The reason the Constitutional Convention was called was to increase the powers of the Central Government and decrease the powers of the States. And those powers were given to the federal government. This is why States’ Righters like George Clinton tried to sabotage the CC. But the Constitution did just that - Article I, Section 10 removed most of the states’ powers to cause harm to the nation. The use of the phrase “explicitly confined to...” wrt federal powers was voted down. Even specifying certain powers does not limit the means of carrying those powers out. Hamilton’s essay on the constitutionality of the National Bank is the definitive description of constitutionality. He was the greatest lawyer of his day and the most familiar with and understanding of the Constitution, writing 2/3s of the Federalist.