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Keyword: emptydna

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  • DNA reveals details of the peopling of the Americas

    09/02/2013 8:46:52 AM PDT · by SunkenCiv · 32 replies
    Science News ^ | August 12, 2013 | Tina Hesman Saey
    The scientists examined the DNA of mitochondria, tiny power plants within cells that get passed down from mother to child. Scientists use mitochondrial DNA from living populations to decipher ancient movements of their ancestors. Most studies have examined only a small part of the mitochondria's circular piece of DNA. But Antonio Torroni, a geneticist at the University of Pavia in Italy, and his coauthors compiled complete mitochondrial genomes from 41 native North Americans and combined that data with information from previous studies... supports the widely accepted notion of an initial coastal migration wave. A second wave of migration probably left...
  • Polar bears' ancient roots pushed way back

    07/25/2012 6:22:06 PM PDT · by SunkenCiv · 28 replies
    Science News ^ | Monday, July 23rd, 2012 | Devin Powell
    ...A new analysis of its DNA suggests that Ursus maritimus split from the brown bear between 4 million and 5 million years ago -- around the same time when, some scientists believe, the Arctic's thick sea ice first formed. With such old origins, the creature must have weathered extreme shifts in climate, researchers report online July 23 in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Simulations of how the DNA changed over time suggest that polar bear populations rose and fell with the temperature. After thriving during cooler times between 800,000 and 600,000 years ago, the bears seem to...
  • Vikings were successful at invading, alright, but did they also bring.. wisdom?

    02/08/2012 9:13:50 PM PST · by WesternCulture · 39 replies · 2+ views
    http://www.beyondweird.com/high-one.html ^ | 02/09/2012 | WesternCulture
    Our offspring and culture is the most successful feature of the History of Mankind. Ancient Rome and Greece have nothing on Scandinavia of today, nor what we did some centuries after Rome came down. No, I'm not a Racist - and I furthermore am more than a true friend of Italy and Greece. But I do not believe there's a point in denying the fact that Viking Culture has played a major role in shaping the World of today. Have a look at it. Britain, North America, Scandinavia, Germany, etc. in one way or another, all were formed by the...
  • Ancient DNA Reveals Lack Of Continuity - Neolithic Hunter-Gatherers And Contemporary Scandinavians

    01/02/2012 6:33:58 AM PST · by blam · 42 replies
    Science Direct ^ | Department of Evolutionary Biology, Uppsala University, SE-11863 Uppsala, Sweden
    Ancient DNA Reveals Lack Of Continuity Between Neolithic Hunter-Gatherers And Contemporary Scandinavians September 24, 2009. Summary The driving force behind the transition from a foraging to a farming lifestyle in prehistoric Europe (Neolithization) has been debated for more than a century [1] , [2] and [3] . Of particular interest is whether population replacement or cultural exchange was responsible [3] , [4] and [5] . Scandinavia holds a unique place in this debate, for it maintained one of the last major hunter-gatherer complexes in Neolithic Europe, the Pitted Ware culture [6]. Intriguingly, these late hunter-gatherers existed in parallel to early...
  • Mating with Neanderthals Good for Human Health

    06/17/2011 2:29:08 PM PDT · by SunkenCiv · 47 replies
    Discovery News ^ | Friday, June 17, 2011 | Tim Wall
    Interbreeding between humans and Neanderthals may have given Europeans and Asians resistance to northern diseases that their African ancestors didn't have. Peter Parham, professor of microbiology and immunology at Stanford, recently presented evidence to the Royal Society in London that Europeans gained many of the genes for human leukocyte antigens (HLAs) from neanderthals. The antigens helped them adapt to diseases in the north much more quickly than would have otherwise occurred. Comparisons of the human and Neanderthal genomes were conducted by Parham to locate similarities and differences in the DNA of modern human populations and Neanderthals. Parham found that modern...
  • We are all mutants

    06/12/2011 10:39:43 AM PDT · by decimon · 28 replies
    Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute ^ | June 12, 2011 | Unknown
    First direct whole-genome measure of human mutation predicts 60 new mutations in each of usEach one of us receives approximately 60 new mutations in our genome from our parents. This striking value is reported in the first-ever direct measure of new mutations coming from mother and father in whole human genomes published today. For the first time, researchers have been able to answer the questions: how many new mutations does a child have and did most of them come from mum or dad? The researchers measured directly the numbers of mutations in two families, using whole genome sequences from the...
  • Ancient DNA reveals male diffusion through the Neolithic Mediterranean route

