Posts by annalex

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  • Catholic and Orthodox Theologians ‘Reach Landmark Agreement’

    09/25/2016 11:13:50 AM PDT · 4 of 4
    annalex to marshmallow; piusv
    From Asia News, linked in the posted article:

    This was announced by the Synodal Department for External Church Relations of the Moscow Patriarchate, which in a statement on its website also pointed out to future challenges. According to Moscow, "it will be difficult to move forward in the dialogue, if the question of the ecclesiological and canonical consequences of Uniatism" (derogatory term which indicates the Greek-Catholic Ukrainian church of Eastern rite but loyal to the Pope)  remains unresolved.

    [...]

    According to the Moscow Patriarchate, the consensus has been reached, even if the Georgian Orthodox Church "disagreed with the individual paragraphs" of the document. The Georgian objection is contained in a note in the final communiqué adopted by the plenary session. A side note, in this regard, will also be inserted in the joint document, which will be published soon by the Commission. It is an encouraging decision, some commentators have pointed out, as the Orthodox have not allowed the objections of the Georgian Church to prevent the adoption of the document.

    The conciliatory stance of the Russians is notable; I also think that it goes against the strong anti-Catholic sentiment among the Russians laity. We should be aware of the fact that the Russian Orthodox Church (Moscow Patriarchate) has become somewhat a branch of Putin's dictatorship, and Putin seeks to find ways toward re-admission of Russia in the West. This is one of them, and it is likely to be a fake rapprochement.

    However, the work on the deeper understanding of episcopacy and papacy in the early unified church is a good thing by itself. Russia used to block it vehemently. Now that it does not, hopefully something of lasting value can be worked out.

  • Catholic Caucus: Sunday Mass Readings, 09-25-16, Twenty-sixth Sunday in Ordinary Time

    09/25/2016 10:57:42 AM PDT · 34 of 51
    annalex to annalex


    Dives and Lazarus

    Attribution unknown

  • Catholic Caucus: Sunday Mass Readings, 09-25-16, Twenty-sixth Sunday in Ordinary Time

    09/25/2016 10:57:13 AM PDT · 33 of 51
    annalex to annalex
    19. There was a certain rich man, which was clothed in purple and fine linen, and fared sumptuously every day:
    20. And there was a certain beggar named Lazarus, which was laid at his gate, full of sores,
    21. And desiring to be fed with the crumbs which fell from the rich man's table: moreover the dogs came and licked his sores.

    BEDE; Our Lord had just before advised the making friends of the Mammon of unrighteousness, which the Pharisees derided. He next confirms by examples what he had set before them, saying, There was a certain rich man, &c.

    CHRYS. There was, not is, because he had passed away as a fleeting shadow.

    AMBROSE; But not all poverty is holy, or all riches criminal, but as luxury disgraces riches, so does holiness commend poverty.

    It follows, And be was clothed in purple and fine linen.

    BEDE; Purple, the color of the royal robe, is obtained from sea shells, which are scraped with a knife. Byssus is a kind of white and very fine linen.

    GREG. Now if the wearing of fine and precious robes were not a fault, word of God would never have so carefully expressed this. For no one seeks costly garments except for vainglory, that he may seem more honorable than others; for no one wishes to be clothed with such, where he cannot be seen by others.

    CHRYS. Ashes, dust, and earth he covered with purple, and silk; or ashes, dust, and earth bore upon them purple and silk. As his garments were, so was also his food. Therefore with us also as our food is, such let our clothing be Hence it follows, And he fared sumptuously everyday.

    GREG. And here we must narrowly watch ourselves, seeing that banquets can scarcely be celebrated blamelessly, for almost always luxury accompanies feasting; and when the body is swallowed up in the delight of refreshing itself, the heart relaxes to empty joys.

    It follows, And there was a certain beggar named Lazarus.

    AMBROSE; This seems rather a narrative than a parable, since the name is also expressed.

    CHRYS. But a parable is that in which an example is given, while the names are omitted. Lazarus is interpreted, "one who was assisted." For he was poor, and the Lord helped him.

    CYRIL; Or else; This discourse concerning the rich man and Lazarus was written after the manner of a comparison in a parable, to declare that they who abound in earthly riches, unless they will relieve the necessities of the poor, shall meet with a heavy condemnation. But the tradition of the Jews relates that there was at that time in Jerusalem a certain Lazarus who was afflicted with extreme poverty and sickness, whom our Lord remembering, introduces him into the example for the sake of adding greater point to His words.

    GREG. We must observe also, that among the heathen the names of poor men are more likely to be known than of rich. Now our Lord mentions the name of the poor, but not the name of the rich, because God knows and approves the humble, but not the proud. But that the poor man might be more approved, poverty and sickness were at the same time consuming him; as it follows, who was laid at his gate full of sores.

    PSEUDO-CHRYS. He lay at his gate for this reason, that the rich might not say, I never saw him, no one told me; for he saw him both going out and returning. The poor is full of sores, that so he might set forth in his own body the cruelty of the rich. You see the death of your body lying before the gate, and you pity not. If you regard not the commands of God, at least have compassion on your own state, and fear lest also you become such as he. But sickness has some comfort if it receives help. How great then was the punishment in that body, in which with such wounds he remembered not the pain of his sores, but only his hunger; for it follows, desiring to be fed with the crumbs, &c. As if he said, What you throw away from your table, afford for alms, make your losses gain.

    AMBROSE; But the insolence and pride of the wealthy is manifested afterwards by the clearest tokens, for it follows, and no one gave to him. For so unmindful are they of the condition of mankind, that as if placed above nature they derive from the wretchedness of the poor an incitement to their own pleasure, they laugh at the destitute, they mock the needy, and rob those whom they ought to pity.

    AUG. For the covetousness of the rich is insatiable, it neither fears God nor regards man, spares not a father, keeps not its fealty to a friend, oppresses the widow, attacks the property of a ward.

    GREG. Moreover the poor man saw the rich as he went forth surrounded by flatterers, while he himself lay in sickness and want, visited by no one. For that no one came to visit him, the dogs witness, who fearlessly licked his sores, for it follows, moreover the dogs came and licked his sores.

    PSEUDO-CHRYS. Those sores which no man deigned to wash and dress, the beasts tenderly lick.

    GREG. By one thing Almighty God displayed two judgments. He permitted Lazarus to lie before the rich man's gate, both that the wicked rich man might increase the vengeance of his condemnation, and the poor man by his trials enhance his reward; the one saw daily him on whom he should show mercy, the other that for which he might be approved.

    22. And it came to pass, that the beggar died, and was carried by the angels into Abraham's bosom: the rich man also died, and was buried;
    23. And in hell he lift up his eyes, being in torments, and sees Abraham afar off, and Lazarus in his bosom.
    24. And he cried and said, Father Abraham, have mercy on me, and send Lazarus, that he may dip the tip of his finger in water, and cool my tongue; for I am tormented in this flame.
    25. But Abraham said, Son, remember that you in your lifetime received your good things, and likewise Lazarus evil things: but now he is comforted, and you are tormented.
    26. And beside all this, between us and you there is a great gulf fixed: so that they which would pass from hence to you cannot; neither can they pass to us, that would come from thence.

    PSEUDO-CHRYS. We have heard how both fared on earth, let us see what their condition is among the dead. That which was temporal has passed away; that which follows is eternal. Both died; the one angels receive, the other torments; for it is said, And it came to pass, that the beggar died, and was carried by the angels, &c. Those great sufferings are suddenly exchanged for bliss. He is carried after all his labors, because he had fainted, or at least that he might not tire by walking; and he was carried by angels. One angel was not sufficient to carry the poor man, but many come, that they may make a joyful band, each angel rejoicing to touch so great a burden. Gladly do they thus encumber themselves, that so they may bring men to the kingdom of heaven

    But he was carried into Abraham's bosom, that he might be embraced and cherished by him; Abraham's bosom is Paradise. And the ministering angels carried the poor man, and placed him in Abraham's bosom, because though he lay despised, he yet despaired not nor blasphemed, saying, This rich man living in wickedness is happy and suffers no tribulation, but I cannot get even food to supply my wants.

    AUG. Now as to your thinking Abraham's bosom to be any thing bodily, I am afraid lest you should be thought to treat so weighty a matter rather lightly than seriously. For you could never be guilty of such folly, as to suppose the corporeal bosom of one man able to hold so many souls, nay, to use your own words, so many bodies as the Angels carry thither as they did Lazarus. But perhaps you imagine that one soul to have alone deserved to come to that bosom. If you would not fall into a childish mistake, you must understand Abraham's bosom to be a retired and hidden resting-place where Abraham is; and therefore called Abraham's, not that it is his alone, but because he is the father of many nations, and placed first, that others might imitate his preeminence of faith.

    GREG. When the two men were below on earth, that is, the poor and the rich, there was one above who saw into their hearts, and by trials exercised the poor man to glory, by endurance awaited the rich man to punishment. Hence it follows, The rich man also cried.

    CHRYS. He died then indeed in body, but his soul was dead before. For he did none of the works of the soul. All that warmth which issues from the love of our neighbor had fled, and he was more dead than his body. But no one is spoken of as having ministered to the rich man's burial as to that of Lazarus. Because when he lived pleasantly in the broad road, he had many busy flatterers; when he came to his end, all forsook him. For it simply follows, and was buried in hell. But his soul also when living was buried, enshrined in its body as it were in a tomb.

    AUG. The burial in hell is the lowest depth of torment which after this life devours the proud and unmerciful.

    PSEUDO-BASIL. Hell is a certain common place in the interior of the earth, shaded on all sides and dark, in which there is a kind of opening stretching downward, through which lies the descent of the souls who are condemned to perdition.

    PSEUDO-CHRYS. Or as the prisons of kings are placed at a distance without, so also hell is somewhere far off without the world, and hence it is called the outer darkness.

    THEOPHYL. But some say that hell is the passing from the visible to the invisible, and the unfashioning of the soul. For as long as the soul of the sinner is in the body, it is visible by means of its own operations. But when it flies out of the body, it becomes shapeless.

    CHRYS. As it made the poor man's affliction heavier while he lived to lie before the rich man's gate, and to behold the prosperity of others, so when the rich man was dead it added to his desolation, that he lay in hell and saw the happiness of Lazarus, feeling not only by the nature of His own torments, but also by the comparison of Lazarus's honor, his own punishment the more intolerable. Hence it follows, But lifting up his eyes. He lifted up his eyes that he might look on him, not despise him; for Lazarus was above, he below. Many angels carried Lazarus; he was seized by endless torments. Therefore it is not said, being in torment, but torments. For he was wholly in torments, his eyes alone were free, so that he might behold the joy of another. His eyes are allowed to be free that he may be the more tortured, not having that which another has. The riches of others are the torments of those who are in poverty.

    GREG. Now if Abraham sate below, the rich man placed in torments would not see him. For they who have followed the path to the heavenly country, when they leave the flesh, are kept back by the gates of hell; not that punishment smites them as sinners, but that resting in some more remote places, (for the intercession of the Mediator was not yet come,) the guilt of their first fault prevents them from entering the kingdom.

    CHRYS. There were many poor righteous men, but he who lay at his door met his sight to add to his woe. For it follows, And Lazarus in his bosom. It may here be observed, that all who are offended by us are exposed to our view. But the rich man sees Lazarus not with any other righteous man, but in Abraham's bosom. For Abraham was full of love, but the man is convicted of cruelty. Abraham sitting before his door followed after those that passed by, and brought them into his house, the other turned away even them that abode within his gate.

    GREG. And this rich man forsooth, now fixed in his doom, seeks as his patron him to whom in this life he would not show mercy.

    THEOPHYL. He does not however direct his words to Lazarus, but to Abraham, because he was perhaps ashamed, and thought Lazarus would remember his injuries; but he judged of him from himself. Hence it follows, And he cried and said.

    PSEUDO-CHRYS. Great punishments give forth a great cry. Father Abraham. As if he said, I call you father by nature, as the son who wasted his living, although by my own fault I have lost you as a father. Have mercy on me. In vain you work repentance, when there is no place for repentance; your torments drive you to act the penitent, not the desires of your soul. He who is in the kingdom of heaven, I know not whether he can have compassion on him who is in hell. The Creator pities His creature. There came one Physician who was to heal all; others could not heal. Send Lazarus. You err, wretched man. Abraham cannot send, but he can receive. To dip the tip of his finger in water. You would not deign to look upon Lazarus, and now you desire his finger. What you seek now, you ought to have done to him when alive. You are in want of water, who before despised delicate food. Mark the conscience of the sinner; he durst not ask for the whole of the finger. We are instructed also how good a thing it is not to trust in riches. See the rich man in need of the poor who was before starving. Things are changed, and it is now made known to all who was rich and who was poor. For as in the theaters, when it grows towards evening, and the spectators depart, then going out, and laying aside their dresses, they who seemed kings and generals are seen as they really are, the sons of gardeners and fig-sellers. So also when death is come, and the spectacle is over, and all the masks of poverty and riches are put off, by their works alone are men judged, which are truly rich, which poor, which are worthy of honor, which of dishonor.

    GREG. For that rich man who would not give to the poor man even the scraps of his table, being in hell came to beg for even the least thing. For he sought for a drop of water, who refused to give a crumb of bread.

    BASIL; But he receives a meet reward, fire and the torments of hell; the parched tongue; for the tuneful lyre, wailing; for drink, the intense longing for a drop; for curious or wanton spectacles, profound darkness; for busy flattery, the undying worm. Hence it follows, That he may cool my tongue, for I am tormented in the flame.

    CHRYS. But not because he was rich was he tormented, but because he was not merciful.

    GREG. We may gather from this, with what torments he will be punished who robs another, if he is smitten with the condemnation to hell, who does not distribute what is his own.

    AMBROSE; He is tormented also because to the luxurious man it is a punishment to be without his pleasures; water is also a refreshment to the soul which is set fast in sorrow.

    GREG. But what means it, that when in torments he desires his tongue to be cooled, except that at his feasts having sinned in talking, now by the justice of retribution, his tongue was in fierce flame; for talkativeness is generally rife at the banquet.

    CHRYS. His tongue too had spoken many proud things. Where the sin is, there is the punishment; and because the tongue offended much, it is the more tormented.

    CHRYS. Or, in that he wishes his tongue to be cooled, when he was altogether burning in the flame, that is signified which is written, Death and life are in the hands of the tongue, and with the mouth confession is made to salvation; which from pride he did not do, but the tip of the finger means the very least work in which a man is assisted by the Holy Spirit.

    AUG. You say that the members of the soul are here described, and by the eye you would have the whole head understood, because he was said to lift up his eyes; by the tongue, the jaws; by the finger, the hand. But what is the reason that those names of members when spoken of God do not to your mind imply a body, but when of the soul they do? It is that when spoken of the creature they are to be taken literally, but when of the Creator metaphorically and figuratively. Will you then give us bodily wings, seeing that not the Creator, but man, that is, the creature, says, If I take not the wings in the morning? Besides, if the rich man had a bodily tongue, because he said, to cool my tongue, in us also who live in the flesh, the tongue itself has bodily hands, for it is written, Death and life are in the hands of the tongue.

    GREG. NYSS.. As the most excellent of mirrors represents an image of the face, just such as the face itself which is opposite to it, a joyful image of that which is joyful, a sorrowful of that which is sorrowful; so also is the just judgment of God adapted to our dispositions. Wherefore the rich man because he pitied not the poor as he lay at his gate, when he needs mercy for himself, is not heard, for it follows, And Abraham said to him, Son, &c.

    CHRYS. Behold the kindness of the Patriarch; he calls him son, (which may express his tenderness,) Yet gives no aid to him who had deprived himself of cure. Therefore he says, Remember, that is, consider the past, forget not that you delighted in your riches, and you received good things in your life, that is, such as you thought to be good. You could not both have triumphed on earth, and triumph here. Riches can not be true both on earth and below. It follows, And Lazarus likewise evil things; not that Lazarus thought them evil, but he spoke this according to the opinion of the rich man, who thought poverty, and hunger, and severe sickness, evils. When the heaviness of sickness harasses us, let us think of Lazarus, and joyfully accept evil things in this life.

