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Posts by Retain Mike

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  • The Magnificent Infantry of WW II

    05/25/2015 9:41:35 PM PDT · 45 of 76
    Retain Mike to Sasparilla

    “I just thought it was something people were supposed to do.” Now that was my thought when I was finishing college and Vietnam was still on. I didn’t really want to go, but it was my turn. I didn’t really believe there was much to think about considering the type of men I had grown up around, so I volunteered for the Navy officer program since that service would have always been my first choice.

  • The Magnificent Infantry of WW II

    05/25/2015 6:16:41 PM PDT · 1 of 76
    Retain Mike
    I wrote this letter and Op-Ed to be my contribution to Memorial Day and Veteran’s Day. My greatest contact with these men started about age nine when my dad began taking me out golfing on the weekends. There was a man who used the first golf cart I ever saw, because as a brigade commander of the 41th infantry in New Guinea he was debilitated by sickness. I remember one fairly good golfer who had kind of a weird back swing, because he was crippled while serving with the Big Red One in Sicily. I often ended up as a dishwasher at Michelbook Country Club. I noticed the chef always limped as he moved around the kitchen. When he saw my puzzled look, he said he got the limp from a wound received when he was with the Rangers at Pointe De Hoc. Those are just a few of the stories I remember among so many I could relate or have forgotten.

    My motivation for this subject and what I have a hard time understanding still is the casualty rates in those divisions chosen repeatedly for initial assaults. The corps and army commanders had favorites and somehow division staffs responded to reconstitute and retrain the rifle platoons every thirty to ninety days without losing the quality of the assault forces. It seems other divisions were usually sent to less active sectors, entered combat later in time, or occupied a flank in an attack. These were the most ordinary of men, so I keep hearing Aaron Copland’s Fanfare for the Common Man as I read this narrative.

  • The Magnificent Infantry of WW II

    05/25/2015 12:51:06 PM PDT · 32 of 34
    Retain Mike to englishprof302

    Thank you.

  • The Magnificent Infantry of WW II

    05/25/2015 12:49:29 PM PDT · 31 of 34
    Retain Mike to cyclotic
    My son was stationed in Washington with the Marine Presidential Security Force. One day I visited the WW II memorial and had the pleasure of giving a salute to several of the WW II vets.
  • The Magnificent Infantry of WW II

    05/25/2015 8:09:28 AM PDT · 1 of 34
    Retain Mike
    The Army deployed 65 infantry divisions for the Second World War. Each was a small town with its own equivalents for community services plus eight categories of combat arms. Units such as artillery, engineering, and heavy weapons engaged the enemy directly. Yet of all categories, the foot soldier faced the greatest hazard with the least chance of reward. Except for the Purple Heart and the coveted Combat Infantryman’s Badge, recognition often eluded them because so few came through to testify to the valor of the many. The infantryman confronted the most dismal fate of all whose duty was uninterrupted by missions completed or a fixed deployment time. They were enveloped within a most chaotic, barbaric, and brittle existence against resolute enemies where victory often required actions pushing beyond prior limits for impossibility.

    Omar Bradley said, “Previous combat had taught us that casualties are lumped primarily in the rifle platoons. For here are concentrated the handful of troops who must advance under enemy fire. It is upon them that the burden of war falls with greater risk and with less likelihood of survival than any other of the combat arms. An infantry division of WW II consisted of 81 rifle platoons, each with a combat strength of approximately 40 men. Altogether those 81 assault units comprised but 3,240 men in a division of 14,000…..Prior to invasion we had estimated that the infantry would incur 70 percent of the losses of our combat forces. By August we had boosted that figure to 83 percent on the basis of our experience in the Normandy hedgerows.”

    Nearly a third of the 65 divisions in the Pacific and European theaters suffered 100% or more casualties. However, their regimental staffs saw frontline units obliterated three to six times over. To deal with this problem there were never enough infantrymen coming from the states. Replacement centers continually reassigned artillerymen, machine gunners, cooks, and clerks to infantry duties. The situation in Europe became so severe that rear area units in France and Great Britain were tasked to supply soldiers for retraining as infantrymen. Those suffering battle fatigue came off the line for a few days for clean uniforms, bathing, hot food, and sleep. However, scarcity compelled their repeated return until crippling wounds, mental breakage, death, or victory brought final relief.

    For example the 4th and 29th Infantry landed on D-Day and suffered about 500% battle casualties in their rifle platoons during the eleven months until VE-Day. Added to these numbers were half again as many non-battle human wrecks debilitated by trench foot, frost bite, pneumonia, hernia, heart disease, arthritis, etc. Many never returned to duty. In the jungles of the Pacific, non-combat losses often exacted a greater price. But somehow the infantry crossed Europe and the Pacific and always remained in the forefront of attacks.

    Ernie Pyle said of them, “The worst experience of all is just the accumulated blur, and the hurting vagueness of being too long in the lines, the everlasting alertness, the noise and fear, the cell-by-cell exhaustion, the thinning of the surrounding ranks as day follows nameless day. And the constant march into the eternity of one’s own small quota of chances for survival. Those are the things that hurt and destroy. But they went back to them because they were good soldiers and they had a duty they could not define.”

    Partial bibliography: A Soldier’s Story by Omar N. Bradley

    Brave Men by Ernie Pyle (the quote named Tommy Clayton, but was generalized here because Ernie Pyle saw him as an example of the infantrymen he loved.)

    Crusade in Europe by Dwight D. Eisenhower The U.S. Infantryman in World War II by Robert S. Rush Foot Soldier by Roscoe C. Blunt, Jr. Links for Listings of United States Divisions during WW II http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_United_States_Army_divisions_during_World_War_II http://www.historyshots.com/usarmy/

    Army Battle Casualties and Non-battle Deaths in World War II http://www.ibiblio.org/hyperwar/USA/ref/Casualties/index.html

    3rd 'Marne' Infantry Division http://www.custermen.com/ItalyWW2/Units/Division3.htm Total casualties greater than 34,000

    National 4th Infantry (IVY) Division Association http://www.4thinfantry.org/content/division-history Total casualties of 34,000

    29th Infantry Division http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/29th_Infantry_Division_(United_States)

    45th Infantry Division http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/45th_Infantry_Division_(United_States)

    Remembering the Thunderbirds – Oklahoma’s 45th Infantry Division http://www.baptistmessenger.com/remembering-the-thunderbirds-oklahomas-45th-infantry-division/ Total casualties of 62,640 When Gen. George S. Patton described the 45th Infantry Division, he said it was “one of the finest, if not the finest infantry division in this history of modern warfare.”

