indian officials about what they see as the need for ASATs and the country’s continued missile defense efforts, this could be worrisome. Though most of the rhetoric can be chalked up to regional rivalry, and much of the grandstanding downplays the level of technical capacity that still needs to be developed, India’s plans for missile...
  • Report: China site of anti-satellite weapons test program believed located in western province

    06/19/2010 1:46:45 AM PDT · by ErnstStavroBlofeld · 6 replies · 322+ views ^ | 6/9/2010 |
    China most likely conducted its January 2007 anti-satellite weapon test in the Kuerle region of western Xinjiang province, according to a report by the Kanwa Asian Defense news service. The service reported June 1 that “reconnaissance satellite intelligence” identified “facilities that have appeared to the South of Kuerle.” Large phased array radar antenna are located in a desert region to the south of Kuerle. The two phased array radar are similar to the Arrow II ballistic missile interception system designed by Israel, the report said. Additionally, China’s Second Artillery, which is in charge of all missiles, has a missile test...
  • Polyus-Russian ASAT Weapon

    05/01/2010 12:13:43 AM PDT · by ErnstStavroBlofeld · 4 replies · 348+ views
    Astronautix ^ | unknown | Ed Grondine
    The Polyus military testbed was put together on a crash basis as an answer to America's Star Wars program. It was built around a surplus TKS manned spacecraft and was meant to test prototype ASAT and Star Wars defense systems. It failed to reach orbit, but it had succeeded, it would have been the core module of a new Mir-2 space station. Its mere presence could have decisively changed the shape of the Cold War in its final months. In 1985, it became clear that the Energia launch vehicle would be ready for launch before the Buran space shuttle that...
  • Russian company eyes offensive military satellite

    02/20/2010 1:25:37 AM PST · by ErnstStavroBlofeld · 3 replies · 304+ views
    RT,com ^ | 1/26/2010 | RT
    Leading Russian spacecraft producer Energia has presented a concept of a universal military satellite with offensive capabilities. The 20-ton orbiter with a life expectancy of 10 to 15 years would be powered by a 150 to 500 kilowatt nuclear reactor and will be able to “monitor territories and airspace, provide informational superiority – including in armed conflicts – and perform target designation and traffic control. It will also be offensive-capable,” said Energia head Vitaly Lopota, as cited by ITAR-TASS news agency. He did not specify what offensive capabilities the satellite would have; whether it will be able to target other...
  • Satellite Substitutes Seriously Sought

    01/28/2010 1:35:19 PM PST · by ErnstStavroBlofeld · 20 replies · 627+ views
    The Strategy Page ^ | 1/28/2010 | The Strategy Page
    U.S. Air Force is concerned about American dependence on space satellites, particularly the GPS birds. The air force believes China is developing the ability to carry out a major attack on American military satellites. Their proposed solution is to take GPS out of orbit, and make it portable. High flying aircraft, UAVs or blimps would take over satellite communications, surveillance and navigation (GPS) chores, although for smaller areas. This would make GPS, and other satellite functions, more resilient to attack. This is part of a trend in which military satellites are getting priced out of the market by cheaper manned...
  • Aims and Motives of China's Recent Missile Defense Test

    01/22/2010 9:13:16 PM PST · by ErnstStavroBlofeld · 267+ views
    Jamestown Foundation ^ | 1/21/2010 | Russell Hsiao
    The U.S. government announced on January 6 that it awarded the defense manufacturer, Lockheed Martin, a contract to build the Patriot Advanced Capability-3 (PAC-3) missiles for Taiwan. The agreement is part of an arms package that the United States agreed to sell to Taiwan in 2008 (eTaiwan news, January 7). The Indian government also recently declared that it was expanding its anti-ballistic missile system to include an anti-satellite program (ASM) (Space News, January 4). Following these announcements the People's Republic of China (PRC) announced on January 11 that it had successfully tested a "ground-based, midcourse missile interception technology." The Chinese...
  • India Targets China's Satellites