    AUG. All this then is said to Him because he chose the happiness of the world, and loved no other life but that in which he proudly boasted; but he says, Lazarus received evil things, because he knew that the perishableness of this life, its labors, sorrows, and sickness, are the penalty of sin, for we all die in Adam who by transgression was made liable to death.

    CHRYS. He says, You received good things in your life, (as if your due;) as though he said, If you have done any good thing for which a reward might be due, you have received all things in that world, living luxuriously, abounding in riches, enjoying the pleasure of prosperous undertakings; but he if he committed any evil has received all, afflicted with poverty, hunger, and the depths of wretchedness. And each of you came hither naked; Lazarus indeed of sin, wherefore he receives his consolation; you of righteous wherefore you endure your inconsolable punishment; and hence it follows, But now he is comforted, and you are tormented.

    GREG. Whatsoever then you have well in this world, when you recollect to have done any thing good, be very fearful about it, lest the prosperity granted you be your recompense for the same good. And when you behold poor men doing any thing blameably, fear not, seeing that perhaps those whom the remains of the slightest iniquity defiles, the fire of honesty cleanses.

    CHRYS. But you will say, Is there no one who shall enjoy pardon, both here and there? This is indeed a hard thing, and among those which are impossible. For should poverty press not, ambition urges; if sickness provoke not, anger inflames; if temptations assail not, corrupt thoughts often overwhelm. It is no slight toil to bridle anger, to check unlawful desires, to subdue the swellings of vain-glory, to quell pride or haughtiness, to lead a severe life. He that does not these things, can not be saved.

    GREG. It may also be answered, that evil men receive in this life good things, because they place their whole joy in transitory happiness, but the righteous may indeed have good things here, yet not receive them for reward, because while they seek better things, that is, eternal, in their judgment whatever good things are present seem by no means good.

    CHRYS. But after the mercy of God, we must seek in our own endeavors for hope of salvation, not in numbering fathers, or relations, or friends. For brother does not deliver brother; and therefore it is added, And beside all this between us and you there is a great gulf fixed.

    THEOPHYL. The great gulf signifies the distance of the righteous from sinners. For as their affections were different, so also their abiding places do not slightly differ.

    CHRYS. The gulf is said to be fixed, because it cannot be loosened, moved, or shaken.

    AMBROSE; Between the rich and the poor then there is a great gulf, because after death rewards cannot be changed. Hence it follows, So that they who would pass from hence to you cannot, nor come thence to us.

    CHRYS. As if he says, We can see, we cannot pass; and we see what we have escaped, you what you have lost; our joys enhance your torments, your torments our joys.

    GREG. For as the wicked desire to pass over to the elect, that is, to depart from the pangs of their sufferings, so to the afflicted and tormented would the just pass in their mind by compassion, and wish to set them free. But the souls of the just, although in the goodness of their nature they feel compassion, after being united to the righteousness of their Author, are constrained by such great uprightness as not to be moved with compassion towards the reprobate. Neither then do the unrighteous pass over to the lot of the blessed, because they are bound in everlasting condemnation, nor can the righteous pass to the reprobate, because being now made upright by the righteousness of judgment, they in no way pity them from any compassion.

    THEOPHYL. You may from this derive an argument against the followers of Origen, who say, that since an end is to be placed to punishments, there will be a time when sinners shall be gathered to the righteous and to God.

    AUG. For it is shown by the unchangeableness of the Divine sentence, that no aid of mercy can be rendered to men by the righteous, even though they should wish to give it; by which he reminds us, that in this life men should relieve those they can, since hereafter even if they be well received, they would not be able to give help to those they love. For that which was written, that they may receive you into everlasting habitations, was not said of the proud and unmerciful, but of those who have made to themselves friends by their works of mercy, whom the righteous receive, not as if by their own power benefiting them, but by Divine permission.

    27. Then he said, I pray you therefore, father, that you would send him to my father's house:
    28. For I have five brethren; that he may testify to them, lest they also come into this place of torment.
    29. Abraham said to him, They have Moses and the prophets; let them hear them.
    30. And he said, Nay, father Abraham: but if one went to them from the dead, they will repent.
    31. And he said to him, If they hear not Moses and the prophets, neither will they be persuaded, though one rose from the dead.

    GREG. When the rich man in flames found that all hope was taken away from him, his mind turns to those relations whom he had left behind, as it is said, Then said he, I pray you therefore, father Abraham, to send him to my father's house.

    AUG. He asks that Lazarus should be sent, because he felt himself unworthy to offer testimony to the truth. And as he had not obtained even to be cooled for a little while, much less does he expect to be set free from hell for the preaching of the truth.

    CHRYS. Now mark his perverseness; not even in the midst of his torments does he keep to truth. If Abraham is your father, how say you, Send him to your father's house? But you have not forgotten your father, for he has been your ruin.

    GREG. The hearts of the wicked are sometimes by their own punishment taught the exercise of charity, but in vain; so that they indeed have an especial love to their own, who while attached to their sins did not love themselves. Hence it follows, For I have five brethren, that he may testify to them, lest they also come into this place of torment.

    AMBROSE; But it is too late for the rich man to begin to be master, when he has no longer time for learning or teaching.

    GREG. And here we must remark what fearful sufferings are heaped upon the rich man in flames. For in addition to his punishment, his knowledge and memory are preserved. He knew Lazarus whom he despised, he remembered his brethren whom he left. For that sinners in punishment may be still more punished, they both see the glory of those whom they had despised, and are harassed about the punishment of those whom they have unprofitably loved. But to the rich man seeking Lazarus to be sent to them, Abraham immediately answers, as follows, Abraham said to him, They have Moses and the prophets, let them hear them.

    CHRYS. As if he said, your brethren are not so much your care as God's, who created them, and appointed them teachers to admonish and urge them. But by Moses and the Prophets, he here means the Mosaic and prophetic writings.

    AMBROSE; In this place our Lord most plainly declares the Old Testament to be the ground of faith, thwarting the treachery of the Jews, and precluding the iniquity of Heretics.

    GREG. But he who had despised the words of God, supposed that his followers could not hear them. Hence it is added, And he said, Nay, father Abraham, but if one went to them from the dead they would repent. For when he heard the Scriptures he despised them, and thought them fables, and therefore according to what he felt himself, he judged the like of his brethren.

    GREG. NYSS.. But we are also taught something besides, that the soul of Lazarus is neither anxious about present things, nor looks back to aught that it has left behind, but the rich man, (as it were caught by birdlime,) even after death is held down by his carnal life. For a man who becomes altogether carnal in his heart, not even after he has put off his body is out of the reach of his passions.

    GREG. But soon the rich man is answered in the words of truth; for it follows, And he said to him, If they hear not Moses and the prophets, neither will they believe though one rose from the dead. For they who despise the words of the Law, will find the commands of their Redeemer who rose from the dead, as they are more sublime, so much the more difficult to fulfill.

    CHRYS. But that it is true that he who hears not the Scriptures, takes no heed to the dead who rise again, the Jews have testified, who at one time indeed wished to kill Lazarus, but at another laid hands upon the Apostles, notwithstanding that some had risen from the dead at the hour of the Cross. Observe this also, that every dead man is a servant, but whatever the Scriptures say, the Lord says. Therefore let it be that dead men should rise again, and an angel descend from heaven, the Scriptures are more worthy of credit than all. For the Lord of Angels, the Lord as well of the living and the dead, is their author. But if God knew this that the dead rising again, profited the living, He would not have omitted it, seeing that He disposes all things for our advantage. Again, if the dead were often to rise again, this too would in time be disregarded. And the devil also would easily insinuate perverse doctrines, devising resurrection also by means of his own instruments, not indeed really raising up the deceased, but by certain delusions deceiving the sight of the beholders, or contriving, that is, setting up some to pretend death.

    AUG. But some one may say, If the dead have no care for the living, how did the rich man ask Abraham, that he should send Lazarus to his five brethren? But because he said this, did the rich man therefore know what his brethren were doing, or what was their condition at that time? His care about the living was such that he might yet be altogether ignorant what they were doing, just as we care about the dead, although we know nothing of what they do. But again the question occurs, How did Abraham know that Moses and the prophets are here in their books? Whence also had he known that the rich man had lived in luxury, but Lazarus in affliction. Not surely when these things were going on in their lifetime, but at their death he might know through Lazarus' telling him, that in order that might not be false which the prophet says; Abraham heard us not. The dead might also hear something from the angels who are ever present at the things which are done here. They might also know some things which it was necessary for them to have known, not only past, but also future, through the revelation of the Church of God.

    AUG. But these things may be so taken in allegory, that by the rich man we understand the proud Jews ignorant of the righteousness of God, and going about to establish their own. The purple and fine linen are the grandeur of the kingdom. And the kingdom of God (he says) shall be taken away from you. The sumptuous feasting is the boasting of the Law, in which they gloried, rather abusing it to swell their pride, than using it as the necessary means of salvation. But the beggar, by name Lazarus, which is interpreted "assisted," signifies want; as, for instance, some Gentile, or Publican, who is all the more relieved, as he presumes less on the abundance of his resources.

    GREG. Lazarus then full of sores, figuratively represents the Gentile people, who when turned to God, were not ashamed to confess their sins. Their wound was in the skin. For what is confession of sins but a certain bursting forth of wounds. But Lazarus, full of wounds, desired to be fed by the crumbs which fell from the rich man's table, and no one gave to him; because that proud people disdained to admit any Gentile to the knowledge of the Law, and words flowed down to him from knowledge, as the crumbs fell from the table.

    AUG. But the dogs which licked the poor man's sores are those most wicked men who loved sin, who with a large tongue cease not to praise the evil works, which another loathes, groaning in himself, and confessing.

    GREG. Sometimes also in the holy Word by dogs are understood preachers; according to that, That the tongue of your dogs may be red by the very blood of your enemies; for the tongue of dogs while it licks the wound heals it; for holy teachers, when they instruct us in confession of sin, touch as it were by the tongue the soul's wound. The rich man was buried in hell, but Lazarus was carried by angels into Abraham's bosom, that is, into that secret rest of which the truth says, Many shall come from the east and the west, and shall lie down with Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob in the kingdom of heaven, but the children of the kingdom shall be cast into outer darkness. But being afar off, the rich man lifted up his eyes to behold Lazarus, because the unbelievers while they suffer the sentence of their condemnation, lying in the deep, fix their eyes upon certain of the faithful, abiding before the day of the last Judgment in rest above them, whose bliss afterwards they would in no wise contemplate. But that which they behold is afar off, for thither they cannot attain by their merits. But he is described to burn chiefly in his tongue, because the unbelieving people held in their mouth the word of the Law, which in their deeds they despised to keep. In that part then a man will have most burning wherein he most of all shows he knew that which he refused to do. Now Abraham calls him his son, whom at the same time he delivers not from torments; because the fathers of this unbelieving people, observing that many have gone aside from their faith, are not moved with any compassion to rescue them from torments, whom nevertheless they recognize as sons.

    AUG. By the five brothers whom he says he has in his father's house, he means the Jews who were called five, because they were bound under the Law, which was given by Moses who wrote five books.

    CHRYS. Or he had five brothers, that is, the five senses, to which he was before a slave, and therefore he could not love Lazarus because his brethren loved not poverty. Those brethren have sent you into these torments, they cannot be saved unless they die; otherwise it must needs be that the brethren dwell with their brother. But why seek you that I should send Lazarus? They have Moses and the Prophets. Moses was the poor Lazarus who counted the poverty of Christ greater than the riches of Pharaoh. Jeremiah, cast into the dungeon, was fed on the bread of affliction; and all the prophets teach those brethren. But those brethren cannot be saved unless some one rise from the dead. For those brethren, before Christ was risen, brought me to death; He is dead, but those brethren have risen again. For my eye sees Christ, my ear hears Him, my hands handle Him. From what we have said then, we determine the fit place for Marcion and Manichaeus, who destroy the Old Testament. See what Abraham says, If they hear not Moses and the prophets. As though he said, you do well by expecting Him who is to rise again; but in them Christ speaks. If you will hear them, you will hear Him also.

    GREG. But the Jewish people, because they disdained to spiritually understand the words of Moses, did not come to Him of whom Moses had spoken.

    AMBROSE; Or else, Lazarus is poor in this world, but rich to God; for not all poverty is holy, nor all riches vile, but as luxury disgraces riches, so holiness commends poverty. Or is there any Apostolical man, poor in speech, but rich in faith, who keeps the true faith, requiring not the appendage of words. To such a one I liken him who ofttimes beaten by the Jews offered the wounds of his body to be licked as it were by certain dogs. Blessed dogs, to whom the dropping from such wounds so falls as to fill the heart and mouth of those whose office it is to guard the house, preserve the flock, keep off the wolf ! And because the word is bread, our faith is of the word; the crumbs are as it were certain doctrines of the faith, that is to say, the mysteries of the Scriptures. But the Arians, who court the alliance of regal power that they may assail the truth of the Church, do not they seem to you to be in purple and fine linen? And these, when they defend the counterfeit instead of the truth, abound in flowing discourses. Rich heresy has composed many Gospels, and poor faith has kept this single Gospel, which it had received. Rich philosophy has made itself many gods, the poor Church has known only one. Do not those riches seem to you to be poor, and that poverty to be rich?

    AUG. Again also that story may be so understood, as that we should take Lazarus to mean our Lord; lying at the gate of the rich man, because he condescended to the proud ears of the Jews in the lowliness of His incarnation; desiring to be fed from the crumbs which fell from the rich man's table, that is, seeking from them even the least works of righteousness, which through pride they would not use for their own table, (that is, their own power,) which works, although very slight and without the discipline of perseverance in a good life, sometimes at least they might do by chance, as crumbs frequently fall from the table. The wounds are the sufferings of our Lord, the dogs who licked them are the Gentiles, whom the Jews called unclean, and yet, with the sweetest odor of devotion, they lick the sufferings of our Lord in the Sacraments of His Body and Blood throughout the whole world. Abraham's bosom is understood to be the hiding place of the Father, whither after His Passion our Lord rising again was taken up, whither He was said to be carried by the angels, as it seems to me, because that reception by which Christ reached the Father's secret place the angels announced to the disciples. The rest may be taken according to the former explanation, because that is well understood to be the Father's secret place, where even before the resurrection the souls of the righteous live with God.