    06/02/2011 5:26:34 PM PDT · by SunkenCiv · 21 replies
    The Neolithic is a key period in the history of the European settlement. Although archaeological and present-day genetic data suggest several hypotheses regarding the human migration patterns at this period, validation of these hypotheses with the use of ancient genetic data has been limited. In this context, we studied DNA extracted from 53 individuals buried in a necropolis used by a French local community 5,000 y ago. The relatively good DNA preservation of the samples allowed us to obtain autosomal, Y-chromosomal, and/or mtDNA data for 29 of the 53 samples studied. From these datasets, we established close parental relationships within...
  • Absence of Mitochondrial Proteins May Prevent Age-Related Diseases, Increase Lifespan

    05/12/2011 8:45:07 AM PDT · by decimon · 26 replies
    Daily Tech ^ | May 12, 2011 | Tiffany Kaiser
    Researchers hope to control a group of mitochondrial proteins that attack and damage other functional cell parts, which leads to age-related diseases Thomas Nyström, study leader and a researcher in the Department of Cell and Molecular Biology at the University of Gothenburg, and a team of researchers, have discovered that a group of mitochondrial proteins may be responsible for age-related diseases. Scientists have theorized that the mitochondria, which are the power stations of cells, are responsible for human aging. This theory comes from the fact that mitochondria not only produce the body's energy, but also create harmful byproducts. These byproducts...
  • Solving the puzzle of Henry VIII

    03/03/2011 12:38:11 PM PST · by decimon · 65 replies
    Southern Methodist University ^ | March 3, 2011 | Unknown
    Could blood group anomaly explain Tudor king's reproductive problems and tyrannical behavior?DALLAS (SMU) – Blood group incompatibility between Henry VIII and his wives could have driven the Tudor king's reproductive woes, and a genetic condition related to his suspected blood group could also explain Henry's dramatic mid-life transformation into a physically and mentally-impaired tyrant who executed two of his wives. Research conducted by bioarchaeologist Catrina Banks Whitley while she was a graduate student at SMU (Southern Methodist University) and anthropologist Kyra Kramer shows that the numerous miscarriages suffered by Henry's wives could be explained if the king's blood carried the...
  • Genetic Study Uncovers New Path to Polynesia

    02/05/2011 4:22:23 AM PST · by SunkenCiv · 16 replies · 1+ views
    ScienceDaily ^ | Thursday, February 3, 2011 | University of Leeds
    The islands of Polynesia were first inhabited around 3,000 years ago, but where these people came from has long been a hot topic of debate amongst scientists. The most commonly accepted view, based on archaeological and linguistic evidence as well as genetic studies, is that Pacific islanders were the latter part of a migration south and eastwards from Taiwan which began around 4,000 years ago. But the Leeds research -- published February 3 in The American Journal of Human Genetics -- has found that the link to Taiwan does not stand up to scrutiny. In fact, the DNA of current...
  • Breakthrough as DNA identifies WW1 soldier

    09/15/2007 8:33:55 PM PDT · by DancesWithCats · 28 replies · 757+ views
    London Daily Telegraph ^ | Sept 16, 2007 | DancesWithCats
    By Jasper Copping Last Updated: 1:29am BST 16/09/2007 He was a young man, like so many others, who fell on the battlefield at Passchendaele. Aged just 29, Private Jack Hunter died in the arms of his younger brother, Jim, who buried him there, on the front line, in a shallow grave. Jack Hunter, who died at Passchendaele, with his brother Jim Jack Hunter, who died in the first world war, with his brother Jim Once the guns had fallen silent, Jim returned to look for his brother's body, but the ground had been chewed up by artillery and he could...
  • Population expansion in the N African Late Pleistocene signalled by mitochondrial DNA haplogroup U6

    12/24/2010 7:06:25 AM PST · by SunkenCiv · 34 replies · 1+ views
    7thSpace Interactive ^ | December 21, 2010 | Luisa Pereira et al
    The archaeology of North Africa remains enigmatic, with questions of population continuity versus discontinuity taking centre-stage. Debates have focused on population transitions between the bearers of the Middle Palaeolithic Aterian industry and the later Upper Palaeolithic populations of the Maghreb, as well as between the late Pleistocene and Holocene. Results: Improved resolution of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup U6 phylogeny, by the screening of 39 new complete sequences, has enabled us to infer a signal of moderate population expansion using Bayesian coalescent methods. To ascertain the time for this expansion, we applied both a mutation rate accounting for purifying selection...
  • Chinese villagers 'descended from Roman soldiers'

    11/27/2010 2:33:35 AM PST · by the scotsman · 42 replies · 1+ views
    Daily Telegraph ^ | 27th November 2010 | Nick Squires
    'Genetic testing of villagers in a remote part of China has shown that nearly two thirds of their DNA is of Caucasian origin, lending support to the theory that they may be descended from a 'lost legion' of Roman soldiers.'
  • Roman Descendants Found In China?