    01/22/2010 2:02:58 AM PST · by ErnstStavroBlofeld · 382+ views
    Thai-Asian News ^ | 1/22/2010 | Peter J Brown
    Memories in New Delhi run deep about how India's relative tardiness in developing strategic offensive systems [nuclear weapons] redounded in its relegation on 'judgment day' [when the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty was signed in 1968] to the formal category of non-nuclear weapons state," said Sourabh Gupta, senior research associate at Samuels International Associates in Washington, DC. "With its early support of the former US president George W Bush's ballistic missile defense program and its current drive to develop anti-ballistic missile/anti-satellite capability, New Delhi is determined not to make the same mistake twice," added Gupta. "If and when globally negotiated restraints are...
  • Space systems and missile defense in 2010

    01/18/2010 9:33:22 PM PST · by ErnstStavroBlofeld · 2 replies · 478+ views
    The Space Review ^ | 1/18/2010 | Taylor Dinerman
    The recent Chinese missile defense test is just one of many signs that anti-ballistic missile systems are the “must have” military fashion accessory of 2010. For China the need for such weapons is obvious: the only neighbors they have who lack a real or potential short- to medium-range missile capability are Laos, Burma, and perhaps Mongolia. All of their other neighbors, especially Russia, North Korea. and India, have been building up their rocket forces at a rapid rate. For both Europe and China, any effective BMD requires space-based early warning sensors similar to the US Defense Support Program satellites based...
  • Smashing RORSATs: the origin of the F-15 ASAT program

    01/15/2010 2:26:50 AM PST · by ErnstStavroBlofeld · 1 replies · 471+ views
    The Space Review ^ | 01/11/2010 | Dwayne Day
    In early 2008, when the United States Navy used a missile launched from a guided missile cruiser to shoot down a failed American reconnaissance satellite, many people in the United States and around the world interpreted it as a response to the Chinese test of an anti-satellite (ASAT) weapon a year before. Although the US government went out of its way to assert that the action was entirely prompted by concern that toxins in the satellite could reach a populated area, it is certain that, during the weeks leading up to the shootdown, officials in the government debated the political...
  • India Developing Anti-satellite Technology

    01/04/2010 9:11:57 PM PST · by ErnstStavroBlofeld · 5 replies · 499+ views
    Space News ^ | 1/04/2010 | By Peter B. de Selding
    India has begun development of lasers and an exoatmospheric kill vehicle that could be combined to produce a weapon to destroy enemy satellites in orbit, the director-general of India’s defense research organization said Jan. 3. “The kill vehicle, which is needed for intercepting the satellite, needs to be developed, and that work is going on as part of the ballistic missile defense program,” said V.K. Saraswat, director-general of the Defence Research and Development Organisation, which is part of India’s Ministry of Defence. In a televised press briefing during the 97th Indian Science Congress in Thiruvananthapuram, Saraswat said the program includes...
  • Soviet Star Wars

    12/10/2009 12:37:13 AM PST · by ErnstStavroBlofeld · 10 replies · 695+ views
    Air and Space Smithsonian ^ | 1/01/2010 | Dwayne A. Day And Robert G. Kennedy III
    It sounds like something from a James Bond movie: a massive satellite, the largest ever launched, equipped with a powerful laser to take out the American anti-missile shield in advance of a Soviet first strike. It was real, though—or at least the plan was. In fact, when Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev walked out of the October 1986 summit in Reykjavik, Iceland, because President Ronald Reagan wouldn't abandon his Strategic Defense Initiative, or SDI, the Soviets were closer to fielding a space-based weapon than the United States was. Less than a year later, as the world continued to criticize Reagan for...