    Catena Aurea Luke 16
  • Catholic Caucus: Sunday Mass Readings, 09-25-16, Twenty-sixth Sunday in Ordinary Time

    09/25/2016 10:56:18 AM PDT · 32 of 51
    annalex to Salvation
    Luke
      English: Douay-Rheims Latin: Vulgata Clementina Greek NT: Byzantine/Majority Text (2000)
      Luke 16
    19 There was a certain rich man, who was clothed in purple and fine linen; and feasted sumptuously every day. Homo quidam erat dives, qui induebatur purpura et bysso, et epulabatur quotidie splendide. ανθρωπος δε τις ην πλουσιος και ενεδιδυσκετο πορφυραν και βυσσον ευφραινομενος καθ ημεραν λαμπρως
    20 And there was a certain beggar, named Lazarus, who lay at his gate, full of sores, Et erat quidam mendicus, nomine Lazarus, qui jacebat ad januam ejus, ulceribus plenus, πτωχος δε τις ην ονοματι λαζαρος ος εβεβλητο προς τον πυλωνα αυτου ηλκωμενος
    21 Desiring to be filled with the crumbs that fell from the rich man's table, and no one did give him; moreover the dogs came, and licked his sores. cupiens saturari de micis quæ cadebant de mensa divitis, et nemo illi dabat : sed et canes veniebant, et lingebant ulcera ejus. και επιθυμων χορτασθηναι απο των ψιχιων των πιπτοντων απο της τραπεζης του πλουσιου αλλα και οι κυνες ερχομενοι απελειχον τα ελκη αυτου
    22 And it came to pass, that the beggar died, and was carried by the angels into Abraham's bosom. And the rich man also died: and he was buried in hell. Factum est autem ut moreretur mendicus, et portaretur ab angelis in sinum Abrahæ. Mortuus est autem et dives, et sepultus est in inferno. εγενετο δε αποθανειν τον πτωχον και απενεχθηναι αυτον υπο των αγγελων εις τον κολπον αβρααμ απεθανεν δε και ο πλουσιος και εταφη
    23 And lifting up his eyes when he was in torments, he saw Abraham afar off, and Lazarus in his bosom: Elevans autem oculos suos, cum esset in tormentis, vidit Abraham a longe, et Lazarum in sinu ejus : και εν τω αδη επαρας τους οφθαλμους αυτου υπαρχων εν βασανοις ορα τον αβρααμ απο μακροθεν και λαζαρον εν τοις κολποις αυτου
    24 And he cried, and said: Father Abraham, have mercy on me, and send Lazarus, that he may dip the tip of his finger in water, to cool my tongue: for I am tormented in this flame. et ipse clamans dixit : Pater Abraham, miserere mei, et mitte Lazarum ut intingat extremum digiti sui in aquam, ut refrigeret linguam meam, quia crucior in hac flamma. και αυτος φωνησας ειπεν πατερ αβρααμ ελεησον με και πεμψον λαζαρον ινα βαψη το ακρον του δακτυλου αυτου υδατος και καταψυξη την γλωσσαν μου οτι οδυνωμαι εν τη φλογι ταυτη
    25 And Abraham said to him: Son, remember that thou didst receive good things in thy lifetime, and likewise Lazareth evil things, but now he is comforted; and thou art tormented. Et dixit illi Abraham : Fili, recordare quia recepisti bona in vita tua, et Lazarus similiter mala : nunc autem hic consolatur, tu vero cruciaris : ειπεν δε αβρααμ τεκνον μνησθητι οτι απελαβες συ τα αγαθα σου εν τη ζωη σου και λαζαρος ομοιως τα κακα νυν δε ωδε παρακαλειται συ δε οδυνασαι
    26 And besides all this, between us and you, there is fixed a great chaos: so that they who would pass from hence to you, cannot, nor from thence come hither. et in his omnibus inter nos et vos chaos magnum firmatum est : ut hi qui volunt hinc transire ad vos, non possint, neque inde huc transmeare. και επι πασιν τουτοις μεταξυ ημων και υμων χασμα μεγα εστηρικται οπως οι θελοντες διαβηναι ενθεν προς υμας μη δυνωνται μηδε οι εκειθεν προς ημας διαπερωσιν
    27 And he said: Then, father, I beseech thee, that thou wouldst send him to my father's house, for I have five brethren, Et ait : Rogo ergo te, pater, ut mittas eum in domum patris mei : ειπεν δε ερωτω ουν σε πατερ ινα πεμψης αυτον εις τον οικον του πατρος μου
    28 That he may testify unto them, lest they also come into this place of torments. habeo enim quinque fratres : ut testetur illis, ne et ipsi veniant in hunc locum tormentorum. εχω γαρ πεντε αδελφους οπως διαμαρτυρηται αυτοις ινα μη και αυτοι ελθωσιν εις τον τοπον τουτον της βασανου
    29 And Abraham said to him: They have Moses and the prophets; let them hear them. Et ait illi Abraham : Habent Moysen et prophetas : audiant illos. λεγει αυτω αβρααμ εχουσιν μωσεα και τους προφητας ακουσατωσαν αυτων
    30 But he said: No, father Abraham: but if one went to them from the dead, they will do penance. At ille dixit : Non, pater Abraham : sed si quis ex mortuis ierit ad eos, pœnitentiam agent. ο δε ειπεν ουχι πατερ αβρααμ αλλ εαν τις απο νεκρων πορευθη προς αυτους μετανοησουσιν
    31 And he said to him: If they hear not Moses and the prophets, neither will they believe, if one rise again from the dead. Ait autem illi : Si Moysen et prophetas non audiunt, neque si quis ex mortuis resurrexerit, credent. ειπεν δε αυτω ει μωσεως και των προφητων ουκ ακουουσιν ουδε εαν τις εκ νεκρων αναστη πεισθησονται

    (*) v27, "for I have five brethren" belongs to the next verse in Greek and Latin

  • Thank you so very much......

    09/25/2016 10:54:00 AM PDT · 54 of 55
    annalex to caww

    Lord Jesus Christ, grant complete healing to Thy servant.

    In the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost amen.

  • Catholic Caucus: Daily Mass Readings, 09-24-16

    09/24/2016 4:32:40 AM PDT · 25 of 36
    annalex to annalex


    Christ Taken Prisoner

    Duccio di Buoninsegna

    1308-11
    Tempera on wood, 51 x 76 cm
    Museo dell'Opera del Duomo, Siena
  • Catholic Caucus: Daily Mass Readings, 09-24-16

    09/24/2016 4:32:09 AM PDT · 24 of 36
    annalex to annalex
    43b. - But while they wondered every one at all things which Jesus did, he said to his disciples,
    44. Let these sayings sink down into your ears: for the Son of man shall be delivered into the hands of men.
    45. But they understood not this saying, and it was hid from them, that they perceived it not: and they feared to ask him of that saying.

    CYRIL; Every thing that Jesus did claimed admiration from all men for a peculiar and divine light reflected upon each; of His works, according to the Psalms, honor and majesty will you lay upon him. Although all indeed man marveled at those things which He did, He however addresses what follows, not to all, but to His disciples; as it is said, But while they wondered every one, &c. He had shown His glory on the mount to His disciples, and after this delivered a man from an evil spirit, but it was necessary for Him to undergo His passion for our salvation. Now His disciples might have been perplexed, saying, "Have we then been deceived in that we thought him to be God?"

    That they might know then what was to happen to Him, He bids them lay up in their minds as a certain deposit the mystery of His passion, saying, Let these sayings sink down in your hearts. By the word your, He distinguishes them from others. For the multitude were not to know that He was about to suffer, but were rather to be assured that the dead would rise again, destroying death, lest they should be offended.

    TIT. BOST. While all thus were wondering at the miracles, He foretell His passion. For miracles do not save, but the cross conveys the benefit. Hence he adds, For the Son of man shall be delivered into the hands of men.

    ORIGEN; But it is not clearly expressed by whom He is to be delivered, for one says, that He is to be delivered up by Judas, another by the devil; but Paul says, that God the Father delivered Him up for us all; but Judas, as he delivered Him up for money, did it traitorously, the Father for His mercies' sake.

    THEOPHYL. Now our Lord in condescension to their infirmities and governing them with a kind of economy, did not permit them to understand what was said of the cross; as it follows, But they understood not.

    THEOPHYL; This ignorance of the disciples proceeds not so much from slowness of understanding as from affection, for since they were yet carnal and ignorant of the mystery of the cross, they could not believe that He whom they thought to be really God would suffer death. And because they were often accustomed to hear Him speak by figure, they thought that He meant figuratively something else, by what He said of His betrayal.

    CYRIL; Now some one perhaps will say, How were the disciples ignorant of the mystery of the cross, seeing that it was touched upon in several places by the shadows of the Law? But as Paul relates, Even to this day, when Moses is read, the vale is upon their hearts. It becomes then those who approach Christ, to say, Open you my eyes, that I may behold, the wonderful things out of your law.

    THEOPHYL. Mark also the reverence of the disciples in what follows, And, they feared to ask him of that saying. For fear is the first step to reverence.

    Catena Aurea Luke 9
  • Catholic Caucus: Daily Mass Readings, 09-24-16

    09/24/2016 4:31:43 AM PDT · 23 of 36
    annalex to Salvation
    Luke
      English: Douay-Rheims Latin: Vulgata Clementina Greek NT: Byzantine/Majority Text (2000)
      Luke 9
    42 ... ... ...επετιμησεν δε ο ιησους τω πνευματι τω ακαθαρτω και ιασατο τον παιδα και απεδωκεν αυτον τω πατρι αυτου
    43 And Jesus rebuked the unclean spirit, and cured the boy, and restored him to his father. Et increpavit Jesus spiritum immundum, et sanavit puerum, et reddidit illum patri ejus. εξεπλησσοντο δε παντες επι τη μεγαλειοτητι του θεου παντων δε θαυμαζοντων επι πασιν οις εποιησεν ο ιησους ειπεν προς τους μαθητας αυτου
    44 And all were astonished at the mighty power of God. But while all wondered at all the things he did, he said to his disciples: Lay you up in your hearts these words, for it shall come to pass, that the Son of man shall be delivered into the hands of men. Stupebant autem omnes in magnitudine Dei : omnibusque mirantibus in omnibus quæ faciebat, dixit ad discipulos suos : Ponite vos in cordibus vestris sermones istos : Filius enim hominis futurum est ut tradatur in manus hominum. θεσθε υμεις εις τα ωτα υμων τους λογους τουτους ο γαρ υιος του ανθρωπου μελλει παραδιδοσθαι εις χειρας ανθρωπων
    45 But they understood not this word; and it was hid from them, so that they perceived it not. And they were afraid to ask him concerning this word. At illi ignorabant verbum istud, et erat velatum ante eos ut non sentirent illud : et timebant eum interrogare de hoc verbo. οι δε ηγνοουν το ρημα τουτο και ην παρακεκαλυμμενον απ αυτων ινα μη αισθωνται αυτο και εφοβουντο ερωτησαι αυτον περι του ρηματος τουτου

    (*) The Greek passage begins with second half of verse 42; "εξεπλησσοντο δε παντες επι τη μεγαλειοτητι του θεου" begins verse 44 in the translations.

  • Catholic Caucus: Daily Mass Readings, 09-23-16, M, St. Pius of Pietrelcina (Padre Pio)

    09/23/2016 4:25:33 AM PDT · 25 of 39
    annalex to annalex


    The Stefaneschi Triptych: Martyrdom of Peter

    Giotto di Bondone

    c. 1330
    Tempera on panel
    Pinacoteca, Vatican
  • Catholic Caucus: Daily Mass Readings, 09-23-16, M, St. Pius of Pietrelcina (Padre Pio)

    09/23/2016 4:24:51 AM PDT · 24 of 39
    annalex to annalex
    18. And it came to pass, as he was alone praying, his disciples were with him: and he asked them, saying, Whom say the people that I am?
    19. They answering said, John the Baptist; but some say, Elias; and others say, that one of the old prophets is risen again.
    20. He said to them, But whom say you that I am? Peter answering said, The Christ of God.
    21. And he straitly charged them, and commanded them to tell no man that thing;
    22. Saying, The Son of man must suffer many things, and be rejected of the elders and Chief Priests and Scribes, and be slain, and be raised the third day.

    CYRIL; Our Lord having retired from the multitude, and being in a place apart, was engaged in prayer. As it is said, And it came to pass, as he was alone praying. For He ordained Himself as an example of this, instructing His disciples by an easy' method of teaching. For I suppose the rulers of the people ought to be superior also in good deeds, to those that are under them, ever holding converse with them in all necessary things, and treating of those things in which God delights.

    THEOPHYL; Now the disciples were with the Lord, but He alone prayed to the Father, since the saints may be joined to the Lord in the bond of faith and love, but the Son alone is able to penetrate the incomprehensible secrets of the Father's will. Every where then He prays alone, for human wishes comprehend not the counsel of God, nor can any one be a partaker with Christ of the deep things of God.

    CYRIL; Now His engaging in prayer might perplex His disciples. For they saw Him praying like a man, Whom before they had seen performing miracles with divine power. In order then to banish all perplexity of this kind, He asks them this question, not because He did not know the reports which they had gathered from without, but that He might rid them of the opinion of the many, and instill into them the true faith. Hence it follows, And he asked them, saying, Whom say the people that I am?

    THEOPHYL; Rightly does our Lord, when about to inquire into the faith of the disciples, first inquire into the opinion of the multitudes, lest their confession should appear not to be determined by their knowledge, but to be formed by the opinion of the generality, and they should be considered not to believe from experience, but like Herod to be perplexed by different reports which they heard.

    AUG. Now it may raise a question, that Luke says that our Lord asked His disciples, Whom do men say that I am? at the same time that He was alone praying, and they also were with Him; whereas Mark says, that they were asked this question by our Lord on the way; but this is difficult only to him who never prayed on the way.

    AMBROSE; But it is no trifling opinion of the multitude which the disciples mention, when it is added, But they answering said, John the Baptist, (whom they knew to be beheaded;) but some say, Elias, (whom they thought would come,) but others say that one of the old Prophets is risen again. But to make this inquiry belongs to a different kind of wisdom from ours, for if it were enough for the Apostle Paul to know nothing but Christ Jesus, and Him crucified, what more can I desire to know than Christ?

    CYRIL; But mark the subtle skill of the question. For he directs them first to the praises of strangers, that having overthrown these, He might beget in them the right opinion. So when the disciples had given the opinion of the people, He asks them their own opinion; as it is added, And He said to them, Whom say you that I am? How marked is you! He excludes them from the other, that they may avoid their opinions; as if He said, you who by my decree are called to the Apostleship, the witnesses of my miracles, whom do you say that I am? But Peter anticipated the rest, and becomes the mouthpiece of the whole company, and launching forth into the eloquence of divine love, utters the confession of faith, as it is added, Peter answering said, The Christ of God. He says not merely that He was Christ of God, but now He uses the article. Hence it is in the Greek. For many divinely accounted persons are in diverse ways called Christs, for some were anointed kings, some prophets. But we through Christ have been anointed by the holy Spirit, have obtained the name of Christ. But there is only one who is the Christ of God and the Father, He alone as it were having His own Father who is in heaven. And so Luke agrees indeed in the same opinion as Matthew, who relates Peter to have said, You are Christ, the Son of the living God, but speaking briefly Luke says that Peter answered, the Christ of God.

    AMBROSE; In this one name there is the expression both of His divinity and incarnation, and the belief of His passion. He has therefore comprehended every thing, having expressed both the nature and tile name wherein is all virtue.

    CYRIL; But we must observe, that Peter most wisely confessed Christ to be one, against those who presumed to divide Immanuel into two Christs. For Christ did not inquire of them, saying, Whom do men say the divine Word is? but the Son of man, whom Peter confessed to be the Son of God. Herein then is Peter to be admired, and thought worthy of such chief honor, seeing that Him whom he marveled at in our form, he believed to be the Christ of the Father, that is to say, that the Word which proceeded of the Father's Substance was become man.

    AMBROSE; But our Lord Jesus Christ was as at first unwilling to be preached, lest an uproar should arise; as it follows, And he straitly charged them, and commanded them to tell no man any thing. For many reasons He commands His disciples to be silent; to deceive the prince of this world, to reject boasting, to teach humility. Christ then would not boast, and cost you boast who are of ignoble birth? Likewise He did it to prevent rude and as yet imperfect disciples from being oppressed with the wonder of this awful announcement. They are then forbid to preach Him as the Son of God, that they might afterwards preach Him crucified.

    CHRYS. Timely also was our Lord's command that no one should tell that He was Christ, in order that when offenses should be taken away and the sufferings of the cross completed, a proper opinion of Him might be firmly rooted in the minds of the hearers. For that which has once taken root and afterwards been torn up, when fresh planted will scarcely ever be preserved. But that which when once planted continues undisturbed, grows up securely. For if Peter was offended merely by what he heard, what would be the feelings of those many who, after they had heard that He was the Son of God, saw Him crucified, and spit upon?

    CYRIL; It was the duty then of the disciples to preach Him throughout the world. For this was the work of those who were chosen by Him to the office of the Apostleship. But as holy Scripture bears witness, There is a time for every thing. For it was fitting that the cross and resurrection should be accomplished, an d then should follow the preaching of the Apostles; as it is spoken, saying, The Son of man must needs suffer many things.

    AMBROSE; Perhaps because the Lord knew that the disciples would believe even the difficult mystery of the Passion and Resurrection, He wished to be Himself the proclaimer of His own Passion and Resurrection.