  • The Doolittle Raid

    04/19/2015 10:54:52 PM PDT · 30 of 30
    Retain Mike to tanknetter

    I got the information about the belly turret and the broom sticks from Doolittle’s autobiography, which for some unknown reason I failed to list among my references. On page 246 of the hardcopy he says, “While the pilots were training at an auxiliary field, modifications were continuing on the B-25’s at Elgin…..A major problem we encountered concerned the electrically powered gun turrets. The early B-25’s had a top and lower turret with twin .50-caleber machine guns….. There were no guns installed in the tail section…..Much credit must go to Ross Greening for solving our armament problems. He suggested that we install two broomsticks in the tail and paint them black to simulate a tail gun position…..And since the lower turrets gave us nothing but headaches and were very complicated to operate, Greening suggested removing them. Again, I approved.”

    I read those pages again and the book (I Never Could Be So Lucky Again) seems to be following a linear time line implying these events happened in Florida. Any mention of Ross Greening doesn’t show up until they are in Florida. But I think am also seeing the same things you are.

    I found at least one other inconsistancy when I was checking about the guns again. His autobiography says the tank replacing the lower turret was 60 gallons and another source says 40 gallons. The book says the 60 gallon tank was always intended to be filled from 10 5 gallon cans loaded onto the planes, but Ted Lawson says all the tanks were topped off before they lifted into the air.

  • The Doolittle Raid

    04/18/2015 9:46:39 PM PDT · 25 of 30
    Retain Mike to arthurus

    In his book Ted Lawson says Eglin Field near Pensacola. That is problably a better phrase to use, since Florida is such a big state. Thanks.

  • The Doolittle Raid

    04/18/2015 12:01:58 PM PDT · 1 of 30
    Retain Mike
    I grew up around and noticed incredible men like these, because I related better to my dad’s generation than to my own. My Economics professor in college served in the first Navy UDT team operation. I would meet at the golf course where I played one of the Flying Tigers. I often ended up as a dishwasher at the country club. When I noticed the chef always limped as he moved around the kitchen he saw my puzzled look and he told me he got the limp from a wound received when he was with the Rangers at Pointe De Hoc. There are more stories I could related and many more I have forgotten.

    April 18 is the anniversary of the mission and I offer this essay annually as a reminder. Men like these should never be forgotten. The reference and links contain much more information for those interested.

  • Obama to propose two free years of community college for students

    01/13/2015 12:35:56 PM PST · 139 of 139
    Retain Mike to Kackikat

    Sounds like it. Which to me means survival of those fitting best into government models.

  • Obama to propose two free years of community college for students

    01/12/2015 2:10:55 PM PST · 136 of 139
    Retain Mike to Kackikat

    Boy do I agree with the point, “has not been a hotbed of activist instructors teaching the youth how to be a Marxist or fill a communist leftist agenda”.

    Once the feds pay the bill then they determine which education plans constitute a meaningful contribution to our society. Now we would have a situation similar to rationing healthcare under Obamacare.

    Let me paraphrase Princeton bioethics professor Peter Singer from the New York Times when he gave Congressional intent about healthcare without equivocation. “Rationing health care (community education) means getting value for the billions spent by setting limits on which (educational paths) treatments should be paid for from the public purse….There’s no doubt that it’s tough – politically, emotionally, and ethically - to make a decision that means (defining meaningful contributions to society)that someone will die sooner than they would have if the decision had gone the other way….The task of health care (education) bureaucrats is then to get the best value for resources they have been allocated….If a teenager (must educated to fill a proscribed need for a social services assistant instead of a welder) can be expected to live another 70 years, (then those classes with approved curriculums needs to be offered by the college)saving that life gains 70 years, whereas a person of 85 can be expected to live another 5 years, then saving the 85-year-old will gain of only 5 life-years. That suggests saving one teenager is equivalent to saving 14 85-year-olds”.

    Why We Must Ration Health Care
    http://www.nytimes.com/2009/07/19/magazine/19healthcare-t.html?_r=1&pagewanted=all

  • Obama to propose two free years of community college for students

    01/12/2015 12:18:49 PM PST · 132 of 139
    Retain Mike to bryan999; The Ghost of FReepers Past; Enlightened1; spiderfern; taxcontrol; molson209; ...

    I am late to this thread, but I didn’t see a lot of comments about how colleges are likely to react, so here goes.

    For subsidizes to higher education, people have enjoyed grants, loans and tax benefits. Now President Obama had determined community college will be completely free. However, you should know that most of the joy will, as before, be shared among college finance directors.

    To understand how we finance officers game the system you have to endure a bit of math. The Department of Education (DOE) requires colleges to prepare student budgets, and families to complete a financial aid form. DOE then determines an expected family contribution. The difference between the budget and expected family contribution the college then attempts to fill with awards. In most cases, at least for privates, there always remains an unmet need. However, students still successfully complete the school year.

    I analyzed this figure to hold financial aid people accountable for adopting standards for awards which took into account this unmet need that families overcame. During my tenure the American Opportunity Credit and Lifetime Learning Credit were supposedly of direct benefit to the student and their parents. Instead I plugged those figures into my standards for unmet need to require greater average contributions and lesser awards by the college. I made sure the student and their parents were conduits for and not recipients of the majority of these tax benefits.

    This story illustrates how financial people have behaved ever since the feds started throwing money at colleges. I am sure my colleagues will be up to the challenges this new task as well.

  • A World War II Christmas (1944)

    12/25/2014 6:59:35 PM PST · 6 of 17
    Retain Mike to WhiskeyX; Squantos; Mears

    For my own personal Battle of the Bulge story, I feel fortunate to still exchange emails with a man who was a combat engineer during that time. This is an amazing story from one of the “Greatest Generation” that I met when “Uncle Howard” attended a family wedding. He was not a real uncle, but has always been a close friend of the family. His note is especially poignant when you realize, after his capture during the Battle of the Bulge, he escaped successfully on April 13 and the war ended less than a month later on May 8. Very likely Bill Bremley and others who stayed behind were executed as a reprisal for the escape. You can read his entire prisoner of war story at the second link below.