    11/18/2009 9:08:49 PM PST · by bruinbirdman · 7 replies · 538+ views
    American Foreign Policy Council ^ | 11/18/2009 | Ilan Berman, ed.
    THE CASE FOR SPACE-BASED DEFENSE The growing interest in nuclear technology by countries such as Iran presages the possibility that one or more nations may attempt to harness such a capability in the form of an electro-magnetic pulse (EMP) attack against the United States, a prominent political scientist has warned. Such a scenario, writes Brian Kennedy of the Claremont Institute in the November 24th edition of the Wall Street Journal, is not far-fetched. "It would require the Iranians to be able to produce a warhead as sophisticated as we expect the Russians or the Chinese to possess. But that is...
  • Selling China The Rope To Hang Us

    10/16/2009 5:37:32 PM PDT · by raptor22 · 9 replies · 822+ views
    Investor;s Business Daily ^ | October16, 3009 | IBD staff
    National Security: On the eve of a visit by China's No. 2 ranking military officer, the Obama administration loosens export controls on technology that will benefit Chinese missile development. It's deja vu all over again. The Pentagon has announced that Chinese Gen. Xu Caihou will visit the United States and meet with Defense Secretary Robert Gates on Oct. 26. Xu is vice chairman of the People's Liberation Army Central Military Commission. While here, Xu will visit American military installations around the U.S., including the U.S. Pacific Command. Perhaps Xu will bring with him a note of thanks for the administration's...
  • Airborne Laser Completes 1st Test Against Missile

    08/14/2009 10:46:14 PM PDT · by gandalftb · 49 replies · 2,063+ views
    Boeing Missile Defense Systems ^ | Aug. 13, 2009 | Marc Selinger, Chuck Cadena
    EDWARDS AFB, CA - The Boeing Company and the US Missile Defense Agency successfully completed the Airborne Laser's (ABL) first in-flight test against an instrumented target missile, achieving a historic milestone.During the test, the modified Boeing 747-400F used its infrared sensors to find a target missile launched from San Nicolas Island, Calif. The battle management system aboard ABL issued engagement and target location instructions to the beam control/fire control system, which acquired the target and fired its two solid-state illuminator lasers to track the target and measure atmospheric conditions.ABL then fired a surrogate high-energy laser at the target, simulating a...
  • China Asat Test Called Worst Single Debris Event Ever (and Russia Rocket Explosion adds more)

    02/24/2007 12:44:44 AM PST · by TigerLikesRooster · 8 replies · 952+ views
    Aviation Week ^ | 02/11/07 | Frank Morring, Jr
    China Asat Test Called Worst Single Debris Event Ever Feb 11, 2007 By Frank Morring, Jr. Chinese delegates will have some explaining to do in Vienna later this month, when they sit down with representatives of other spacefaring nations to adopt international guidelines designed to mitigate the growing problem of man-made space debris in Earth orbit. The document drafted by a technical subcommittee of the U.N. Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space is aimed at preventing the sort of accidental events that have gradually engulfed Earth in a cloud of potentially destructive high-speed debris since the flight of...
  • Ramifications of China's ASAT Test

    02/06/2007 2:41:13 AM PST · by LJTailor1 · 5 replies · 496+ views
    Defense News via Johnib Wordpress Blog ^ | February 5, 2007 | James Hackett
    For more than 20 years, the world showed remarkable restraint, as no nation tested or deployed anti-satellite (ASAT) weapons. This restraint ended on Jan. 11 when China used a space-launch vehicle derived from its DF-21 medium-range missile to strike and destroy one of its own aging weather satellites. China’s test created an extensive debris field that could endanger many of the 850 active satellites on orbit, and even the manned space station. The test was no technical surprise since it has been known for years that China was working on various ASAT capabilities, including co-orbital micro-satellites designed to attach like...
  • Chinese missile destroys satellite in space

    01/19/2007 6:05:32 AM PST · by Rb ver. 2.0 · 3,571 replies · 19,841+ views
    The Telegraph ^ | 1/19/06 | Richard Spencer
    Britain has joined the US, Japan and Australia's condemnation of China after the communist country destroyed a satellite in space using a ballistic missile.The British embassy in Beijing said it had raised the test, the first of its kind for 20 years, with the Chinese foreign ministry noting that the Government believed it was “inconsistent” with China’s opposition to the development of space weapons. A spokesman refused to elaborate on the form the protest took or on the Chinese government’s response. Later, a Downing Street spokesman said: "We are concerned about the impact of debris in space and we expressed...
  • U.S. halts China space ventures