    Catena Aurea Luke 9
  • Catholic Caucus: Daily Mass Readings, 09-23-16, M, St. Pius of Pietrelcina (Padre Pio)

    09/23/2016 4:24:21 AM PDT · 23 of 39
    annalex to Salvation
    Luke
      English: Douay-Rheims Latin: Vulgata Clementina Greek NT: Byzantine/Majority Text (2000)
      Luke 9
    18 And it came to pass, as he was alone praying, his disciples also were with him: and he asked them, saying: Whom do the people say that I am? Et factum est cum solus esset orans, erant cum illo et discipuli : et interrogavit illos, dicens : Quem me dicunt esse turbæ ? και εγενετο εν τω ειναι αυτον προσευχομενον καταμονας συνησαν αυτω οι μαθηται και επηρωτησεν αυτους λεγων τινα με λεγουσιν οι οχλοι ειναι
    19 But they answered, and said: John the Baptist; but some say Elias; and others say that one of the former prophets is risen again. At illi responderunt, et dixerunt : Joannem Baptistam, alii autem Eliam, alii vero unus propheta de prioribus surrexit. οι δε αποκριθεντες ειπον ιωαννην τον βαπτιστην αλλοι δε ηλιαν αλλοι δε οτι προφητης τις των αρχαιων ανεστη
    20 And he said to them: But whom do you say that I am? Simon Peter answering, said: The Christ of God. Dixit autem illis : Vos autem quem me esse dicitis ? Respondens Simon Petrus, dixit : Christum Dei. ειπεν δε αυτοις υμεις δε τινα με λεγετε ειναι αποκριθεις δε ο πετρος ειπεν τον χριστον του θεου
    21 But he strictly charging them, commanded they should tell this to no man. At ille increpans illos, præcepit ne cui dicerent hoc, ο δε επιτιμησας αυτοις παρηγγειλεν μηδενι ειπειν τουτο
    22 Saying: The Son of man must suffer many things, and be rejected by the ancients and chief priests and scribes, and be killed, and the third day rise again. dicens : Quia oportet Filium hominis multa pati, et reprobari a senioribus, et principibus sacerdotum, et scribis, et occidi, et tertia die resurgere. ειπων οτι δει τον υιον του ανθρωπου πολλα παθειν και αποδοκιμασθηναι απο των πρεσβυτερων και αρχιερεων και γραμματεων και αποκτανθηναι και τη τριτη ημερα αναστηναι
  • Catholic Caucus: Daily Mass Readings, 09-22-16

    09/22/2016 4:26:41 AM PDT · 25 of 36
    annalex to annalex


    Christ Before Herod

    Duccio di Buoninsegna

    1308-11
    Tempera on wood, 50 x 57 cm
    Museo dell'Opera del Duomo, Siena
  • Catholic Caucus: Daily Mass Readings, 09-22-16

    09/22/2016 4:22:29 AM PDT · 24 of 36
    annalex to annalex
    7. Now Herod the tetrarch heard of all that was done by him: and he was perplexed, because that it was said of some, that John was risen from the dead;
    8. And of some, that Elias had appeared; and of others, that one of the old prophets was risen again.
    9. And Herod said, John have I beheaded: but who is this, of whom I hear such things? And he desired to see him.

    CHRYS. It was not till a long time had passed that Herod took notice of the things that were done by Jesus, (to show Ho you the pride of a tyrant,) for he did not acknowledge them at first, as it is said, Now Herod heard, &c.

    THEOPHYL. Herod was the son of Herod the Great who slew the children, who was king, but this Herod was tetrarch. He inquired about Christ, who He was. Hence it follows, And he was perplexed.

    CHRYS. For sinners fear both when they know, and when they are ignorant; they are afraid of shadows, are suspicious about every thing, and are alarmed at the slightest noise. Such in truth is sin; when no one blames or finds fault, it betrays a man, when no one accuses it condemns, and makes the offender timid and backward. But the cause of fear is stated afterwards, in the words, Because that it was said of some.

    THEOPHYL. For the Jews expected a resurrection of the dead to a fleshly life, eating and drinking, but those that rise again will not be concerned with the deeds of the flesh.

    CHRYS. When Herod then heard of the miracles which Jesus was performing, he says, John have I beheaded, which was not an expression of boasting, but by way of allaying his fears, and bringing his distracted soul to recollect that he had killed. And because he had beheaded John, he adds, but who is this.

    THEOPHYL. If John is alive and has risen from the dead, I shall know him when I see him; as it follows, And he sought to see him.

    AUG. Now Luke, though he keeps the same order in his narrative with Mark, does not oblige us to believe that the course of events was the same. In these words too, Mark testifies only to the fact that others (not Herod) said that John had risen from the dead, but since Luke has mentioned Herod's perplexity, we must suppose either that after that perplexity, he confirmed in his own mind what was said by others, since he says to his servants, (as Matthew relates,) This is John the Baptist, he is risen from the dead, or these words of Matthew must have been altered so as to signify that he was still doubting.

    Catena Aurea Luke 9
  • Catholic Caucus: Daily Mass Readings, 09-22-16

    09/22/2016 4:21:48 AM PDT · 23 of 36
    annalex to Salvation
    Luke
      English: Douay-Rheims Latin: Vulgata Clementina Greek NT: Byzantine/Majority Text (2000)
      Luke 9
    7 Now Herod, the tetrarch, heard of all things that were done by him; and he was in a doubt, because it was said Audivit autem Herodes tetrarcha omnia quæ fiebant ab eo, et hæsitabat eo quod diceretur ηκουσεν δε ηρωδης ο τετραρχης τα γινομενα υπ αυτου παντα και διηπορει δια το λεγεσθαι υπο τινων οτι ιωαννης εγηγερται εκ νεκρων
    8 By some, that John was risen from the dead: but by other some, that Elias had appeared; and by others, that one of the old prophets was risen again. a quibusdam : Quia Joannes surrexit a mortuis : a quibusdam vero : Quia Elias apparuit : ab aliis autem : Quia propheta unus de antiquis surrexit. υπο τινων δε οτι ηλιας εφανη αλλων δε οτι προφητης εις των αρχαιων ανεστη
    9 And Herod said: John I have beheaded; but who is this of whom I hear such things? And he sought to see him. Et ait Herodes : Joannem ego decollavit : quis est autem iste, de quo ego talia audio ? Et quærebat videre eum. και ειπεν ηρωδης ιωαννην εγω απεκεφαλισα τις δε εστιν ουτος περι ου εγω ακουω τοιαυτα και εζητει ιδειν αυτον

    (*) "υπο τινων οτι ιωαννης εγηγερται εκ νεκρων" begins verse 8 in the translations.

  • Why Is Our Tolerance for Pain Greater Than It Is for Pleasure?

    09/21/2016 5:14:28 PM PDT · 16 of 17
    annalex to Scooter100

    This is not a “puff” post.

    I, too, have preferences about what I like to read, and Msgr. Pope articles are high on my list. Still, it would not occur to me to complain that someone has different interests. Further, it would not occur to me to bump up the very thread I want to complain about.

  • Catholic Caucus: Daily Mass Readings, 09-21-16, FEAST, St. Matthew, Apostle and Evangelist

    09/21/2016 4:29:39 AM PDT · 26 of 39
    annalex to annalex


    The Calling of Saint Matthew

    Caravaggio

    1599-1600
    Oil on canvas, 322 x 340 cm
    Contarelli Chapel, San Luigi dei Francesi, Rome
  • Catholic Caucus: Daily Mass Readings, 09-21-16, FEAST, St. Matthew, Apostle and Evangelist

    09/21/2016 4:29:12 AM PDT · 25 of 39
    annalex to annalex
    9. And as Jesus passed forth from thence, he saw a man, named Matthew, sitting at the receipt of custom: and he said to him, Follow me. And he arose, and followed him.
    10. And it came to pass, as Jesus sat at meat in the house, behold, many Publicans and sinners came and sat down with him and his disciples.
    11. And when the Pharisees saw it, they said to his disciples, Why does your Master eat with Publicans and sinners?
    12. But when Jesus heard that, he said to them, They that be whole need not a physician, but they that are sick.
    13. But go and learn what that means, I will have mercy, and not sacrifice: for I have not come to call the righteous, but sinners to repentance.

    CHRYS; Having wrought this miracle, Christ would not abide in the same place, lest He should rouse the envy of the Jews. Let us also do thus, not obstinately opposing those who lay in wait for us. And as Jesus departed thence, (namely from the place in which He had done this miracle,) he saw a man sitting at the receipt of custom, Matthew by name.

    JEROME; The other Evangelists from respect to Matthew have not called him by his common name, but say here, Levi, for he had both names. Matthew himself, according to that Solomon says, The righteous man accuses himself, calls himself both Matthew and Publican, to show the readers that none need despair of salvation who turn to better things, seeing He from a Publican became an Apostle.

    GLOSS; He says, sitting at the receipt of custom, that is, in the place where the tolls were collected. He was named Telonarius, from a Greek word signifying taxes.

    CHRYS; Herein he shows the excellent power of Him that called him; while engaged in this dangerous office He rescued him from the midst of evil, as also Paul while he was yet mad against the Church. He said to him, Follow me. As you have seen the power of Him that calls, so learn the obedience of him that is called; He neither refuses, nor requests to go home and inform his friends.

    REMIG; He esteems lightly human dangers which might accrue to him from his masters for leaving his accounts in disorder, but, he arose, and followed him. And because he relinquished earthly gain, therefore of right was he made the dispenser of the Lord's talents.

    JEROME; Porphyry and the Emperor Julian insist from this account, that either the historian is to be charged with falsehood, or those who so readily followed the Savior with haste and temerity, as if He called any without reason. They forget also the signs and wonders which had preceded, and which no doubt the Apostles had seen before they believed. Yea the brightness of effulgence or the hidden Godhead which beamed from His human countenance might attract them at first view. For if the loadstone can, as it is said, attract iron, how much more can the Lord of all creation draw to Himself whom He will!

    CHRYS; But why did He not call him at the same time with Peter and John and the others? Because he was then still in a hardened state, but after many miracles, and great fame of Christ, when He who knows the inmost secrets of the heart, perceived him more disposed to obedience, then He called him.

    AUG; Or, perhaps it is more probable that Matthew here turns back to relate something that he had omitted; and we may suppose Matthew to have been called before the sermon on the mount; for on the mount, as Luke relates, the twelve, whom He also named Apostles, were chosen.

    GLOSS; Matthew places his calling among the miracles; for a great miracle it was, a Publican becoming an Apostle.

    CHRYS; Why is it then that nothing is said of the rest of the Apostles how or when they were called, but only of Peter, Andrew, James, John, and Matthew? Because these were in the most alien and lowly stations, for nothing can he more disreputable than the office of Publican, nothing more abject than that of fisherman.

    GLOSS; As a meet return for the heavenly mercy, Matthew prepared a great feast for Christ in His house, bestowing his temporal goods on Him of whom he looked to receive everlasting goods. It follows, And it came to pass as he sat at meat in the house.

    AUG; Matthew has not said in whose house Jesus sat at meat (on this occasion), from which we might suppose, that this was not told in its proper order, but that what took place at some other time is inserted here as it happened to come into His mind; did not Mark and Luke who relate the same show that it was in Levi's that is, in Matthew's house.

    CHRYS; Matthew being honored by the entrance of Jesus into his house, called together all that followed the same calling with himself; Behold many Publicans and sinners came and sat down with Jesus, and with his disciples.

    GLOSS; The Publicans were they who were engaged in public business, which seldom or never can be carried on without sin. And a beautiful omen of the future, that he that was to be an Apostle and doctor of the Gentiles, at his first conversion draws after him a great multitude of sinners to salvation, already performing by his example what He was shortly to perform by word.

    GLOSS; Tertullian says that these must have been Gentiles, because Scripture says, There shall be no payer of tribute in Israel, as if Matthew were not a Jew. But the Lord did not sit down to meat with Gentiles, being more especially careful not to break the Law, as also He gave commandment to His disciples below, Go not into the way of the Gentiles.

    JEROME; But they had seen the Publican turning from sins to better things, and finding place of repentance, and on this account they do not despair of salvation.

    CHRYS. This they came near to our Redeemer, and that not only to converse with Him, but to sit at meat with Him; for so not only by disputing, or healing, or convincing His enemies, but by eating with them, He often times healed such as were ill-disposed, by this teaching us, that all times, and all actions, may be made means to our advantage. When the Pharisees saw this they were indignant; And the Pharisees beholding said to his disciples, Why does your Master eat with Publicans and sinners? It should be observed, that when the disciples seemed to be doing what was sinful, these same addressed Christ, Behold your disciples are doing what it is not allowed to do on the Sabbath. Here they speak against Christ to His disciples, both being the part of malicious persons, seeking to detach the hearts of the disciple from the Master.

    RABAN; They are in a twofold error; first, they esteemed themselves righteous, though in their pride they had departed far from righteousness; secondly, they charged with unrighteousness those who by recovering themselves from sin were drawing near to righteousness.

    AUG; Luke seems to have related this a little differently; according to him the Pharisees say to the disciples, Why do you eat and drink with Publicans and sinners? not unwilling that their Master should be understood to be involved in the same charge; insinuating it at once against Himself and His disciples. Therefore Matthew and Mark have related it as said to the disciples, because go it was as much an objection against their Master whom they followed and imitated. The sense therefore is one in all, and so much the better conveyed, as the words are changed while the substance continues the same.

    JEROME; For they do not come to Jesus while they remain in their original condition of sin, as the Pharisees and Scribes complain, but in penitence, as what follows proves; But Jesus hearing said, They that be whole need not a physician, but they that are sick.

    RABAN; He calls Himself a physician, because by a wonderful kind of medicine He was wounded for our iniquities that He might heal the wound of our sin. By the whole, He means those who seeking to establish their own righteousness have not submitted to the true righteousness of God. By the sick, He means those who, tied by the consciousness of their frailty, and seeing that they are not justified by the Law, submit themselves in penitence to the grace of God.

    CHRYS; Having first spoken in accordance with common opinion, He now addresses them out of Scripture, saying, Go and learn what that means, I will have mercy and not sacrifice.

    JEROME; This text from Osee is directed against the Scribes and Pharisees, who, deeming themselves righteous, refused to keep company with Publicans and Sinners.

    CHRYS; As much as to say; How do you accuse me for reforming sinners? Therefore in this you accuse God the Father also. For as He wills the amendment of sinners, even so also do I. And He shows that this that they blamed was not only not forbidden, but was even by the Law set above sacrifice; for He said not, I will have mercy as well as sacrifice, but chooses the one and rejects the other.

    GLOSS; Yet does not God condemn sacrifice, but sacrifice without mercy. But the Pharisees often offered Sacrifices in the temple that they might seem to men to be righteous, but did not practice the deeds of mercy by which true righteousness is proved.

    RABAN; He therefore warns them, that by deeds of mercy they should seek for themselves the rewards of time mercy that is above, and, not overlooking the necessities of the poor, trust to please God by offering sacrifice. Wherefore, He says, Go; that is, from the rashness of foolish fault-finding to a more careful meditation of Holy Scripture, which highly commends mercy, and proposes to them as a guide His own example of mercy, saying, I came not to call the righteous but sinners.

    AUG; Luke adds to repentance, which explains the sense; that none should suppose that sinners are loved by Christ because they are sinners; and this comparison of the sick shows what God means by calling sinners, as a physician does the sick to be saved from their iniquity as from a sickness: which is done by penitence.

    HILARY; Christ came for all; how is it then that He says He came not for the righteous? Were there those for whom it needed not that He should come? But no man is righteous by the law. He shows how empty their boast of justification, sacrifices being inadequate to salvation, mercy was necessary for all who were set under the Law.

    CHRYS; Whence we may suppose that He is speaking ironically, as when it is said, Behold now Adam is become as one of us. For that there is none righteous on earth Paul shows, All have sinned, and need glory of God. By this saying He also consoled those who were called; as though He had said, So far am I from abhorring sinners, that for their sakes only did I come.

    GLOSS; Or; Those who were righteous, as Nathanael and John the Baptist, were not to be invited to repentance. Or, I came not to call the righteous, that is, the feignedly righteous, those who boasted of their righteousness as the Pharisees, but those that owned themselves sinners.