    OK Neil – You are right. It was not until December 2008 that I found out that I no longer had to remain silent about the help I received from the Brits in Stalag IVB. I had been asked repeatedly the details of my escape on Friday the 13th of April 1945. Now I can answer.
    I GUESS SOMEDAY IT WOULD BE TOLD......I VOWED NOT TO EVER DISCUSS THE DETAILS OF MY ESCAPE...NOW “THE CAT IS OUT OF THE BAG”....YES, I HAD THE HELP DESCRIBED. (See below narrative) AT STALAG “IVB” I WAS LOCKED IN WITH 187 BRITISH NCO’s. THERE WERE ONLY “7 YANKS” IN THIS HUT WITH ME AND I WAS LUCKY ENOUGH TO BE BEFRIENDED BY ONE OF THE “BRITS”. HE SET EVERYTHING IN MOTION. I OWE A LOT TO BILL BREMLEY OF THE BLACK WATCH. I LEARNED LATER THAT HE WAS EXECUTED BY THE “SS” SHORTLY BEFORE THE RUSSIANS LIBERATED THE CAMP. I REGRET THAT I WAS NEVER WAS ABLE TO PROPERLY THANK HIM. SOMEDAY SOON, I MAY BE ABLE TO.......AMEN Howard
    Starting in 1941, an increasing number of British Airmen found themselves as the involuntary guests of the Third Reich, and the Crown was casting about for ways and means to facilitate their escape.
    Now obviously, one of the most helpful aids to that end is a useful and accurate map, one showing not only where stuff was, but also showing the locations of ‘safe houses’ where a POW on-the-lam could go for food and shelter.
    Paper maps had some real drawbacks — they make a lot of noise when you open and fold them, they wear out rapidly, and if they get wet, they turn into mush.
    Someone in MI-5 (similar to America’s OSS) got the idea of printing escape maps on silk. It’s durable, can be scrunched up into tiny wads, and unfolded as many times as needed, and makes no noise whatsoever.
    At that time there was only one manufacturer in Great Britain that had perfected the technology of printing on silk, and that was John Waddington, Ltd. When approached by the government, the firm was only too happy to do its bit for the war effort.
    By pure coincidence, Waddington was also the U.K. Licensee for the popular American board game, Monopoly. As it happened, ‘games and pastimes’ was a category of item qualified for insertion into ‘CARE packages’ dispatched by the International Red Cross to prisoners of war.
    Under the strictest of secrecy, in a securely guarded and inaccessible old workshop on the grounds of Waddington’s, a group of sworn-to-secrecy employees began mass-producing escape maps, keyed to each region of Germany or Italy where Allied POW camps were. When processed, these maps could be folded into such tiny dots that they would actually fit inside a Monopoly playing piece.
    As long as they were at it, the clever workmen at Waddington’s also managed to add: 1. A playing token, containing a small magnetic compass 2. A two-part metal file that could easily be screwed together 3. Useful amounts of genuine high-denomination German, Italian, and French currency hidden within the piles of Monopoly money!
    British and American air crews were advised, before taking off on their first mission, how to identify a ‘rigged’ Monopoly set — by means of a tiny red dot, one cleverly rigged to look like an ordinary printing glitch, located in the corner of the Free Parking square.
    Of the estimated 35,000 Allied POWS who successfully escaped, an estimated one-third were aided in their flight by the rigged Monopoly sets. Everyone who did so was sworn to secrecy indefinitely, since the British Government might want to use this highly successful ruse in still another, future war.
    The story wasn’t declassified until 2007, when the surviving craftsmen from Waddington’s, as well as the firm itself, were finally honored in a public ceremony.
    It’s always nice when you can play that ‘Get Out of Jail’ Free’ card!
    I realize most of you are too young to have any personal connection to WWII, but this is still interesting.

    Story verification: http://blogs.wsj.com/informedreader/2007/11/19/wwii-pows-perk-monopoly-with-real-money/

    Howard Sharpell’s Prisoner of War Story http://www.wwiiexperience.com/wwiiexperience/Prisoners_of_War.html

  • Battle of the Bulge, Monopoly, and Escape

    12/23/2014 1:10:12 PM PST · 7 of 8
    Retain Mike to jagusafr

    I had not watched “Flying Tigers” forever, so I had to look up ‘blood chit” on Wikipedia. They said alternative names were escape and identification flags. That sounds like political correctness to me because it said, “I am an American airman. My plane is destroyed. I cannot speak your language. I am an enemy of the Japanese. Please give me food and take me to the nearest Allied military post. You will be rewarded.”

    Now it seems that could be real nice, if the right people picked you up. Yet if they were more concerned about Japanese reprisals, then that would be a problem. Either way “blood chit” looks like a much better name to me.

  • Battle of the Bulge, Monopoly, and Escape

    12/23/2014 12:35:13 PM PST · 1 of 8
    Retain Mike
    Today I was looking at the roster for the Naval Assault Craft Veterans Association of which I am a member, and saw it listed only one WW II veteran when a few years back there were dozens. I feel fortunate to still exchange emails with a man who was a combat engineer during the Battle of the Bulge. Here is an amazing story from one of the “Greatest Generation” that I met when “Uncle Howard” attended a family wedding. He was not a real uncle, but has always been a close friend of the family. His note is especially poignant when you realize, after his capture during the Battle of the Bulge, he escaped successfully on April 13 and the war ended less than a month later on May 8. Very likely Bill Bremley and others who stayed behind were executed as a reprisal for the escape. You can read his entire prisoner of war story at the second link below.

    By the way he meets weekly with other escaped prisoners of war at a local restaurant. How I wish I could be there.

  • Americans and Belgians mark 70th anniversary of Battle of the Bulge

    12/22/2014 12:28:58 PM PST · 22 of 23
    Retain Mike to DeaconBenjamin; riverdawg; Timocrat; tanknetter; SunkenCiv

    I have watched Band of Brothers several times without realizing the significance of the German armor attacking their position outside Bastogne. Obviously the rifle company alone is not going to stop them, but not until I read Charles B. Macdonald’s book A Time for Trumpets did I realize a lot of other folks were ordered to or retreated into the town.

    Overall General McAuliffe directed eleven artillery battalions and tanks from two armored divisions as well as his paratroopers. Remnants of the 9th Armored CCR including the 73rd Armored Field Artillery retreated into the town. The CCB of the 10th Armored was detached and ordered to race and occupy Bastogne ahead of the Nazi’s. It took heavy casualties along the way, but arrived with 30 tanks and the 420th Armored Field Artillery Battalion. The 705th Tank Destroyer Battalion was ordered forward and arrived with 36 powerful 76mm long cannon. The 28th Division contributed 109th and 687th Field Artillery Battalions when they were driven back by the Germans. He says there 155mm cannon detached from Corps artillery and there was also a Team SNAFU that accumulated the many stragglers that ended up in this road junction.