    02/02/2007 1:45:22 PM PST · by MARKUSPRIME · 27 replies · 672+ views
    The Bush administration has suspended plans to develop space ventures with China, including joint exploration of the moon, in reaction to Beijing's Jan. 11 test of an anti-satellite weapon that left orbiting debris threatening U.S. and foreign satellites. National Aeronautics and Space Administration spokesman Jason Sharp said the weapon test undermined an agreement reached between President Bush and Chinese President Hu Jintao during an April summit. "We believe China's development and testing of such weapons is inconsistent with the constructive relationship that our presidents have outlined, including on civil space cooperation," Mr. Sharp said. He said there were "some initial...
  • China Weapons Test Shakes Up World View

    01/23/2007 12:07:39 PM PST · by Ernest_at_the_Beach · 56 replies · 1,473+ views
    Las Vegas Sun ^ | January 23, 2007 at 11:55:13 PST | CHRISTOPHER BODEEN ASSOCIATED PRESS
    SHANGHAI, China (AP) - China has sent men into orbit and launched dozens of satellites, but its test of a satellite-killing weapon is shaking up perceptions about where the Chinese space program is headed. The test, confirmed by Beijing on Tuesday after nearly a two-week silence, has drawn criticism from the U.S. and Japan, and touched off fears of an arms race in space. The Chinese test "was an overtly military, very provocative event that cannot be spun any other way," said Rob Hewson, the London-based editor of Jane's Air-Launched Weapons. "So a bald assessment of that is that it's...
  • China's silence over anti-satellite test

    01/21/2007 9:54:50 PM PST · by CarrotAndStick · 4 replies · 368+ views
    PTI ^ | 22 Jan, 2007 1025hrs IST | PTI
    NEW YORK: American officials are puzzled over Chinese silence on their successful satellite destroying test but speculate that Chinese leaders might not have been fully aware of the timing or success of the test. Bush administration officials have said that they have not been unable to get even the most basic diplomatic response from China after their detection of a successful test to destroy a satellite 10 days ago. They were also uncertain whether China's top leaders, including President Hu Jintao, were fully aware of the test or the reaction it would engender; the New York Times quoted the officials...
  • U.S. tells China concerned by satellite-killer test

    01/18/2007 11:39:51 AM PST · by Abathar · 58 replies · 1,354+ views
    Reuters via Yahooooo ^ | 1/18/07 | Jim Wolf (Reuters)
    WASHINGTON (Reuters) - The United States, Australia and Canada have voiced concerns to China over a test in space of a satellite-killing weapon last week, the White House said on Thursday. "The U.S. believes China's development and testing of such weapons is inconsistent with the spirit of cooperation that both countries aspire to in the civil space area," National Security Council spokesman Gordon Johndroe said. "We and other countries have expressed our concern regarding this action to the Chinese." Using a ground-based medium-range ballistic missile, the test knocked out an aging Chinese weather satellite about 537 miles above the earth...
  • U.S. Military, Commercial Space Assets Vulnerable To Attack: Experts

    06/22/2006 4:10:54 PM PDT · by Paul Ross · 6 replies · 390+ views
    Defense Daily ^ | June 22, 2006 | Dave Ahearn
    U.S. Military, Commercial Space Assets Vulnerable To Attack: Experts Defense Daily 06/22/2006 Author: Dave Ahearn U.S. military and commercial satellites, long seen as above the fray and out of harm's way, are vulnerable to multiple types of attack, an assault that a determined enemy someday will attempt. So said military, government, industry and think tank experts testifying yesterday before the House Armed Services Committee strategic forces subcommittee. Defending against such an attack in the long-peaceful realm of space can be accomplished, but at a price: military, government and commercial satellite owners would have to provide more money to companies making...
  • U.S. deploys satellite jamming system

    10/29/2004 5:48:01 PM PDT · by knak · 30 replies · 1,014+ views
    reuters ^ | 10/29/04
    WASHINGTON, Oct 29 (Reuters) - The U.S. Air Force quietly has put into service a new weapon designed to jam enemy satellite communications, a significant step toward U.S. control of space. The so-called Counter Communications System was declared operational late last month at Peterson Air Force Base in Colorado Springs, the Air Force Space Command said on Friday in e-mailed replies to questions from Reuters. The ground-based jammer uses electromagnetic radio frequency energy to knock out transmissions on a temporary and reversible basis, without frying components, the command said. "A reversible effect ensures that during the time of need, the...
  • '85 COLD WAR FLASHBACK: Kerry interrupts immigration debate to halt the next day's ASAT test.