    RABAN; In the call of Matthew and the Publicans is figured the faith of the Gentiles who first gaped after the gain of the world, and are now spiritually refreshed by the Lord; in the pride of the Pharisees, the jealousy of the Jews at the salvation of the Gentiles. Or, Matthew signifies the man intent on temporal gain; Jesus sees him, when He looks on him with the eyes of mercy. For Matthew is interpreted ' given,' Levi 'taken,' the penitent is taken out of the mass of the perishing, and by God's grace given to the Church. And Jesus said to him, Follow Me, either by preaching, or by the admonition of Scripture, or by internal illumination.

    Catena Aurea Matthew 9
  • Catholic Caucus: Daily Mass Readings, 09-21-16, FEAST, St. Matthew, Apostle and Evangelist

    09/21/2016 4:28:37 AM PDT · 24 of 39
    annalex to Salvation
    Matthew
      English: Douay-Rheims Latin: Vulgata Clementina Greek NT: Byzantine/Majority Text (2000)
      Matthew 9
    9 And when Jesus passed on from hence, he saw a man sitting in the custom house, named Matthew; and he saith to him: Follow me. And he rose up and followed him. Et, cum transiret inde Jesus, vidit hominem sedentem in telonio, Matthæum nomine. Et ait illi : Sequere me. Et surgens, secutus est eum. και παραγων ο ιησους εκειθεν ειδεν ανθρωπον καθημενον επι το τελωνιον ματθαιον λεγομενον και λεγει αυτω ακολουθει μοι και αναστας ηκολουθησεν αυτω
    10 And it came to pass as he was sitting at meat in the house, behold many publicans and sinners came, and sat down with Jesus and his disciples. Et factum est, discumbente eo in domo, ecce multi publicani et peccatores venientes, discumbebant cum Jesu, et discipulis ejus. και εγενετο αυτου ανακειμενου εν τη οικια και ιδου πολλοι τελωναι και αμαρτωλοι ελθοντες συνανεκειντο τω ιησου και τοις μαθηταις αυτου
    11 And the Pharisees seeing it, said to his disciples: Why doth your master eat with publicans and sinners? Et videntes pharisæi, dicebant discipulis ejus : Quare cum publicanis et peccatoribus manducat magister vester ? και ιδοντες οι φαρισαιοι ειπον τοις μαθηταις αυτου δια τι μετα των τελωνων και αμαρτωλων εσθιει ο διδασκαλος υμων
    12 But Jesus hearing it, said: They that are in health need not a physician, but they that are ill. At Jesus audiens, ait : Non est opus valentibus medicus, sed male habentibus. ο δε ιησους ακουσας ειπεν αυτοις ου χρειαν εχουσιν οι ισχυοντες ιατρου αλλ οι κακως εχοντες
    13 Go then and learn what this meaneth, I will have mercy and not sacrifice. For I am not come to call the just, but sinners. Euntes autem discite quid est : Misericordiam volo, et non sacrificium. Non enim veni vocare justos, sed peccatores. πορευθεντες δε μαθετε τι εστιν ελεον θελω και ου θυσιαν ου γαρ ηλθον καλεσαι δικαιους αλλα αμαρτωλους εις μετανοιαν
  • Protection units Nineveh Plain NPU fighters kindle the flame back

    09/20/2016 4:08:59 PM PDT · 11 of 11
    annalex to annalex

    Yugoslavia, former, comes, of course, with a bunch of asterisks attached.

    But excepting Bosnia and KLA occupation, they are not doing all that bad.

  • Catholic Caucus: Daily Mass Readings, 09-20-16, M, Sts. Andres Kim Tae-gon & Paul Chong, Companions

    09/20/2016 4:28:42 AM PDT · 25 of 36
    annalex to annalex


    Coronation of the Virgin

    Fra Angelico

    1434-35
    Tempera on panel, 213 x 211 cm
    Musée du Louvre, Paris
  • Catholic Caucus: Daily Mass Readings, 09-20-16, M, Sts. Andres Kim Tae-gon & Paul Chong, Companions

    09/20/2016 4:28:17 AM PDT · 24 of 36
    annalex to annalex
    19. Then came to him his mother and his brethren, and could not come at him for the press.
    20. And it was told him by certain which said, Your mother and your brethren stand without, desiring to see you.
    21. And he answered and said to them, My mother and my brethren are these which hear the word of God, and do it.

    TIT. BOST. Our Lord had left His kinsfolk according to the flesh, and was occupied in His Father's teaching. But when they began to feel His absence, they came to Him, as it is said, Then came to him his mother and his brethren. When you hear of our Lord's brethren you must include also the notions of piety and grace. For no one in regard of His divine nature is the brother of the Savior, (for He is the Only-begotten,) but He has, by the grace of piety, made us partakers in His flesh and His blood, and He who is by nature God has become our brother.

    THEOPHYL; But those who are said to be our Lord's brethren according to the flesh, you must not imagine to be the children of the blessed Mary, the mother of God, as Helvidius thinks, nor the children of Joseph by another wife, as some say, but rather believe to be their kinsfolk.

    TIT. BOST. His brethren thought that when He heard of their presence He would send away the people, from respect to His mother's name, and from His affection towards her, as it follows, And it was told him, Your mother and your brethren stand without.

    CHRYS. Think what it was, when the whole people stood by, and were hanging upon His mouth, (for His teaching had already begun,) to withdraw Him away from them. Our Lord accordingly answers as it were rebuking them, as it follows, And he answered and said to them, My mother and my brethren are they which hear the word of God, and do it, &c.

    AMBROSE; The moral teacher who gives himself an example to others, when about to enjoin upon others, that he who has not left father and mother, is not worthy of the Son of God, first submits Himself to this precept, not that He denies the claims of filial piety, (for it is His own sentence, He that knows not his father and mother shall die the death,) but because He knows that He is more bound to obey His Father's mysteries than the feelings of His mother. Nor however are His parents harshly rejected, but the bonds of the mind are shown to be more sacred than those of the body. Therefore in this place He does not disown His mother, (as some heretics say, eagerly catching at His speech,) since she is also acknowledged from the cross; but the law of heavenly ordinances is preferred to earthly affection.

    THEOPHYL; They then who hear the word of God and do it, are called the mother of our Lord, because they daily in their actions or words bring Him forth as it were in their inmost hearts; they also are His brethren where they do the will of His Father, Who is in heaven.

    CHRYS. Now He does not say this by way of reproof to His mother, but to greatly assist her, for if He was anxious for others to beget in them a just opinion of Himself, much more was He for His mother. And He had not raised her to such a height if she were always to expect to be honored by Him as a son, and never to consider Him as her Lord.

    THEOPHYL. But some take this to mean that certain men, hating Christ's teaching, and mocking at Him for His doctrine, said, Your mother and your brethren stand without wishing to see you; as if thereby to show His meanness of birth. And He therefore knowing their hearts gave them this answer, that meanness of birth harms not, but if a man, though of low birth, hear the word of God, He reckons him as His kinsman. Because however hearing only saves no one, but rather condemns, He adds, and does it; for it becomes us both to hear and to do. But by the word of God He means His own teaching. for all the words which He Himself spoke were from His Father.

    AMBROSE; In a mystical sense he ought not to stand without who was seeking Christ. Hence also that saying, Come to him, and be enlightened. For if they stand without, not even parents themselves are acknowledged; and perhaps for our example they are not. How are we acknowledged by Him if we stand without? That meaning also is not unreasonable, because by the figure of parents He points to the Jews of whom Christ was born, and thought the Church to be preferred to the synagogue.

    THEOPHYL; For they cannot enter within when He is teaching whose words they refuse to understand spiritually. But the multitude went before and entered into the house, because when the Jews rejected Christ the Gentiles flocked to Him. But those who stand without, wishing to see Christ, are they, who not seeking a spiritual sense in the law, have placed themselves without to guard the letter of it, and as it were rather compel Christ to go out, to teach them earthly things, than consent to enter in themselves to learn spiritual things.

    Catena Aurea Luke 8
  • Catholic Caucus: Daily Mass Readings, 09-20-16, M, Sts. Andres Kim Tae-gon & Paul Chong, Companions

    09/20/2016 4:27:46 AM PDT · 23 of 36
    annalex to Salvation
    Luke
      English: Douay-Rheims Latin: Vulgata Clementina Greek NT: Byzantine/Majority Text (2000)
      Luke 8
    19 And his mother and brethren came unto him; and they could not come at him for the crowd. Venerunt autem ad illum mater et fratres ejus, et non poterant adire eum præ turba. παρεγενοντο δε προς αυτον η μητηρ και οι αδελφοι αυτου και ουκ ηδυναντο συντυχειν αυτω δια τον οχλον
    20 And it was told him: Thy mother and thy brethren stand without, desiring to see thee. Et nuntiatum est illi : Mater tua et fratres tui stant foris, volentes te videre. και απηγγελη αυτω λεγοντων η μητηρ σου και οι αδελφοι σου εστηκασιν εξω ιδειν σε θελοντες
    21 Who answering, said to them: My mother and my brethren are they who hear the word of God, and do it. Qui respondens, dixit ad eos : Mater mea et fratres mei hi sunt, qui verbum Dei audiunt et faciunt. ο δε αποκριθεις ειπεν προς αυτους μητηρ μου και αδελφοι μου ουτοι εισιν οι τον λογον του θεου ακουοντες και ποιουντες αυτον
  • Protection units Nineveh Plain NPU fighters kindle the flame back

    09/20/2016 4:26:39 AM PDT · 10 of 11
    annalex to MadMax, the Grinning Reaper

    Yugoslavia, Bulgaria, Romania, also Greece and Armenia are Christian nations now.

    The Turks only exist as a nation because we stupidly propped them up.

    In the meanwhile there is a realization among the Arab Christians that if they are to survive and prosper, they need to fight for themselves. Which is what they are doing.

    What the outcomes of that be, I don’t know, but I know that God is with them.

  • Protection units Nineveh Plain NPU fighters kindle the flame back

    09/19/2016 4:27:52 AM PDT · 8 of 11
    annalex to MadMax, the Grinning Reaper

    The Christin soldiers retake Christian land because they are Christian, not because they have numbers.

  • Catholic Caucus: Daily Mass Readings, 09-19-16, OM, St. Januarius, Bishop and Martyr

    09/19/2016 4:24:06 AM PDT · 25 of 42
    annalex to annalex


    The Transfiguration of Our Lord
  • Catholic Caucus: Daily Mass Readings, 09-19-16, OM, St. Januarius, Bishop and Martyr

    09/19/2016 4:23:33 AM PDT · 24 of 42
    annalex to annalex
    16. No man, when he has lighted a candle, covers it with a vessel, or puts it under a bed; but sets it on a candlestick, that they which enter in may see the light.
    17. For nothing is secret, that shall not be made manifest; neither any thing hid, that shall not be known and come abroad.
    18. Take heed therefore how you hear: for whosoever has, to him shall be given; and whosoever has not, form him shall be taken even that which he seems to have.

    THEOPHYL; Having before said to His Apostles, To you it is given to know the mysteries of the kingdom of God, but to others in parables; He now shows that by them at length must the same mystery be revealed also to others, saying, No man when he has lighted a candle covers it with a vessel, or puts it under a bed.

    EUSEB. As if He said, As a lantern is lighted that it should give light, not that it should be covered under a bushel or a bed, so also the secrets of the kingdom of heaven when uttered in parables, although hid from those who are strangers to the faith, will not however to all men appear obscure. Hence he adds, For nothing is secret that shall not be made manifest, neither any thing hid that shall not be known, and come abroad. As if He said, Though many things are spoken in parables, that seeing they might not see, and hearing they might not understand, because of their unbelief, yet the whole matter shall be revealed.

    AUG. Or else in these words He typically sets forth the boldness of preaching, that no one should, through fear of fleshly ills, conceal the light of knowledge For under the names of vessel and bed, he represents the flesh, but of that of lantern, the word, which whosoever keeps hid through fear of the troubles of the flesh, sets the flesh itself before the manifestation of the truth, and by it he as it were covers the word, who fears to preach it. But he places a candle upon a candlestick who so submits his body to the service of God, that the preaching of the truth stands highest in his estimation, the service of the body lowest.

    ORIGEN; But he who would adapt his lantern to the more perfect disciples of Christ, must persuade us by those things which were spoken of John, for he was a burning and a shining light. It becomes not him then who lights the light of reason in his soul to hide it under a bed where men sleep, nor under any vessel, for he who does this provides not for those who enter the house for whom the candle is prepared, but they must set it upon a candlestick, that is, the whole Church.

    CHRYS. By these words he leads them to diligence of life, teaching them to be strong as exposed to the view of all men, and fighting in the world as on a stage. As if he said, Think not that we dwell in a small part of the world, for you will be known of all men, since it cannot be that so great virtue should lie hid.

    MAXIM. Or perhaps the Lord calls Himself a light shining to all who inhabit the house, that is, the world, since He is by nature God, but by the dispensation made flesh. And so like the light of the lamp He abides in the vessel of the flesh by means of the soul as the light in the vessel of the lamp by means of the flame. But by the candlestick he describes the Church over which the divine word shines, illuminating the house as it were by the rays of truth. But under the similitude of a vessel or bed he referred to the observance of the law, under which the word will not be contained.

    THEOPHYL; But the Lord ceases not to teach us to hearken to His word, that we may be able both to constantly, meditate on it in our own minds, and to bring it forth for the instruction of others. Hence it follows, Take heed therefore how you hear; for whosoever has, to him shall be given. As if he says, Give heed with all your mind to the word which you hear, for to him who has a love of the word, shall be given also the sense of understanding what he loves; but whoso has no love of hearing the word, though he deems himself skillful either from natural genius, or the exercise of learning, will have no delight in the sweetness of wisdom; for oftentimes the slothful man is gifted with capacities, that if he neglect them he may be the more justly punished for his negligence, since that which he can obtain without labor he disdains to know, and sometimes the studious man is oppressed with slowness of apprehension, in order that the more he labors in his inquiries, the greater may be the recompense of his reward.

    Catena Aurea Luke 8
  • Catholic Caucus: Daily Mass Readings, 09-19-16, OM, St. Januarius, Bishop and Martyr

    09/19/2016 4:23:08 AM PDT · 23 of 42
    annalex to Salvation
    Luke
      English: Douay-Rheims Latin: Vulgata Clementina Greek NT: Byzantine/Majority Text (2000)
      Luke 8
    16 Now no man lighting a candle covereth it with a vessel, or putteth it under a bed; but setteth it upon a candlestick, that they who come in may see the light. Nemo autem lucernam accendens, operit eam vase, aut subtus lectum ponit : sed supra candelabrum ponit, ut intrantes videant lumen. ουδεις δε λυχνον αψας καλυπτει αυτον σκευει η υποκατω κλινης τιθησιν αλλ επι λυχνιας επιτιθησιν ινα οι εισπορευομενοι βλεπωσιν το φως
    17 For there is not any thing secret that shall not be made manifest, nor hidden, that shall not be known and come abroad. Non est enim occultum, quod non manifestetur : nec absconditum, quod non cognoscatur, et in palam veniat. ου γαρ εστιν κρυπτον ο ου φανερον γενησεται ουδε αποκρυφον ο ου γνωσθησεται και εις φανερον ελθη
    18 Take heed therefore how you hear. For whosoever hath, to him shall be given: and whosoever hath not, that also which he thinketh he hath, shall be taken away from him. Videte ergo quomodo audiatis ? Qui enim habet, dabitur illi : et quicumque non habet, etiam quod putat se habere, auferetur ab illo. βλεπετε ουν πως ακουετε ος γαρ εαν εχη δοθησεται αυτω και ος εαν μη εχη και ο δοκει εχειν αρθησεται απ αυτου
  • Catholic Caucus: Sunday Mass Readings, 09-18-16, Twenty-fifth Sunday in Ordinary Time

    09/18/2016 9:37:55 AM PDT · 31 of 49
    annalex to annalex


    Christ the Savior

    Viktor Krivorotov, iconographer

  • Catholic Caucus: Sunday Mass Readings, 09-18-16, Twenty-fifth Sunday in Ordinary Time

    09/18/2016 9:37:14 AM PDT · 30 of 49
    annalex to annalex
    1. And he said to his disciples, There was a certain rich man, which had a steward; and the same was accused to him that he had wasted his goods.
    2. And he called him, and said to him, How is it that I hear this of you? give an account of your stewardship; for you may be no longer steward.
    3. Then the steward said within himself, What shall I do? for my lord takes away from me the stewardship: I cannot dig; to beg I am ashamed.
    4. I am resolved what to do, that, when I am put out of the stewardship, they may receive me into their houses.
    5. So he called every one of his lord's debtors to him, and said to the first, How much owe you to my lord?
    6. And he said, An hundred measures of oil. And he said to him, Take your bill, and sit down quickly, and write fifty.
    7. Then said he to another, And how much owe you? And he said, A hundred measures of wheat. And he said to him, Take your bill, and write fourscore.