  • Pearl Harbor Countdown, Admiral James O. Richardson

    12/15/2014 9:34:03 PM PST · 71 of 71
    Retain Mike to Rockingham
    I can and did agree an attack on Pearl Harbor was both possible and a risk that had to be prepared against. However, I’ll still maintain for now it was both improbable and unexpected.

    Admiral Yarnell conducted a raid, but not a strategic attack. The author in the article says, “For the first time in history, there existed a carrier force comprising enough aircraft to do strategically meaningful things on the battlefield. Instead of just scouting, Kido Butai had the ability to attack enemy fleets—and enemy fleet bases.” He did and I need to do a better job of emphasizing the magnitude of the Japanese accomplishment.

    When I looked up Admiral Yarnell on the Internet I found the below comment indicating his dramatic demonstration did not have the impact it could have had although defenses at Pearl were much more formidable than in 1932.
    “Ironically, in the U.S., the battleship admirals voted down a reassessment of naval tactics. The umpire's report did not even mention the stunning success of Yarnell’s exercise. Instead they wrote, ‘It is doubtful if air attacks can be launched against Oahu in the face of strong defensive aviation without subjecting the attacking carriers to the danger of material damage and consequent great losses in the attack air force.’”
    He could have been legitimately rebutted for emptying the decks of every operational aircraft for the attack. He should have left at least half of both fighter squadrons behind to defend the task forces.

    Enticing the U.S. Navy into a sea battle in the Western Pacific was Japan’s best option. Japanese ships of short operational range would not be at a disadvantage. Japan could use land based reconnaissance and attack aircraft in battles as we attempted to counter their attacks against Guam and the Philippines. Ships lost at sea could not be recovered as they could if they were hit in harbor. But Japan’s Naval General Staff lost the arguments.

    That statement by Layton relates to his last briefing of Kimmel and makes the point of just how indecisive it had to be when it was only based on traffic analysis. Naval traffic analysis in Hawaii had detected a message flurry followed by radio silence as they had observed for tactical operations in February and July when major units had remained in port. In context he talks about what is possible after telling Kimmel what is probable.

  • CIA torture report released; Obama says tactics harmed America

    12/09/2014 1:02:02 PM PST · 71 of 81
    Retain Mike to FatherofFive; mulligan; SECURE AMERICA; servantboy777; Red Badger; dfwgator

    Navy Sere training in San Diego during late 60’s to early 70’s began with cooking trainees in a corrugated metal box. Next instructors in black pajamas carrying AK-47’s dragged them out to stand at attention while they hoisted the VC flag. The week went downhill from there. There was sleep deprivation, slapping, water boarding, stress positions, etc. with no Ensure offered.

    Terrorists remain unresponsive to direct questioning and psychological gambits. Effective interrogation necessitates also applying all stress and coercion techniques our military encounters in survival schools. Effective interrogation requires combining these techniques within a continually confused and uncertain environment.

    Rep. Peter DeFazio wrote to me of 20 former Army interrogators saying that abuse and torture of prisoners and detainees should be avoided at all costs. I find that assertion disturbing, because on Sept. 11, 2001, we were prepared to shoot down any civilian airliner that did not land immediately, regardless of its crew’s assertions. At what level of butchery do we decide to protect the lives of our citizens at all costs?

    For my representative and others, U.S. victory definition must reside wholly within interrogation processes seeking tranquil, self-created moral high ground, affirming their illusion of national greatness. Islamic jihadists define victory as U.S. submission through elaborate and extensive slaughters. Given jihadists avoid desired U.S. scenarios for conflict, they win by their definition. However, according to Congress, the President, the media and our intellectual elites, we perish by the thousands, but win by our definition.

  • Pearl Harbor Countdown, Admiral James O. Richardson

    12/09/2014 11:12:10 AM PST · 68 of 71
    Retain Mike to PieterCasparzen

    David Bergamini in Japan’s Imperial Conspiracy does say Hirohito suggested study of a Pearl Harbor attack in January 1941. However, in September 1941 Hirohoto takes the unprecedented step of personally reprimanding the Supreme Command for claiming that diplomacy took precedence over military action while setting a definite deadline for military action. He said he was striving to introduce into the present Emperor Meiji’s ideal of international peace. That meeting should have been the primary talk among Imperial circles for months.

    The suggestion of the Pearl Harbor attack went from the Navy General Staff to Yamamoto who lived on the Yamato I think to avoid possible assassination. Here the idea grew to fruition in a highly closed environment. In reading books like Bergamini’s and Gordon Prange’s At Dawn We Slept, I don’t find evidence of communications to political or private individuals that could have disclosed the attack. It appears that after final approval by the Navy General Staff all communication by the fleet with anyone ended.

  • Pearl Harbor Countdown, Admiral James O. Richardson

    12/09/2014 10:20:01 AM PST · 66 of 71
    Retain Mike to Rockingham

    Exhibit 40 makes good reading and I made a copy to keep with my Prange book. However, delivering an attack by twelve squadrons would require every CV the Japanese had and then the decks would be empty of aircraft leaving nothing to defend the task force or launch a counter attack. The Japanese added two CVL’s for Pearl Harbor. When Yamamoto took six carriers he left the complex and extensive southern operations almost totally dependent on land based aircraft. Those folks were not happy and had opposed him vigorously.

    In stating the maximum, the writer makes a speculation unexampled by actual operations or any war gaming. I remember a 1930’s Navy exercise involving attack by a single carrier on the Panama Canal, so I am willing to believe that my source on the subject of multiple carrier operations has done his homework. I said the attack was possible and therefore plausible, but not probable. Sorry about that terrible sentence, but must have been just too tired to wordsmith it properly.

    Naval History: Pearl Harbor’s Overlooked Answer
    http://www.usni.org/magazines/navalhistory/2011-12/pearl-harbors-overlooked-answer

    Yes, we can certainly agree on point One. It agrees to my first post which said, “Revisionists offer arguments that FDR, Cordell Hull, and George Marshall foreknew the Pearl Harbor attack. These authors review historical events for those few data points that indicate an overwhelming attack. However, living history forward means accumulating and discerning patterns from 10,000’s of data points coming from humint, radio traffic analysis, code breaking, etc…..

    The attack was a truly unexpected and improbable use of the Japanese air fleet.”