    10/23/2004 5:31:46 PM PDT · by TFine80 · 12 replies · 895+ views
    Congressional Record -- Senate -- 99th Cong. 1st Sess. -- 131 Cong Rec S 11330 | September 12, 1985 | John Kerry
    Today Cheney mentioned Kerry's weakness in the Cold War. Besides just voting to eliminate weapons systems along with other Democrats, I think it is important to isolate times when he took the initiative to weaken our position vis-a-vis the Soviet Union. I think this ridiculous episode is a great example and shows him getting smacked down by both Arizona GOP Senator Goldwater and Ohio Democratic Senator Glenn. Congressional Record -- Senate -- Thursday, September 12, 1985 -- 99th Cong. 1st Sess. -- 131 Cong Rec S 11330 Mr. DOLE. Mr. President, I understand this amendment will be offered by the...
  • Canadian Company Develops Commercial Road-Portable Space Launcher

    11/18/2003 10:42:28 AM PST · by B-Chan · 18 replies · 124+ views ^ | 2003.11.18 | Columbiad Launch Services
    Columbiad Launch Services is an exciting new commercial space launch company dedicated to providing low-cost access to space for everyone. We are currently developing a high-volume Industrial Sounding System based on gun propulsion technology which is scheduled to be fully operational by late 2004. The Industrial Sounding System Our Industrial Sounding System (ISS) is a fully portable gun launch system capable of providing low-cost sounding flights from any road accessible site on Earth. Economical glide probes are able of carrying payloads to altitudes of more than 100 km and our rocket assisted probes will carry payloads to 250 km or...
  • Possible space weapons of the future 'Rods from God' and beyond

    08/30/2003 4:26:50 PM PDT · by Destro · 98 replies · 798+ views ^ | Monday, July 28, 2003 | Jack Kelly
    <p>'Rods from God'</p> <p>In April, within 15 minutes of receiving a report that Saddam Hussein had entered a restaurant in Baghdad, a B-1B bomber dropped four 2,000-pound satellite-guided bombs on the place.</p> <p>It now appears Saddam slipped out of the building by a secret exit. But if one space-based weapon now being researched had been orbiting above Iraq -- and had worked as envisioned -- Saddam almost certainly wouldn't have got away.</p>
  • US Space Assets in the Event of Hostilities with China (Vanity - from April 20, 2001)

    06/09/2003 8:17:33 AM PDT · by Edward Watson · 6 replies · 267+ views
    Self ^ | April 20, 2001 | Edward Watson
    US Space Assets in the Event of Hostilities with China The exposed soft underbelly of the United States By Edward K. Watson (April 20, 2001) -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- China is rapidly becoming America’s next rival and its aggression and apparent alacrity for confronting the US seems to make a military conflict inevitable. Beijing realizes it lacks the military capability to engage US forces in symmetrical warfare and has consequently focused its efforts on asymmetrical means to neutralize American strength. Since China’s forces can’t survive a head-to-head confrontation against US forces, it has turned its attention to targeting America’s over-reliance on highly...
  • China's Space Agenda

    04/12/2002 10:38:21 AM PDT · by batter · 2 replies · 158+ views
    The Jamestown Foundation ^ | 11 April, 2002 | Richard D. Fisher, Jr.
    China's recent successful third uninhabited test of its Shenzhou manned space capsule serves to highlight the political, military and diplomatic agendas of its manned space program. But before the United States and Europe can craft a proper response to either the test or the agendas, they need to understand China's goals. PROGRESS REPORT China's third Project 921-1 man-rated space capsule was launched from the Jiuquan Space Launch Center on March 25. The 7.8 ton craft is a larger and extensively modified version of the Russian Soyuz, consisting of three modules for propulsion, descent and orbital activities. Nicknamed the Shenzhou (Divine...