    BEDE; Having rebuked in three parables those who murmured because He received penitents, our Savior shortly after subjoins a fourth and a fifth on almsgiving and frugality, because it is also the fittest order in preaching that almsgiving should be added after repentance. Hence it follows, And he said to his disciples, There was a certain rich man.

    PSEUDO. There is a certain erroneous opinion inherent in mankind, which increases evil and lessens good. It is the feeling that all the good things we possess in the course of our life we possess as lords over them, and accordingly we seize them as our especial goods. But it is quite the contrary. For we are placed in this life not as lords in our own house, but as guests and strangers, led whither we would not, and at a time we think not of. He who is now rich, suddenly becomes a beggar. Therefore whoever you are, know yourself to be a dispenser of the things of others, and that the privileges granted you are for a brief and passing use. Cast away then from your soul the pride of power, and put on the humility and modesty of a steward.

    BEDE; The bailiff is the manager of the farm, therefore he takes his name from the farm. But the steward, or director of the household, is the overseer of money as well as fruits, and of every thing his master possesses.

    AMBROSE; From this we learn then, that we are not ourselves the masters, but rather the stewards of the property of others.

    THEOPHYL. Next, that when we exercise not the management of our wealth according to our Lord's pleasure, but abuse our trust to our own pleasures, we are guilty stewards. Hence it follows, And he was accused to him.

    PSEUDO-CHRYS. Meanwhile he is taken and thrust out of his stewardship; for it follows, And he called him, and said to him, What is this that I hear of you? give an account of your stewardship, for you can be no longer steward. Day after day by the events which take place our Lord cries aloud to us the same thing, showing us a man at midday rejoicing in health, before the evening cold and lifeless; another expiring in the midst of a meal. And in various ways we go out from our stewardship; but the faithful steward, who has confidence concerning his management, desires with Paul to depart and be with Christ. But he whose wishes are on earth is troubled at his departing.

    Hence it is added of this steward, Then the steward said within himself, What shall I do, for my Lord takes away from me the stewardship? I cannot dig, to beg I all ashamed. Weakness in action is the fault of a slothful life. For no one would shrink who had been accustomed to apply himself to labor. But if we take the parable allegorically, after our departure hence there is no more time for working; the present life contains the practice of what is commanded, the future, consolation. If you have done nothing here, in vain then are you careful for the future, nor will you gain any thing by begging. The foolish virgins are an instance of this, who unwisely begged of the wise, but returned empty. For every one puts on his daily life as his inner garment; it is not possible for him to put it off or exchange it with another.

    But the wicked steward aptly contrived the remission of debts, to provide for himself an escape from his misfortunes among his fellow-servants; for it follows, I am resolved what to do, that when I am put out of the stewardship, they may receive me into their houses. For as often as a man perceiving his end approaching, lightens by a kind deed the load of his sins, (either by forgiving a debtor his debts, or by giving abundance to the poor,) dispensing those things which are his Lord's, he conciliates to himself many friends, who will afford him before the judge a real testimony, not by words, but by the demonstration of good works, nay moreover will provide for him by their testimony a resting-place of consolation. But nothing is our own, all things are in the power of God.

    Hence it follows, So he called every one of his Lord's debtors to him, and said to the first, How much owe you to my Lord? And he said, A hundred casks of oil.

    BEDE, A cadus in Greek is a vessel containing three urns. It follows, And he said to him, Take your bill, and sit down quickly, and write fifty, forgiving him the half.

    It follows, Then said he to another, And how much owe you? And he said, A hundred measures of wheat. A corus is made up of thirty bushels. And he said to him, Take your bill, and write fourscore, forgiving him a fifth part. It may be then simply taken as follows: whosoever relieves the want of a poor man, either by supplying half or a fifth part, will be blessed with the reward of his mercy.

    AUG. Or because out of the hundred measures of oil, he caused fifty to be written down by the debtors, and of the hundred measures of w heat, fourscore, the meaning thereof is this, that those things which every Jew performs toward the Priests and Levites should be the more attendant in the Church of Christ, that whereas they give a tenth, Christians should give a half, as Zaccheus gave of his goods, or at least by giving two tenths, that is, a fifth, exceed the payments of the Jews.

    8. And the lord commended the unjust steward, because he had done wisely: for the children of this world are in their generation wiser than the children of light.

    AUG. The steward whom his Lord cast out of his stewardship is nevertheless commended because he provided himself against the future. As it follows, And the Lord commended the unjust steward, because he had done wisely; we ought not however to take the whole for our imitation. For we should never act deceitfully against our Lord in order that from the fraud itself we may give alms.

    ORIGEN; But because the Gentiles say that wisdom is a virtue, and define it to be the experience of w hat is good, evil, and indifferent, or the knowledge of what is and what is not to be done, we must consider whether this word signifies many things, or one. For it is said that God by wisdom prepared the heavens. Now it is plain that wisdom is good, because the Lord by wisdom prepared the heavens. It is said also in Genesis, according to the LXX, that the serpent was the wisest animal, wherein he does not make wisdom a virtue, but evil-minded cunning. And it is in this sense that the Lord commended the steward that he had done wisely, that is, cunningly and evilly. And perhaps the word commended was spoken not in the sense of real commendation, but in a lower sense; as when we speak of a man being commended in slight and indifferent matters, and in a certain measure clashings and sharpness of wit are admired, by which the power of the mind is drawn out.

    AUG. On the other hand this parable is spoken that we should understand that if the steward who acted deceitfully, could be praised by his lord, how much more they please God who do their works according to His commandment.

    ORIGEN; The children of this world also are not called wiser but more prudent than the children of light, and this not absolutely and simply, but in their generation. For it follows, For the children of this world are in their generation wiser than the children of light, &c.

    BEDE; The children of light and the children of this world are spoken of in the same manner as the children of the kingdom, and the children of hell. For whatever works a man does, he is also termed their sun.

    THEOPHYL. By the children of this world then He means those who mind the good things which are on the earth; by the children of light, those who beholding the divine love, employ themselves with spiritual treasures. But it is found indeed in the management of human affairs, that we prudently order our own things, and busily set ourselves to work, in order that when we depart we may have a refuge for our life; but when we ought to direct the things of God, we take no forethought for what shall be our lot hereafter.

    9. And I say to you, Make to yourselves friends of the mammon of unrighteousness; that, when you fail, they may receive you into everlasting habitations.
    10. He that is faithful in that which is least is faithful also in much: and he that is unjust in the least is unjust also in much.
    11. If therefore you have not been faithful in the unrighteous mammon, who will commit to your trust the true riches?
    12. And if you have not been faithful in that which is another man's, who shall give you that which is your own?
    13. No servant can serve two masters: for either he will hate the one, and love the other; or else he will hold to the one, and despise the other. You cannot serve God and mammon.

    GREG. In order then that after death they may find something in their own hand, let men before death place their riches in the hands of the poor. Hence it follows, And I say to you, d/lake to yourselves friends of the man of unrighteousness, &c.

    AUG. That which the Hebrews call mammon, in Latin is "riches." As if He said, "Make to yourselves friends of the riches of unrighteousness." Now some misunderstanding this, seize upon the things of others, and so give something to the poor, and think that they are doing what is commanded. That interpretation must be corrected into, Give alms of your righteous labors. For you will not corrupt Christ your Judge. If from the plunder of a poor man, you were to give any thing to the judge that he might decide for you, and that judge should decide for you, such is the force of justice, that you would be ill pleased in yourself. Do not then make to yourself such a God. God is the fountain of Justice, give not your alms then from interest and usury. I speak to the faithful, to whom we dispense the body of Christ. But if you have such money, it is of evil that you have it. Be no longer doers of evil. Zaccheus said, Half my goods I give to the poor. See how he runs who runs to make friends of the mammon of unrighteousness; and not to be held guilty from any quarter, he says, If have taken any thing from any one, I restore fourfold. According to another interpretation, the mammon of unrighteousness are all the riches of the world, whenever they come. For if you seek the true riches, there are some in which Job when naked abounded, when he had his hears full towards God. The others are called riches from unrighteousness; because they are not true riches, for they are full of poverty, and ever liable to chances. For if they were true riches, they would give you security.

    AUG. Or the riches of unrighteousness are so called, because they are not riches except to the unrighteous, and such as rest in their hopes and the fullness of their happiness. But when these things are possessed by the righteous, they have indeed so much money, but no riches are theirs but heavenly and spiritual.

    AMBROSE. Or he spoke of the unrighteous Mammon, because by the various enticements of riches covetousness corrupts our hearts, that we may be willing to obey riches.

    BASIL; Or if you have succeeded to a patrimony, you receive what has been amassed by the unrighteous; for in a number of predecessors some one must needs be found who has unjustly usurped the property of others. But suppose that your father has not been guilty of exaction, whence have you your money? If indeed you answer, "From myself;" you are ignorant of God, not having the knowledge of your Creator; but if, "From God," tell me the reason for which you receive it. Is not the earth and the fullness thereof the Lord's? If then whatever is ours belongs to our common Lord, so will it also belong to our fellow-servant.

    THEOPHYL. Those then are called the riches of unrighteousness which the Lord has given for the necessities of our brethren and fellow-servants, but we spend upon ourselves. It became us then, from the beginning, to give all things to the poor, but because we have become the stewards of unrighteousness, wickedly retaining what was appointed for the aid of others, we must not surely remain in this cruelty, but distribute to the poor, that we may be received by them into everlasting habitations. For it follows, That, when you fail, they may receive you into everlasting habitations.

    GREG. But if through their friendship we obtain everlasting habitations, we ought to calculate that when we give we rather offer presents to patrons, than bestow benefits upon he needy.

    AUG. For who are they that shall have everlasting habitations but the saints of God? and who are they that are to be received by them into everlasting habitations but they who administer to their want, and whatsoever they have need of, gladly supply. They are those little ones of Christ, who have forsaken all that belonged to them and followed Him; and whatsoever they had have given to the poor, that they might serve God without earthly shackles, and freeing their shoulders from the burdens of the world, might raise them aloft as with wings.

    AUG. We must not then understand those by whom we wish to be received into everlasting habitations to be as it were debtors of God; seeing that the just and holy are signified in this place, who cause those to enter in, who administered to their necessity of their own worldly goods.

    AMBROSE; Or else, make to yourselves friends of the mammon of unrighteousness, that by giving to the poor we may purchase the favor of angels and all the saints.

    CHRYS. Mark also that He said not, "that they may receive you into their own habitations." For it is not they who receive you. Therefore when He said, Make to yourselves friends, he added, of the mammon of unrighteousness, to show, that their friendship will not alone protect us unless good works accompany us, unless we righteously cast away all riches unrighteously amassed. The most skillful then of all arts is that of almsgiving. For it builds not for us houses of mud, but lays up in store an everlasting life. Now in each of the arts one needs the support of another; but when we ought to show mercy, we need nothing else but the will alone.

    CYRIL; Thus then Christ taught those who abound in riches, earnestly to love the friendship of the poor, and to have treasure in heaven. But He knew the sloth of the human mind, how that they who court riches bestow no work of charity upon the needy. That to such men there results no profit of spiritual gifts, He shows by obvious examples, adding, He that is faithful in that which is least is faithful also in much; and he that is unjust in the least is unjust also in much.

    Now our Lord opens to us the eye of the heart, explaining what He had said, adding, If therefore you have not been faithful in the unrighteousness mammon, who will commit to your trust the true riches? That which is least then is the mammon of unrighteousness, that is, earthly riches, which seem nothing to those that are heavenly wise. I think then that a man is faithful in a little, when he imparts aid to those who are bowed down with sorrow. If then we have been unfaithful in a little thing, how shall we obtain from hence the true riches, that is, the fruitful gift of Divine grace, impressing the image of God on the human soul?

    But that our Lord's words incline to this meaning is plain from the following; for He says, And if you have not been faithful in that which is another man's who shall give you that which is your own?

    AMBROSE; Riches are foreign to us, because they are something beyond nature, they are not born with us, and they do not pass away with us. But Christ is ours, because He is the life of man. Lastly, He came to His own.

    THEOPHYL. Thus then hitherto He has taught us how faithfully we ought to dispose of our wealth. But because the management of our wealth according to God is no otherwise obtained than by the indifference of a mind unaffected towards riches, He adds, No man can serve two masters.

    AMBROSE; Not because the Lord is two, but one. For although there are who serve mammon, yet he knows no rights of lordship; but has himself placed upon himself a yoke of servitude. There is one Lord, because there is one God. Hence it is evident, that the power of the Father and the Son is one and He assigns a reason, thus saying, For either he will hate the one, and love the other; or else he will hold to the one, and despise the other.

    AUG. But these things were not spoken indifferently or at random. For no one when asked whether he loves the devil, answers that he loves him, but rather that he hates him; but all generally proclaim that they love God. Therefore either he will hate the one, (that is, the devil,) and love the other, (that is, God;) or will hold to the one, (that is, the devil, when he pursues as it were temporal wants,) and will despise the other, (that is, God,) as when men frequently neglect His threats for their desires, who because of His goodness flatter themselves that they will have impunity.

    CYRIL; But the conclusion of the whole discourse is what follows, You cannot serve God and man. Let us then transfer all our devotions to the one, forsaking riches.

    BEDE; Let then the covetous hear this, that we can not at the same time serve Christ and riches; and yet He said not, "Who has riches," but, who serves riches; for he who is the servant of riches, watches them as a servant; but he who has shaken off the yoke of servitude, dispenses them as a master; but he who serves mammon, verily serves him who is set over those earthly things as the reward of his iniquity, and is called the prince of this world.

    14. And the Pharisees also, who were covetous, heard all these things: and they derided him.
    15. And he said to them, you are they which justify yourselves before men; but God knows your hearts: for that which is highly esteemed among men is abomination in the sight of God.

    BEDE; Christ had told the Pharisees not to boast of their own righteousness, but to receive penitent sinners, and to redeem their sins by almsgiving. But they derided the Preacher of mercy, humility, and frugality; as it is said, And the Pharisees also, who were covetous, heard these things; and derided him: it may be for two reasons, either because He commanded what was not sufficiently profitable, or cast blame upon their past superfluous actions.

    THEOPHYL. But the Lord detecting in them a hidden malice, proves that they make a presence of righteousness. Therefore it is added, And he said to them, you are they which justify yourselves before men.

    BEDE; They justify themselves before men who despise sinners as in a weak and hopeless condition, but fancy themselves to be perfect and not to need the remedy of almsgiving; but how justly the depth of deadly pride is to be condemned, He sees who will enlighten the hidden places of darkness. Hence it follows, But God knows your hearts.

    THEOPHYL. And therefore you are an abomination to Him because of your arrogance, and love of seeking after the praise of men; as He adds, For that which is highly esteemed among men is abomination in the sight of God.