  • Pearl Harbor Countdown, Admiral James O. Richardson

    12/07/2014 9:27:22 PM PST · 62 of 71
    Retain Mike to Rockingham

    Until presented proof otherwise, I’ll maintain for those saying FDR, George Marshall and Cordell Hull had a unique foreknowledge of a Pearl Harbor attack requires looking backwards and piecing together specific data points to prove their thesis. They have had to ignore the fact that these men were living out history forwards. The information the country received from traffic analysis, informants, investigations, and code braking swam in a sea of 10,000’s of data points each month. Remember a few years ago you could buy pictures that seemed a mass of random color pixels, but a single picture emerged if you stared at it in the right way? In this case a host of pictures emerged each week. To make some sense of this data it had to fit probable alternatives.

    The population of the probable (in the fall of 1941 we had too few resources to deal with the possible as well) had to fit into War Plan Orange and the corresponding Japanese plan, which was generally known to the U.S. Both plans envisioned the supreme naval battle would be fought in the Western Pacific. Both navies were disciples of Alfred Thayer Mahan who wrote the outcome of war at sea would always be decided by the “decisive naval battle”. Past history had borne that out at Trafalgar, Tsushima, and Jutland. For Jutland Churchill said, “Jellicoe was the one man who could have lost the war in an afternoon”.

    When Yamamoto proposed his radical departure from Japanese strategic principles only his firm commitment to resign at a meeting in October 1941 sealed the deal. The Naval General Staff could either find a new commander of the fleet at this late date, or accept his radical departure from existing plans.

    In this country Plan Orange continued to determine the most probable interpretation to place on intelligence and events. That may have been an important factor for ignoring the implication of the data point called the “bomb plot” message. In September 1941 the U.S. decrypted a message sent to the Japanese Honolulu consulate asking for reports of ships anchoring or tying to wharves in five specific areas. Some thought this a departure from the ordinary while others thought this a normal interest in ship movements that could help them understand how quickly the fleet could sortie for that “decisive naval battle”.

    It seems that only after the war started were men appreciated who could think outside normal channels. In the Pacific I think of men like Nimitz, Rochefort, and Doolittle.

  • Pearl Harbor Countdown, Admiral James O. Richardson

    12/07/2014 3:34:30 PM PST · 56 of 71
    Retain Mike to CrazyIvan

    Target Tokyo: The Story of the Sorge Spy Ring and Miracle at Midway are two other must have books by him. He is soooo good.

  • Pearl Harbor Countdown, Admiral James O. Richardson

    12/07/2014 3:25:31 PM PST · 55 of 71
    Retain Mike to PieterCasparzen

    In terms of a knockout blow U.S. War Plan Orange and the corresponding Japanese plan, which was generally known to us, envisioned the supreme naval battle would be fought in the Western Pacific. Both navies were disciples of Alfred Thayer Mahan who wrote the outcome of war at sea would always be decided by the “decisive naval battle”. Past history bore that out at Trafalgar, Tsushima, and Jutland. For Jutland Churchill said, “Jellicoe was the one man who could have lost the war in an afternoon”.

    When Yamamoto proposed this radical departure from Japanese strategic principles only his firm commitment to resign at a meeting in October 1941 forced the Naval General Staff to accept his radical departure from existing plans or find another fleet commander. In this country Plan Orange continued to determine the most probable interpretation to place on intelligence and events.

    Submarine action, sabotage, and an air raid were considered possibilities, but a six carrier task force was not on anyone’s radar. (Sorry about the pun.)

  • Pearl Harbor Countdown, Admiral James O. Richardson

    12/06/2014 10:32:19 PM PST · 39 of 71
    Retain Mike to PieterCasparzen

    This limited discussion of the Pearl Harbor conspiracy theorists covered only the likelihood the attack would be considered probable and/or of such a scale. Gordon W. Prange in writing At Dawn We Slept presented arguably the most scholarly, well researched volume on the attack from both the Japanese and American perspectives. The book ends with an eleven page summary refuting a host of revisionist imaginings including internal political collusion, secret treaties and international intrigues.

  • Pearl Harbor Countdown, Admiral James O. Richardson

    12/06/2014 8:48:52 PM PST · 28 of 71
    Retain Mike to Jacquerie; CrazyIvan; bravo whiskey; Rockingham

    Revisionists offer arguments that FDR, Cordell Hull, and George Marshall foreknew the Pearl Harbor attack. These authors review historical events for those few data points that indicate an overwhelming attack. However, living history forward means accumulating and discerning patterns from 10,000’s of data points coming from humint, radio traffic analysis, code breaking, etc.

    The Pearl Harbor attack astonished the administration and military professionals. Never before had even two carriers for any country planned and/or coordinated an attack on a naval or land target. No inkling existed in any allied Naval operational and intelligence community of a capability beyond the 21 bi-plane torpedo bombers from a single British carrier that attacked the Italian Navy at Taranto.

    Yet, for Pearl Harbor the Japanese had forged a strategic weapon of six carriers with escorts and auxiliaries for a coordinated attack by 360 planes. The attack was not only unprecedented, but unexpected, because all preparations were conducted without recourse to the diplomatic Purple Code that U.S. codebreakers were reading in substantial portions. The U.S. had no agents in Japan and the Imperial Japanese Navy excluded the diplomatic corps from their plans.

    To solve problems regarding bombing, torpedoes, and underway refueling the attack plan relied on oral doctrines and technical innovations developed during the last ninety days prior to deployment. Therefore, even reading the naval JN25 code vital for Midway would not have helped.

    The attack was a truly unexpected and improbable use of the Japanese air fleet.

    War Plan Orange
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/War_Plan_Orange
    Naval History: Pearl Harbor’s Overlooked Answer
    http://www.usni.org/magazines/navalhistory/2011-12/pearl-harbors-overlooked-answer

    “And I Was There” by Rear Admiral Edwin T. Layton

    At Dawn We Slept by Gordon W. Prange

  • Rand Paul: America Partly To Blame For Pearl Harbor, World War II

    12/05/2014 4:44:40 PM PST · 130 of 130
    Retain Mike to thetallguy24; cripplecreek; Count of Monte Fisto; Parmenio; allendale; CitizenUSA; SampleMan; ...

    The blockade in regard to oil and scrape metal may have impacted the timing, but not the adversary. In the 1920’s the factions formed for determinations to “strike north” meaning attack the Soviet Union or “strike south” meaning attack the colonial possessions of the French, Dutch and British. Either pattern of conquest would give them access to the resources they wanted. However, by the mid 1930’s the issue had been resolved in favor of the “strike south” faction that Hirohito supported. You can read a good discussion of the subject in Japan’s Imperial Conspiracy by David Bergamini and Hirohito by Edward Behr.

