Recyling filament sounds like a good idea, but I stay away from it. There have been hobbyists giving away plans for making your own plastic recycler to make new filament, for years. Problem is, current 3D printer extruders are very fragile mechanisms if they aren't fed well-made filament. Bubbles, contaminants, moisture and imperfections can cause feed problems and jams. Once a bubble pops (sometimes caused by moisture in the filament), your extruder nozzle can get clogged and burn the filament within, and can damage the feed mechanism. So if astronauts use recycled filament, I hope they carry along extra nozzles.
FYI - I replaced the feed mechanisms on my printers with 3D printed versions, so no problem there. Jammed nozzles and tubes can be cleaned out with a micro drill, but it's a lot of work. Easier to just use replacement parts. Even better, use only high-quality manufactured filament (and keep it dry).