    Catena Aurea Luke 16
  • Catholic Caucus: Sunday Mass Readings, 09-18-16, Twenty-fifth Sunday in Ordinary Time

    09/18/2016 9:36:29 AM PDT · 29 of 49
    annalex to Salvation
    Luke
      English: Douay-Rheims Latin: Vulgata Clementina Greek NT: Byzantine/Majority Text (2000)
      Luke 16
    1 AND he said also to his disciples: There was a certain rich man who had a steward: and the same was accused unto him, that he had wasted his goods. Dicebat autem et ad discipulos suos : Homo quidam erat dives, qui habebat villicum : et hic diffamatus est apud illum quasi dissipasset bona ipsius. ελεγεν δε και προς τους μαθητας αυτου ανθρωπος τις ην πλουσιος ος ειχεν οικονομον και ουτος διεβληθη αυτω ως διασκορπιζων τα υπαρχοντα αυτου
    2 And he called him, and said to him: How is it that I hear this of thee? give an account of thy stewardship: for now thou canst be steward no longer. Et vocavit illum, et ait illi : Quid hoc audio de te ? redde rationem villicationis tuæ : jam enim non poteris villicare. και φωνησας αυτον ειπεν αυτω τι τουτο ακουω περι σου αποδος τον λογον της οικονομιας σου ου γαρ δυνηση ετι οικονομειν
    3 And the steward said within himself: What shall I do, because my lord taketh away from me the stewardship? To dig I am not able; to beg I am ashamed. Ait autem villicus intra se : Quid faciam ? quia dominus meus aufert a me villicationem. Fodere non valeo, mendicare erubesco. ειπεν δε εν εαυτω ο οικονομος τι ποιησω οτι ο κυριος μου αφαιρειται την οικονομιαν απ εμου σκαπτειν ουκ ισχυω επαιτειν αισχυνομαι
    4 I know what I will do, that when I shall be removed from the stewardship, they may receive me into their houses. Scio quid faciam, ut, cum amotus fuero a villicatione, recipiant me in domos suas. εγνων τι ποιησω ινα οταν μετασταθω της οικονομιας δεξωνται με εις τους οικους αυτων
    5 Therefore calling together every one of his lord's debtors, he said to the first: How much dost thou owe my lord? Convocatis itaque singulis debitoribus domini sui, dicebat primo : Quantum debes domino meo ? και προσκαλεσαμενος ενα εκαστον των χρεωφειλετων του κυριου εαυτου ελεγεν τω πρωτω ποσον οφειλεις τω κυριω μου
    6 But he said: An hundred barrels of oil. And he said to him: Take thy bill and sit down quickly, and write fifty. At ille dixit : Centum cados olei. Dixitque illi : Accipe cautionem tuam : et sede cito, scribe quinquaginta. ο δε ειπεν εκατον βατους ελαιου και ειπεν αυτω δεξαι σου το γραμμα και καθισας ταχεως γραψον πεντηκοντα
    7 Then he said to another: And how much dost thou owe? Who said: An hundred quarters of wheat. He said to him: Take thy bill, and write eighty. Deinde alii dixit : Tu vero quantum debes ? Qui ait : Centum coros tritici. Ait illi : Accipe litteras tuas, et scribe octoginta. επειτα ετερω ειπεν συ δε ποσον οφειλεις ο δε ειπεν εκατον κορους σιτου και λεγει αυτω δεξαι σου το γραμμα και γραψον ογδοηκοντα
    8 And the lord commended the unjust steward, forasmuch as he had done wisely: for the children of this world are wiser in their generation than the children of light. Et laudavit dominus villicum iniquitatis, quia prudenter fecisset : quia filii hujus sæculi prudentiores filiis lucis in generatione sua sunt. και επηνεσεν ο κυριος τον οικονομον της αδικιας οτι φρονιμως εποιησεν οτι οι υιοι του αιωνος τουτου φρονιμωτεροι υπερ τους υιους του φωτος εις την γενεαν την εαυτων εισιν
    9 And I say to you: Make unto you friends of the mammon of iniquity; that when you shall fail, they may receive you into everlasting dwellings. Et ego vobis dico : facite vobis amicos de mammona iniquitatis : ut, cum defeceritis, recipiant vos in æterna tabernacula. καγω υμιν λεγω ποιησατε εαυτοις φιλους εκ του μαμωνα της αδικιας ινα οταν εκλιπητε δεξωνται υμας εις τας αιωνιους σκηνας
    10 He that is faithful in that which is least, is faithful also in that which is greater: and he that is unjust in that which is little, is unjust also in that which is greater. Qui fidelis est in minimo, et in majori fidelis est : et qui in modico iniquus est, et in majori iniquus est. ο πιστος εν ελαχιστω και εν πολλω πιστος εστιν και ο εν ελαχιστω αδικος και εν πολλω αδικος εστιν
    11 If then you have not been faithful in the unjust mammon; who will trust you with that which is the true? Si ergo in iniquo mammona fideles non fuistis quod verum est, quis credet vobis ? ει ουν εν τω αδικω μαμωνα πιστοι ουκ εγενεσθε το αληθινον τις υμιν πιστευσει
    12 And if you have not been faithful in that which is another's; who will give you that which is your own? Et si in alieno fideles non fuistis, quod vestrum est, quis dabit vobis ? και ει εν τω αλλοτριω πιστοι ουκ εγενεσθε το υμετερον τις υμιν δωσει
    13 No servant can serve two masters: for either he will hate the one, and love the other; or he will hold to the one, and despise the other. You cannot serve God and mammon. Nemo servus potest duobus dominis servire : aut enim unum odiet, et alterum diliget : aut uni adhærebit, et alterum contemnet. Non potestis Deo servire et mammonæ. ουδεις οικετης δυναται δυσιν κυριοις δουλευειν η γαρ τον ενα μισησει και τον ετερον αγαπησει η ενος ανθεξεται και του ετερου καταφρονησει ου δυνασθε θεω δουλευειν και μαμωνα
  • Protection units Nineveh Plain NPU fighters kindle the flame back

    09/17/2016 7:07:22 PM PDT · 6 of 11
    annalex to arthurus

    Lord Jesus Christ, protect Thy Church in the Arab lands and bless those brave people who resist evil in Thy name. May Thy Glorious Holy Cross trample the barbarian hordes.

    In the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost, amen.

  • Protection units Nineveh Plain NPU fighters kindle the flame back

    09/17/2016 7:00:24 PM PDT · 5 of 11
    annalex to maine-iac7

    Sure, thanks.

  • Protection units Nineveh Plain NPU fighters kindle the flame back

    09/17/2016 11:43:45 AM PDT · 2 of 11
    annalex to A.A. Cunningham; andyk; AlexW; BatGuano; bayliving; Belteshazzar; bert; Bigg Red; bigheadfred; ...

    If you want to be on this right wing, monarchy, paleolibertarianism and nationalism ping list, but are not, please let me know. If you are on it and want to be off, also let me know. This ping list is not used for Catholic-Protestant debates; all confessions are welcome.

  • Protection units Nineveh Plain NPU fighters kindle the flame back

    09/17/2016 11:42:57 AM PDT · 1 of 11
    annalex
  • Catholic Caucus: Daily Mass Readings, 09-17-16, OM, St. Robert Bellarmine, Bishop and Doctor/Church

    09/17/2016 10:59:56 AM PDT · 27 of 43
    annalex to annalex


    Jesus Christ the Savior and Life Giver
  • Catholic Caucus: Daily Mass Readings, 09-17-16, OM, St. Robert Bellarmine, Bishop and Doctor/Church

    09/17/2016 10:59:33 AM PDT · 26 of 43
    annalex to annalex
    4. And when much people were gathered together, and were come to him out of every city, he spoke by a parable:
    5. A sower went out to sow his seed: and as he sowed, some fell by the way side; and it was trodden down, and the fowls of the air devoured it.
    6. And some fell upon a rock; and as soon as it was sprung up, it withered away, because it lacked moisture.
    7. And some fell among thorns; and the thorns sprang up with it, and choked it.
    8. And other fell on good ground, and sprang up, and bare fruit a hundred-fold. And when he had said these things, he cried, He that has ears to hear, let him hear.
    9. And his disciples asked him, saying, What might this parable be?
    10. And he said, to you it is given to know the mysteries of the kingdom of God: but to others in parables; that seeing they might not see, and hearing they might not understand.
    11. Now the parable is this: The seed is the word of God.
    12. Those by the way side are they that hear; then comes the devil, and takes away the word out of their hearts, lest they should believe and be saved.
    13. They on the rock are they, which, when they hear, receive the word with joy; and these have no root, which for a while believe, and in time of temptation fall away.
    14. And that which fell among thorns are they, which, when they have heard, go forth, and are choked with cares and riches and pleasures of this life, and bring no fruit to perfection.
    15. But that on the good ground are they, which in an honest and good heart, having heard the word, keep it, and bring forth fruit with patience.

    THEOPHYL. That which David had foretold in the person of Christ, I will open my mouth in parables, the Lord here fulfills; as it is said, And when much people were gathered together, and were come to him out of every city, he spoke by a parable. But the Lord speaks by a parable, first indeed that He may make His hearers more attentive. For men were accustomed to exercise their minds on dark sayings, and to despise what was plain; and next, that the unworthy might not receive what was spokes mystically.

    ORIGEN; And therefore it is significantly said, When much people were gathered together, and were come to him out of every city. For not many but few there are who walk the strait road, and find the way which leads to life. Hence Matthew says, that He taught without the house by parables, but within the house explained the parable to His disciples.

    EUSEBIUS; Now Christ most fitly puts forth His first parable to the multitude not only of those who then stood by, but of those also who were to come after them, inducing them to listen to His words, saying, A sower went out to sow his seed.

    THEOPHYL; The sower we can conceive to be none other but the Son of God, Who going forth from His Father's bosom, whither no creature had attained, came into the world that He might bear witness to the truth.

    CHRYS, Now His going, Who is every where, was not local, but through the vale of the flesh He approached us. But Christ fitly denominates His advent, His going forth. For we were aliens from God, and cast out as criminals, and rebels to the king, but he who wishes to reconcile man, going out to them, speaks to them without, until having become meet for the royal presence, He brings them within; so also did Christ.

    THEOPHYL. But He went out now, not to destroy the husbandmen, or to burn up the earth, but He went out to sow. For oftimes the husbandman who sows, goes out for some other cause, not only to sow.

    EUSEBIUS; Some went out from the heavenly country and descended among men, not however to sow, for they were not sowers, but ministering Spirits sent forth to minister. Moses also and the prophets after him did not plant in men the mysteries of the kingdom of heaven, but by keeping back the foolish from the error of iniquity, and the worship of idols, they tilled as it were the souls of men, and brought them into cultivation. But the only Sower of all, the Word of God, went out to sow the new seed of the Gospel, that is, the mysteries of the kingdom of heaven.

    THEOPHYL. But the Son of God never ceases to sow in our hearts, for not only when teaching, but creating, He sows good seed in our hearts.

    TIT. BOST. But He went out to sow His seed, He receives not the word as borrowed, for He is by nature the Word of the living God. The seed is not then of Paul, or of John, but they have it because they have received it. Christ has His own seed, drawing forth His teaching from His own nature. Hence also the Jews said, How knows this man letters, having never learned?

    EUSEBIUS; He teaches therefore that there are two classes of those who received the seed; the first, of those who have been made worthy of the heavenly calling, but fall from grace through carelessness and sloth; but the second, of those who multiply the seed bearing good fruit. But according to Matthew he makes three divisions in each class. For those who corrupt the seed have not all the same manner of destruction, and those who bear fruit from it do not receive an equal abundance. He wisely sets forth the cases of those who lose the seed. For some though they have not sinned, have lost the good seed implanted in their hearts, through its having been withdrawn from their thoughts and memory by evil spirits, and devils who fly through the air; or deceitful and cunning men, whom He calls the birds of the air. Hence it follows, And as he sowed, some fell by the way side.

    THEOPHYL. He said not that the sower threw some on the way side, but that it fell by the way side. For he who sows taught the right word, but the word falls in different ways upon the hearers, so that some of them are called the way side: and it was trodden down, and the birds of the air devoured it.

    CYRIL; For every way side is in some measure dry and uncultivated, because it is trodden down by all men, and no seed gains moisture on it. So the divine warning reaches not the unteachable heart, that it should bring forth the praise of virtue. These then are the ways frequented by unclean spirits. There are again some who bear faith about them, as if it consisted in the nakedness of words; their faith is without root, of whom it is added, And some fell upon a rock, and as soon as it sprung up, it withered away, because it lacked moisture.

    THEOPHYL; The rock, he says, is the hard and unsubdued heart. Now the moisture at the root of the seed is the same as what is called in another parable, the oil to trim the lamps of the virgins, that is, love and steadfastness in virtue.

    EUSEBIUS; There are also some who through covetousness, the desire of pleasure and worldly cares, which indeed Christ calls thorns, suffer the seed which has been sown in them to be choked.

    CHRYS. For as the thorns do not let the seed grow up, but when it has been sown choke it by thickening round it, so the cares of this present life permit not the seed to bear fruit. But in things of sense the husbandman must be reproved who would sow amid thorns on a rock and the way side, for it is impossible that the rocks should become earth, the way not be a way, the thorns not be thorns. But in rational things it is otherwise. For it is possible that the rock should be converted into a fruitful soil, the way not be trodden down, the thorns dispersed.

    CYRIL; Now the rich and fruitful ground is the honest and good hearts which receive deeply the seeds of the word, and retain them and cherish them. And whatever is added to this, And some fell upon good ground and springing up, brought forth fruit a hundred-fold. For when the divine word is poured into a soul free from all anxieties, then it strikes root deep, and sends forth as it were the ear, and in its due season comes to perfection.

    THEOPHYL; For by fruit a hundred-fold, he means perfect fruit. For the number ten is always taken to imply perfection, because in ten precepts is contained the keeping, or the observance of the law. But the number ten multiplied by itself amounts to a hundred; hence by a hundred very great perfection is signified.

    CYRIL; But what the meaning of the parable is, let us hear from him who made it, as it follows, And when he had said these things, he cried, He that has ears to hear, let him hear.

    BASIL; Hearing has reference to the understanding. By this then our Lord stirs us up to listen attentively to the meaning of those things which are spoken.

    THEOPHYL; For as often as the admonition occurs either in the Gospel or the Revelation of St. John, it signifies that there is a mystical meaning in what is said, and we must inquire more closely into it. Hence the disciples who were ignorant ask our Savior, for it follows, And his disciples asked him, &c. But let no one suppose that as soon as the parable was finished His disciples asked Him, but, as Mark says, When he was alone they asked him.

    ORIGEN; Now a parable is a narration of an action as done, yet not done according to the letter, though it might have been, representing certain things by means of others which are given in the parable. An enigma is a continued story of things which are spoken of as done, and yet have not been done, nor are possible to be done, but contains a concealed meaning, as that which is mentioned in the Book of Judges, that the trees went forth to anoint a king over them. But it was not literally a fact as is said, A sower went out to sow, like those facts related in history, yet it might have been so.

    EUSEBIUS; But our Lord told them the reason why He spoke to the multitudes in parables, as follows, And he said, to you it is given to know the mysteries of God.

    GREG. NAZ. When you hear this you must not entertain the notion of different natures, as certain heretics do, who think that some men indeed are of a perishing nature, others of a saving nature, but that some are so constituted that their will leads them to better or worse. But add to the words, To you it is given, if willing and truly worthy.

    THEOPHYL. But to those who are unworthy of such mysteries, they are obscurely spoken. Hence it follows, But to the rest in parables, that seeing they might not see, and hearing they might not understand. For they think they see, but see not, and hear indeed, but do not understand. For this reason Christ hides this from them, lest they should beget a greater prejudice against them, if after they had known the mysteries of Christ, they despised them. For he who understands and afterwards despises, shall be more severely punished.

    THEOPHYL; Rightly then do they hear in parables, who having closed the senses of their heart, care not to know the truth, forgetful of what the Lord told them. He that has ears to hear, let him hear.

    GREG. But our Lord condescended to explain what He said, that we might know how to seek for explanation- in those things which He is unwilling to explain through Himself. For it follows, Now the parable is this: The seed is the word of God.