    This imperial militarist society never contemplated the possibility they could achieve prosperity by peaceful commercial means as Japan if fact did during the 1970’s.

  • The Magnificent Infantry of WW II

    12/05/2014 3:42:53 PM PST · 16 of 17
    Retain Mike to morphing libertarian

    Now this is great. Thanks for posting.

  • Carl Gustaf 1915 Mauser

    12/05/2014 3:35:34 PM PST · 27 of 27
    Retain Mike to SampleMan

    Sorry I took so long to get back to you. I forgot this post was not finished. Thank you so much for the information.

  • Carl Gustaf 1915 Mauser

    11/23/2014 3:27:15 PM PST · 19 of 27
    Retain Mike to SampleMan

    There are three sections.

    Torped Overslag 0 Str (With umlaut over O)

    6,51 followed by 23456789 over 6,48 followed by 7890 (there is a stamp mark a base of the 0)

    1 over 23

    The full name is Carl Gustafs Stade Gevarfaktori 1915

  • Carl Gustaf 1915 Mauser

    11/22/2014 8:16:39 PM PST · 1 of 27
    Retain Mike
  • The Magnificent Infantry of WW II

    11/11/2014 8:58:57 PM PST · 7 of 17
    Retain Mike to ansel12

    Yours is a unique response compared to the 30 or more who found this essay a fitting tribute to the “Queen of Battle” on Veterans Day, and to the many who would have missed the insights found here if I had posted it only once.

  • The Magnificent Infantry of WW II

    11/11/2014 6:04:22 PM PST · 1 of 17
    Retain Mike
    I wrote this essay to be my contribution to Memorial Day and Veteran’s Day. My greatest contact with these men started about age nine when my dad began taking me out golfing on the weekends. There was a man who used the first golf cart I ever saw, because as a brigade commander of the 41th infantry in New Guinea he was debilitated by sickness. I remember one fairly good golfer who had kind of a weird back swing, because he was crippled while serving with the Big Red One in Sicily. I often ended up as a dishwasher at Michelbook Country Club. I noticed the chef always limped as he moved around the kitchen. When he saw my puzzled look, he said he got the limp from a wound received when he was with the Rangers at Pointe De Hoc. Those are just a few of the stories I remember among so many I could relate or have forgotten.

    My motivation for this subject and what I have a hard time understanding still is the casualty rates in those divisions chosen repeatedly for initial assaults. For the divisions with the high casualty rates, wouldn’t they have to reconstitute and retrain the rifle platoons every thirty to ninety days? However, that seems to have been the case, because I trust my sources and the math.

    I know the corps and army commanders had favorites for the initial attacks and used these divisions repeatedly. It seems other divisions were usually sent to less active sectors, entered combat later in time, or occupied a flank in an attack.

  • The Magnificent Infantry of WW II

    11/11/2014 10:01:49 AM PST · 1 of 9
    Retain Mike
    I wrote this letter and Op-Ed to be my contribution to Memorial Day and Veteran’s Day. My greatest contact with these men started about age nine when my dad began taking me out golfing on the weekends. There was a man who used the first golf cart I ever saw, because as a brigade commander of the 41th infantry in New Guinea he was debilitated by sickness. I remember one fairly good golfer who had kind of a weird back swing, because he was crippled while serving with the Big Red One in Sicily. I often ended up as a dishwasher at Michelbook Country Club. I noticed the chef always limped as he moved around the kitchen. When he saw my puzzled look, he said he got the limp from a wound received when he was with the Rangers at Pointe De Hoc. Those are just a few of the stories I remember among so many I could relate or have forgotten.

    My motivation for this subject and what I have a hard time understanding still is the casualty rates in those divisions chosen repeatedly for initial assaults. For the divisions with the high casualty rates, wouldn’t they have to reconstitute and retrain the rifle platoons every thirty to ninety days? However, that seems to have been the case, because I trust my sources and the math.

    I know the corps and army commanders had favorites for the initial attacks and used these divisions repeatedly. It seems other divisions were usually sent to less active sectors, entered combat later in time, or occupied a flank in an attack.

  • The Magnificent Infantry of WW II

    11/10/2014 9:20:29 PM PST · 14 of 16
    Retain Mike to jmacusa
    I picked the 4th and the 29th for my example because the 1st was in North Africa and Sicily as well. Those eleven months seem a good perspective for my illustration.
  • The Magnificent Infantry of WW II

    11/10/2014 9:15:57 PM PST · 13 of 16
    Retain Mike to FirstFlaBn

    You are right. The one source I used though breaks out the armored divisions as a separate catagory. They also separate out the paratroop divisions and the 10th Mountain.

  • The Magnificent Infantry of WW II

    11/10/2014 5:05:50 PM PST · 1 of 16
    Retain Mike
    I wrote this essay to be my contribution to Memorial Day and Veteran’s Day. My greatest contact with these men started about age nine when my dad began taking me out golfing on the weekends. There was a man who used the first golf cart I ever saw, because as a brigade commander of the 41th infantry in New Guinea he was debilitated by sickness. I remember one fairly good golfer who had kind of a weird back swing, because he was crippled while serving with the Big Red One in Sicily. I often ended up as a dishwasher at Michelbook Country Club. I noticed the chef always limped as he moved around the kitchen. When he saw my puzzled look, he said he got the limp from a wound received when he was with the Rangers at Pointe De Hoc. Those are just a few of the stories I remember among so many I could relate or have forgotten.

    My motivation for this subject and what I have a hard time understanding still is the casualty rates in those divisions chosen repeatedly for initial assaults. For the divisions with the high casualty rates, wouldn’t they have to reconstitute and retrain the rifle platoons every thirty to ninety days? However, that seems to have been the case, because I trust my sources and the math.

    I know the corps and army commanders had favorites for the initial attacks and used these divisions repeatedly. It seems other divisions were usually sent to less active sectors, entered combat later in time, or occupied a flank in an attack.

  • The Magnificent Infantry of WW II

    11/10/2014 4:12:15 PM PST · 24 of 28
    Retain Mike to Hugin

    I love those images. I have his book.

  • The Magnificent Infantry of WW II

    11/10/2014 2:07:35 PM PST · 22 of 28
    Retain Mike to righttackle44

    I added the 45th to my Excel schedule. It suffered 20,993 battle casualties of whom 4160 were deaths. That translates into 150% casualties for the division. Choosing 75% for losses in the rifle platoons means 486% total of whom 96% were killed.

  • The Magnificent Infantry of WW II

    11/10/2014 1:48:48 PM PST · 21 of 28
    Retain Mike to PeterPrinciple
    I have a story about night operations by a friend who was an infantryman in Vietnam. As the sun was going down it was important for sentries to remember in detail how the area in front of them looked and be ready to pass information on the their relief. That way the minutest change would indicate the presence of the enemy. i am sooo glad I was Navy
  • The Magnificent Infantry of WW II

    11/10/2014 12:11:02 PM PST · 1 of 28
    Retain Mike
    I wrote this essay to be my contribution to Memorial Day and Veteran’s Day. My greatest contact with these men started about age nine when my dad began taking me out golfing on the weekends. There was a man who used the first golf cart I ever saw, because as a brigade commander of the 41th infantry in New Guinea he was debilitated by sickness. I remember one fairly good golfer who had kind of a weird back swing, because he was crippled while serving with the Big Red One in Sicily. I often ended up as a dishwasher at Michelbook Country Club. I noticed the chef always limped as he moved around the kitchen. When he saw my puzzled look, he said he got the limp from a wound received when he was with the Rangers at Pointe De Hoc. Those are just a few of the stories I remember among so many I have forgotten.

    My motivation for this subject and what I have a hard time understanding still is the casualty rates in those divisions chosen repeatedly for initial assaults. For the divisions with the high casualty rates, wouldn’t they have to reconstitute and retrain the rifle platoons every thirty to ninety days? However, that seems to have been the case, because I trust my sources and I have checked my math.

    I know the corps and army commanders had favorites for the initial attacks and used these divisions repeatedly. It seems other divisions were usually sent to less active sectors, entered combat later in time, or occupied a flank in an attack.

  • 'Our Enemy Is Not Terrorism'

    09/02/2014 9:27:13 PM PDT · 36 of 41
    Retain Mike to Bryanw92; Biggirl

    I may have to admit you folks are right. Two billion out of a world population of seven billion are Muslim, but truly almost all are irrelevant because they are controlled by authoritarian governments that followed violent roads to power. There does not seem to be much left of a spiritual faith component after 900 plus years.

    About 1100 AD Hassan bin Sabah, who inherited the Assassin’s Guild, enlightened Islamist societies to terrorism as foundational statecraft for political prosperity. Philosophical and religious lawyers retained their lives, and obtained support for and from dictators by backwards engineering the Koran into useful totalitarian heterodoxies. Concurrently, foundational thought including Jews, Christians and Muslims as ‘People of the Book” became hazardous. Concurrently, men of Saladin’s character and his Sufism stressing individual relationship with God thatexalted individuals in society became marginalized. Concurrently, extraordinary Arab achievements in mathematics, philosophy, science, and medicine submerged within authoritarian and feral societies. Omar Khayyam, Ibn al-Haytham, and Abu Ali al-Hussain Ibn Sina had no successors for uncompromising, independent thought. Such simultaneous extinctions do provide compelling evidence of a pervasive contagion subverting the Middle East.

    Now all we see is bloody electioneering among aspiring Islamic totalitarians causing them to grasp and retain their power by crafting superior alliances of human cunning and animal brutality. Once acquired these skills easily replicate through generations for managing philosophies from Democracy to Communism. The natural result in our present time establishes “The Democratic (or) Islamic Peoples Republic of Whatever”.

    I often think the world was a better place to live in when it was owned by basically nine countries and any differences were settled by offensives through the Ardennes forest.

  • 'Our Enemy Is Not Terrorism'

    09/02/2014 5:22:12 PM PDT · 34 of 41
    Retain Mike to workerbee
    I think this refers to profiling. That reminds me of an email which identified the terrorists associated with innumerable attacks and they were all young Arab men. The implication was that these people should be profiled
  • 'Our Enemy Is Not Terrorism'

    09/02/2014 5:16:33 PM PDT · 32 of 41
    Retain Mike to Thommas

    Here, Here. We seem to no longer be able to identify any enemy.

  • 'Our Enemy Is Not Terrorism'

    09/02/2014 1:29:38 PM PDT · 1 of 41
    Retain Mike
    I believe only John Lehman was willing to speak reasonably and to speak up concerning our dilemma. The above article is an example of the point other commission members never acknowledged and the public never got.

    The composition of the 9-11 commission guaranteed a show trial against the Bush administration. There were six lawyers among the ten members, including a Democratic Watergate prosecutor and a Clinton deputy attorney general. There were no emeritus members with law enforcement, intelligence, or military backgrounds. No more than three of the ten had backgrounds that might have allowed them to contribute meaningfully on national security issues.

    Remember the commission could easily have selected information to accuse Bill Clinton. The state of war was confirmed by attacks on the Trade Center in 1993, in Saudi Arabia 1995 and 1996, and with the embassy bombings in 1998. In response, he directed DOD to facilitate terrorist participation in our criminal justice system. Jamie Gorelick’s legal opinion on separation of national and international intelligence made improbable the right data would be compiled into meaningful intelligence reports. In hindsight these decisions were feckless, but they are consistent with the complacency and apathy infecting our society and its institutions.

    The above article also shows that over ten years have passed, and John Leyman’s optimism was not justified because we still have not defined the enemy. Obama’s seeking a strategy to deal with ISIS sounds like McCain’s and Obama’s determination to “get bin Laden“. But with ISIS, shouldn’t the most gullible finally realize that bin Laden’s death hardly constituted victory when we face the first campaigns of a long war against terrorism?

    Our real enemy is Wahhabi Jihadism and not the latest mercurial, sociopathic prophets emerging from the Wahhabi/Salafi heresy. These teachings provide the ideological framework coverts embrace to justify not only totalitarianism, but also stateless terrorism. This heresy considers Jews, Christians, Sunnis, Shi’as and secularists as sub-human, legitimate objects for slaughter. It rejects traditional Muslim allegiances to family, tribe, ethnicity, and country. The Caliphate sought requires no particular human or physical remnant. Therefore those using terrorist political stratagems become immune to diplomacy, containment, or retaliation.

    Article 13 of the First and Second Geneva Conventions and Article 3 of the Fourth Convention tell us terrorists are not the armed forces, militias, volunteer corps, insurgents, or freedom fighters of any country or authority. They are not an organized resistance movement carrying arms openly and have no distinctive identifier. They avoid the rules of war to focus on the torture and murder of Protected Persons as defined by all Conventions. Such cunning, barbaric adversaries best fit Webster’s definition for a virus. Choosing existence beyond the pale means the rules of war presuppose their eradication.