    EUSEB. Now He says, that there are three reasons why men destroy the seed implanted in their hearts. For some destroy the seed that is hid in them by lightly giving heed to those that wish to deceive, of whom He adds, Those by the way side are they that hear: their comes the devil, and takes away the word out of their hearts. .

    THEOPHYL; Who in truth deign to receive the word which they hear with no faith, with no understanding at least with no attempt to test the value of it.

    EUSEB. But some there are who having not received the word in any depth of heart, are soon overcome when adversity assails them, of whom it is added, They on the rock are they which when they hear, receive the word with joy; and these have no root, which for a while believe, and in time of temptation fall away.

    CYRIL; For when the, enter the Church they gladly wait on the divine mysteries, but with infirmity of purpose. But when they leave the Church they forget the sacred discipline, and as long as Christians are undisturbed, their faith is lasting; but when persecution harasses, their heart fails them, for their faith was without root.

    GREG. Many men propose to begin a good work, but as soon as they have become annoyed by adversity or temptation, they abandon what they had begun. The rocky ground then had no moisture to carry on to constancy fruit which it had put forth.

    EUSEB. But some choke the seed which has been deposited in them with riches and vain delights, as if with choking thorns, of whom it is added, And that which fell among thorns are they, which, when they have heard, go forth, and are choked with cares and riches of this life, &c.

    GREG. It is wonderful that the Lord has represented riches as thorns, for these prick, while those delight, and yet they are thorns, for they lacerate the mind by the prickings of their thoughts, and whenever they entice to see they draw blood, as if inflicting a wound. But there are two things which He joins to riches, cares and pleasures, for they oppress the mind by anxiety and unnerve it by luxuries, but they choke the seed, for they strangle the throat of the heart with vexatious thoughts, and while they let not a good desire enter the heart, they close up as it were the passage of the vital breath.

    EUSEB. Now these things were foretold by our Savior according to His foreknowledge, and that their case is so, experience testifies. For in no wise do men fall away from the truth of divine worship, but according to some of the causes before mentioned by Him.

    CHRYS. And to sum up many things in a few words. Some indeed as careless hearers, some as weak, but others as the very slaves of pleasure and worldly things, hold aloof from what is good. The order of the way side, the rock, and the thorns is well, for we have first need of recollection and caution, next of fortitude, and then of contempt of things present. He therefore places the good ground in opposition to the way, the rock, and the thorns. But that on the good ground are they, which in an honest and good heart, having heard the word, keep it, &c. For they who are on the way side keep not the word, but the devil takes away their seed. But they who are on the rock sustain not patiently the assaults of temptation through weakness. But they who are among thorns bear no fruit, but are choked.

    GREG. The good ground then beans fruit through patience, for nothing we do is good unless we endure patiently our closest evils. They therefore bear fruit through patience, who when they bear strifes humbly, are after the scourge received with joy to a heavenly rest.

    Catena Aurea Luke 8
  • Catholic Caucus: Daily Mass Readings, 09-17-16, OM, St. Robert Bellarmine, Bishop and Doctor/Church

    09/17/2016 10:57:44 AM PDT · 25 of 43
    annalex to Salvation
    Luke
      English: Douay-Rheims Latin: Vulgata Clementina Greek NT: Byzantine/Majority Text (2000)
      Luke 8
    4 And when a very great multitude was gathered together, and hastened out of the cities unto him, he spoke by a similitude. Cum autem turba plurima convenirent, et de civitatibus properarent ad eum, dixit per similitudinem : συνιοντος δε οχλου πολλου και των κατα πολιν επιπορευομενων προς αυτον ειπεν δια παραβολης
    5 The sower went out to sow his seed. And as he sowed, some fell by the way side, and it was trodden down, and the fowls of the air devoured it. Exiit qui seminat, seminare semen suum. Et dum seminat, aliud cecidit secus viam, et conculcatum est, et volucres cæli comederunt illud. εξηλθεν ο σπειρων του σπειραι τον σπορον αυτου και εν τω σπειρειν αυτον ο μεν επεσεν παρα την οδον και κατεπατηθη και τα πετεινα του ουρανου κατεφαγεν αυτο
    6 And other some fell upon a rock: and as soon as it was sprung up, it withered away, because it had no moisture. Et aliud cecidit supra petrum : et natum aruit, quia non habebat humorem. και ετερον επεσεν επι την πετραν και φυεν εξηρανθη δια το μη εχειν ικμαδα
    7 And other some fell among thorns, and the thorns growing up with it, choked it. Et aliud cecidit inter spinas, et simul exortæ spinæ suffocaverunt illud. και ετερον επεσεν εν μεσω των ακανθων και συμφυεισαι αι ακανθαι απεπνιξαν αυτο
    8 And other some fell upon good ground; and being sprung up, yielded fruit a hundredfold. Saying these things, he cried out: He that hath ears to hear, let him hear. Et aliud cecidit in terram bonam : et ortum fecit fructum centuplum. Hæc dicens clamabat : Qui habet aures audiendi, audiat. και ετερον επεσεν εις την γην την αγαθην και φυεν εποιησεν καρπον εκατονταπλασιονα ταυτα λεγων εφωνει ο εχων ωτα ακουειν ακουετω
    9 And his disciples asked him what this parable might be. Interrogabant autem eum discipuli ejus, quæ esset hæc parabola. επηρωτων δε αυτον οι μαθηται αυτου λεγοντες τις ειη η παραβολη αυτη
    10 To whom he said: To you it is given to know the mystery of the kingdom of God; but to the rest in parables, that seeing they may not see, and hearing may not understand. Quibus ipse dixit : Vobis datum est nosse mysterium regni Dei, ceteris autem in parabolis : ut videntes non videant, et audientes non intelligant. ο δε ειπεν υμιν δεδοται γνωναι τα μυστηρια της βασιλειας του θεου τοις δε λοιποις εν παραβολαις ινα βλεποντες μη βλεπωσιν και ακουοντες μη συνιωσιν
    11 Now the parable is this: The seed is the word of God. Est autem hæc parabola : Semen est verbum Domini. εστιν δε αυτη η παραβολη ο σπορος εστιν ο λογος του θεου
    12 And they by the way side are they that hear; then the devil cometh, and taketh the word out of their heart, lest believing they should be saved. Qui autem secus viam, hi sunt qui audiunt : deinde venit diabolus, et tollit verbum de corde eorum, ne credentes salvi fiant. οι δε παρα την οδον εισιν οι ακουοντες ειτα ερχεται ο διαβολος και αιρει τον λογον απο της καρδιας αυτων ινα μη πιστευσαντες σωθωσιν
    13 Now they upon the rock, are they who when they hear, receive the word with joy: and these have no roots; for they believe for a while, and in time of temptation, they fall away. Nam qui supra petram, qui cum audierint, cum gaudio suscipiunt verbum : et hi radices non habent : qui ad tempus credunt, et in tempore tentationis recedunt. οι δε επι της πετρας οι οταν ακουσωσιν μετα χαρας δεχονται τον λογον και ουτοι ριζαν ουκ εχουσιν οι προς καιρον πιστευουσιν και εν καιρω πειρασμου αφιστανται
    14 And that which fell among thorns, are they who have heard, and going their way, are choked with the cares and riches and pleasures of this life, and yield no fruit. Quod autem in spinas cecidit : hi sunt qui audierunt, et a sollicitudinibus, et divitiis, et voluptatibus vitæ euntes, suffocantur, et non referunt fructum. το δε εις τας ακανθας πεσον ουτοι εισιν οι ακουσαντες και υπο μεριμνων και πλουτου και ηδονων του βιου πορευομενοι συμπνιγονται και ου τελεσφορουσιν
    15 But that on the good ground, are they who in a good and perfect heart, hearing the word, keep it, and bring forth fruit in patience. Quod autem in bonam terram : hi sunt qui in corde bono et optimo audientes verbum retinent, et fructum afferunt in patientia. το δε εν τη καλη γη ουτοι εισιν οιτινες εν καρδια καλη και αγαθη ακουσαντες τον λογον κατεχουσιν και καρποφορουσιν εν υπομονη
  • Prayers Requested by trebb

    09/17/2016 10:55:03 AM PDT · 40 of 75
    annalex to Salvation

    We praise Thee o Lord, for guiding the surgeons and setting Thy servant Bob on the road to healing.

    In the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost, amen.

  • Rome’s celebrated exorcist, Gabriele Amorth, is dead at age 91

    09/17/2016 10:51:48 AM PDT · 19 of 20
    annalex to blackpacific

    Amen, thank you.

  • Deplorables of the world, unite!

    09/16/2016 5:55:31 PM PDT · 28 of 29
    annalex to All

    I have a linguistic observation.

    Ordinarily, “deplorable” is used as an adjective and attaches to inanimate objects. For example, “the living conditions in the camp were deplorable”.

    We can use the word to describe opinions: “his views on freedom of speech are deplorable”. That I because the verb “deplore” does not take human beings as objects.

    This is as far as it goes. Hillary (1) turned the adjective into noun and (2) applied it to people rather than things. That strikes me as contrary to the ordinary usage. Had she said something like “Trump supporters hold deplorable views”, no one would bat an eyelash. Even “Trump supporters are deplorable” would be a stretch of the word usage, but still within the norms of speech, especially oral speech. However, the phrase “Trump supporters are deplorables” (or even “belong to the group of deplorables”) violates the norms of the English language, does it not? Each time such construct is used there is a convention of the meaning of such usage. For example, “The untouchables cannot board the train” makes linguistic sense in India where the caste system supports this usage, but not elsewhere. This grammatical construct cannot be used randomly. You cannot have a sign “This amusement park ride is not for overweights” even though the meaning would be quite clear.

    So, what am I getting at?

    I bet you among the members of the bureaucratic ruling class there is an expression like this. In their linguistic subculture Hillary’s “basket of deplorables” is not awkward grammar: it is in the same semantic array as “bus of coloreds” or “neighborhood of untouchables”. They probably find phrasing like “A deplorable walked in so I pretended I was on the phone” or “She nearly married a deplorable”.

    Learn the enemy’s language, folks.

  • Deplorables of the world, unite!

    09/16/2016 4:15:02 PM PDT · 11 of 29
    annalex to Voluntaryist

    Masterpiece.

  • Deplorables of the world, unite!

    09/16/2016 4:14:17 PM PDT · 10 of 29
    annalex to R_Kangel

    Hey...

  • Deplorables of the world, unite!

    09/16/2016 4:12:35 PM PDT · 9 of 29
    annalex to HiTech RedNeck

    Nothing?

  • Deplorables of the world, unite!

    09/16/2016 4:11:15 PM PDT · 6 of 29
    annalex to Travis McGee
  • Deplorables of the world, unite!

    09/16/2016 4:08:16 PM PDT · 2 of 29
    annalex to A.A. Cunningham; andyk; AlexW; BatGuano; bayliving; Belteshazzar; bert; Bigg Red; bigheadfred; ...

    If you want to be on this right wing, monarchy, paleolibertarianism and nationalism ping list, but are not, please let me know. If you are on it and want to be off, also let me know. This ping list is not used for Catholic-Protestant debates; all confessions are welcome.

  • Deplorables of the world, unite!

    09/16/2016 4:05:03 PM PDT · 1 of 29
    annalex
  • Rome’s celebrated exorcist, Gabriele Amorth, is dead at age 91

    09/16/2016 3:49:47 PM PDT · 14 of 20
    annalex to NYer

    Lord Jesus Christ, rest the soul of Thy servant Gabriele with the saints.

    In the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost, amen.

  • Prayer request: Friend of friend's 6 year old son, Bode, diagnosed with Rhabdomyosarcoma.

    09/16/2016 3:43:54 PM PDT · 40 of 46
    annalex to DCBryan1
    Lord Jesus Christ, our Healer and Savior, grant complete healing to thy servant Bode.

    In the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost we pray, amen.

  • Catholic Caucus: Daily Mass Readings, 09-16-16, M, Sts. Cornelius, Pope, & Cyprian, Bishop, Martyrs

    09/16/2016 4:36:24 AM PDT · 25 of 40
    annalex to annalex


    Christ in Heaven with Four Saints and a Donor

    Domenico Ghirlandaio

    c 1492
    Tempera on wood, 308 x 199 cm
    Pinacoteca Comunale, Volterra
  • Catholic Caucus: Daily Mass Readings, 09-16-16, M, Sts. Cornelius, Pope, & Cyprian, Bishop, Martyrs

    09/16/2016 4:35:29 AM PDT · 24 of 40
    annalex to annalex
    1. And it came to pass afterward, that he went throughout every city and village, preaching and showing the glad tidings of the kingdom of God: and the twelve were with him,
    2. And certain women, which had been healed of evil spirits and infirmities, Mary called Magdalene, out of whom went seven devils,
    3. And Joanna the wife of Chuza Herod's steward, and Susanna, and many others, which ministered to him of their substance.

    THEOPHYL. He who descended from heaven, for our example and imitation, gives us a lesson not to be slothful in teaching. Hence it is said, And it came to pass afterward that he went, &c.

    GREG. NAZ. For He passes from place to place, that He may not only gain many, but may consecrate many places. He sleeps and labors, that He may sanctify sleep and labor. He weeps, that He may give a value to tears. He preaches heavenly things, that He may exalt His hearers.

    TIT BOST. For He who descends from heaven to earth, brings tidings to them that dwell on earth of a heavenly kingdom But who ought to preach the kingdom of heaven? Many prophets came, yet preached not the kingdom of heaven, for how could they pretend to speak of things which they perceived not?

    ISID. PELEUS. Now this kingdom of God some think to be higher and better than the heavenly kingdom, but some think it to be one and the same in reality but called by different names; at one time the kingdom of God from Him who reigns, but at another the kingdom of heaven from the Angels and Saints, His subjects, who are said to be of heaven.

    THEOPHYL; But like the eagle, enticing its young ones to fly, our Lord, step by step, raises up His disciples to heavenly things. He first of all teaches in the synagogues, and performs miracles. He next chooses twelve whom He names Apostles; He afterwards takes them alone with Him, as He preached throughout the cities and villages, as it follows, And the twelve were with him.

    THEOPHYL. Not teaching or preaching, but to be instructed by Him. But lest it should seem that the women were hindered from following Christ, it is added, And certain women which had been healed of evil spirits and infirmities, Mary called Magdalene, out of whom went seven devils.

    THEOPHYL; Mary Magdalene is the same of whose repentance, without mention of her name, we have just read. For the Evangelist, when he relates her going with our Lord, rightly distinguishes her by her known name, but when describing the sinner but penitent, He speaks of her generally as a woman; lest the mark of her former guilt should blacken a name of so great report. Out of whom seven devils are reported to have gone, that it might be shown that she was full of all vices.

    GREG. For what is understood by the seven devils, but all vices? For since all time is comprehended by seven days, rightly by the number seven is universality represented: Mary therefore had seven devils, for she was full of every kind of vice. It follows, And Joanna the wife of Chuza Herod's steward, and Susanna, and many others who ministered to him of their substance.

    JEROME; It was a Jewish custom, nor was it thought blamable, according to the ancient manners of that nation, that women should afford of their substance food and clothing to their teachers. This custom, as it might cause offense to the Gentiles, St. Paul relates he had cast off. But these ministered to the Lord of their substance, that He might reap their carnal things, from whom they had reaped spiritual things. Not that the Lord needed the food of His creatures, but that He might set an example to masters, that they ought to be content with food and clothing from their disciples.

    THEOPHYL; But Mary is by interpretation, "bitter sea," because of the loud wailing of her penitence; Magdalene, "a tower, or rather belonging to a tower," from the tower of which it is said, you art become my hope, my strong tower from the face of my enemy. Joanna is by interpretation "the Lord her grace," or "the merciful Lord," for from Him comes every thing that we dive upon. But if Mary, cleansed from the corruption of her sins, points to the Church of the Gentiles, why does not Joanna represent the same Church formerly subject to the worship of idols?

    For every evil spirit whilst he acts for the devil's kingdom, is as it were Herod's steward. Susanna is interpreted, "a lily," or its grace, because of the fragrance and whiteness of the heavenly life, and the golden heat of inward love.

    Catena Aurea Luke 8