    However, eradication precludes political theater. Sustained political/military intervention must fracture terrorist organizations, and promote those seldom heard in African, Asian, and Oriental countries, who would lead representative governments guaranteeing universal speech, religion, and private property freedoms for all. Such initiatives would bring Global War on Terror (GWOT) victory by frustrating plans, breaking alliances and fracturing organizations of Wahhabi Jihadists into ever less effective units. Without cities, countries or armies bin Laden, and successor sociopath prophets would live out unnaturally shortened lives as pariahs.

    Frontline: Saudi Time Bomb: http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/saudi/

    'Our Enemy Is Not Terrorism' http://www.usni.org/magazines/proceedings/2004-05/our-enemy-not-terrorism

    A New Approach to Safeguarding Americans (Obama’s Way) http://www.whitehouse.gov/the_press_office/Remarks-by-John-Brennan-at-the-Center-for-Strategic-and-International-Studies/ First Geneva Convention (1949) http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/First_Geneva_Convention_(1949)

    Geneva Convention/Second Geneva Convention http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Second_Geneva_Convention

    Geneva Convention/Fourth Geneva Convention http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Fourth_Geneva_Convention

  • Barton J. Bernstein: American conservatives are the forgotten critics of the atomic bombing of Japan

    08/17/2014 7:25:33 PM PDT · 57 of 57
    Retain Mike to Politicalkiddo

    Those two cities would be considered military targets within the meaning of the Third Geneva Convention based on the then ability to precision bomb, but further discussion would require an essay. The short version is precision bombing (?) generally meant putting 10%-20% of bombs on the target. Also, wartime Japan relied on a host of surrounding cottage industries to keep their plants going.

  • Dropping Atomic Bombs on Japan Was Imperative

    08/15/2014 2:18:12 PM PDT · 24 of 26
    Retain Mike to Vendome

    I have this interview of Paul Tibbets by a guy named Studs Terkel. In answer to one question Tibbets includes in his answer, “then Tom Ferebee has to fill out his bombardier’s report and Dutch, the navigator, has to fill out a log. Tom is working on his log and says, ‘Dutch, what time were we over the target?’ And Dutch says, ‘Nine-fifteen plus 15 seconds… ‘Ferebee says: ‘what lousy navigating. Fifteen seconds off!’” So it looks like there is one hour difference.

  • Dropping Atomic Bombs on Japan Was Imperative

    08/15/2014 12:30:28 PM PDT · 22 of 26
    Retain Mike to Vendome

    I hadn’t seen that in any of my sources. That is so nice.

  • Dropping Atomic Bombs on Japan Was Imperative

    08/15/2014 12:29:12 PM PDT · 21 of 26
    Retain Mike to WriteOn

    Sorry about that, but I’ll stick with the perspective of the Greatest Generation and their parents who sacrificed while living through this history as related in last two paragraphs below from my essay.

    By the way those two cities would be considered military targets within the meaning of the Third Geneva Convention based on the then ability to precision bomb, but that is another essay. I’ll agree about Dresden though, because the map I saw shows the military targets and worker housing were I think towards the north, northwest, and west of the central area the British chose for their night raid. I think the city should have been on the U.S. list for a daylight attack. London was as much stupid as immoral, because Hitler abandoned the target plans that would have degraded the British ability to wage war and feed themselves.

    “The moral failure of a negotiated peace requiring anything less than total submission was unacceptable. Allowing a blockade to operate interminably, while deferring to the War Faction any decision about whether Japanese and allied prisoner deaths met their 20 million standards was intolerable. Allowing months of diplomatic dithering to accompany additional hundreds of thousands of civilian and military deaths throughout Asia was intolerable. An imperial, militarist Japan could not be allowed to intimidate future generations when they were on the cusp of producing nuclear weapons.

    Allowing the premeditated ignorance of revisionists center stage as the institutional knowledge of the Greatest Generation and their parents and grandparents dies away must remain intolerable.”

  • Dropping Atomic Bombs on Japan Was Imperative

    08/14/2014 8:21:40 PM PDT · 1 of 26
    Retain Mike
    In retirement I am always motivated to study WW II history because of the men I grew up around and admired. At about nine my father began taking me out golfing with him on the weekends and most everyone we played with was a veteran. I remember there was a man who used the first golf cart I ever saw, because as a brigade commander of the 41st infantry in New Guinea he was permanently debilitated by sickness. One fairly good golfer had a weird back swing, because he was crippled while serving with the Big Red One in Sicily. Later I often ended up as a dishwasher at our club. The chef noticed my puzzled look as he limped around the kitchen. He said he got the limp from a wound received when he was with the Rangers at Pointe De Hoc.

    There are many other stories I overheard and could relate, but one consistently repeated theme was how their unit or ship was scheduled for the Japan invasion. They always thanked God they didn’t have to become fodder for that killing machine. Therefore I developed and now rework from suggestions I receive and from additional sources this narrative about dropping the atomic bombs. I also break it into four letters I send to papers.

    Based of feedback so far I need to add a discussion about the increasing fragility our leaders were noting on the home front concerning support for the war. The casualties beginning in June 1944 into summer of 1945 were much greater than the experience of this country in the previous two and half years. I remember the story told by one man who was too young to serve, but as an adolescent delivered telegrams part-time for the local Western Union office. He eventually quit, because every day he had to deliver the death notices and people began looking at him as a death angel with some combination of anxiety and hatred.

    The partial biography of the sources I used contains a lot of helpful insights and perspectives I didn’t emphasize. The recently published book Hell to Pay by D. M. Giangreco is especially valuable. I was able to find confirmation of so many of my other sources in his book. About 30% of the book is bibliography, appendices, and notes.

  • Dropping Atomic Bombs on Japan Was Imperative

    08/09/2014 10:32:45 PM PDT · 19 of 22
    Retain Mike to Doc91678

    No, I haven’t. The closest I come is from an unpublished memoir by a Marine Naval artillery spotter on Iwo Jima. He saw one battalion after another get chewed up as they took the island. In this one case he saw a battalion commander walk up and down the line ordering his Marines to charge and they refused. Eventually the Japanese shot him. He didn’t say whether the battalion eventually attacked.

  • Dropping Atomic Bombs on Japan Was Imperative

    08/09/2014 10:14:48 PM PDT · 18 of 22
    Retain Mike to Sivad

    Thank you.