    02/01/2007 6:08:49 PM PST · by blam · 35 replies · 2,539+ views
    The Telegraph (UK) ^ | 2-2-2007 | Richard Spencer
    Roman descendants found in China? By Richard Spencer in Liqian, north-west China Last Updated: 1:33am GMT 02/02/2007 Sound and vision: Richard Spencer visits the village of Liqian, China(Click at site) Residents of a remote Chinese village are hoping that DNA tests will prove one of history's most unlikely legends — that they are descended from Roman legionaries lost in antiquity. Villager Cai Junnian with his green eyes and ruddy complexion Scientists have taken blood samples from 93 people living in and around Liqian, a settlement in north-western China on the fringes of the Gobi desert, more than 200 miles from...
  • Romans in China?

    07/18/2004 8:43:09 PM PDT · by SunkenCiv · 19 replies · 1,650+ views
    Archaeology ^ | Volume 52 Number 3, May/June 1999 | Erling Hoh
    This idea was first proposed by Homer Hasenphlug Dubs, an Oxford University professor of Chinese history, who speculated in 1955 that some of the 10,000 Roman prisoners taken by the Parthians after the battle of Carrhae in southeastern Turkey in 53 B.C. made their way east to Uzbekistan to enlist with Jzh Jzh against the Han. Chinese accounts of the battle, in which Jzh Jzh was decapitated and his army defeated, note unusual military formations and the use of wooden fortifications foreign to the nomadic Huns. Dubs postulated that after the battle the Chinese employed the Roman mercenaries as border...
  • Roman Legion Founded Chinese City

    07/31/2005 12:31:23 PM PDT · by blam · 37 replies · 3,270+ views
    Ansa ^ | 7-25-2005
    Roman legion founded Chinese city Survivors of Crassus's routed army said to have built town (ANSA) - Florence, July 25 - Roman soldiers who disappeared after a famous defeat founded a city in eastern China, archaeologists say . The phantom legion was part of the defeated forces of Marcus Licinius Crassus, according to the current edition of the Italian magazine Archeologia Viva . The famously wealthy Crassus needed glory to rival the exploits of the two men with whom he ruled Rome as the First Triumvirate, Pompey the Great and Julius Caesar . Crassus decided to bring down the Parthian...
  • Anthropologists looking for Roman legion in China

    11/22/2010 4:06:21 AM PST · by SunkenCiv · 34 replies · 1+ views
    Newstrack India ^ | Sunday, November 21, 2010 | ANI
    Experts at the newly established Italian Studies Center at Lanzhou University in Gansu province are looking into the possibility that some European-looking Chinese in Northwest China are the descendants of a lost army from the Roman Empire. They will conduct excavations on a section of the Silk Road, a 7,000-kilometer trade route that linked Asia and Europe more than 2,000 years ago, to see if a legion of Roman soldiers settled in China, said Yuan Honggeng, head of the center, reports China Daily... Before Marco Polo's travels to China in the 13th century, the only known contact between the two...
  • Chinese villagers 'descended from Roman soldiers'

    11/24/2010 2:29:16 PM PST · by markomalley · 37 replies
    The Telegraph ^ | 11/23/2010 | NIck Squires
    Cai Junnian's green eyes give a hint he may be a descendant of Roman mercenaries who allegedly fought the Han Chinese 2,000 years ago Genetic testing of villagers in a remote part of China has shown that nearly two thirds of their DNA is of Caucasian origin, lending support to the theory that they may be descended from a 'lost legion' of Roman soldiers. Tests found that the DNA of some villagers in Liqian, on the fringes of the Gobi Desert in north-western China, was 56 per cent Caucasian in origin. Many of the villagers have blue or green...
  • Early Cities Spurred Evolution of Immune System? [ "Amazing" DNA results show benefits ]

    11/12/2010 9:03:42 PM PST · by SunkenCiv · 47 replies · 1+ views
    National Geographic News ^ | November 8, 2010 | Matt Kaplan
    As in cities today, the earliest towns helped expose their inhabitants to inordinate opportunities for infection -- and today their descendants are stronger for it, a new study says. "If cities increase the amount of disease people are exposed to, shouldn't they also, over time, make them natural places for disease resistance to evolve?" asked study co-author Mark Thomas, a biologist at University College London... study co-author Ian Barnes, a molecular paleobiologist at University College London, screened DNA samples from 17 groups long associated with particular regions of Europe, Asia, and Africa -- for example Anatolian Turks and the southern...
  • DNA reveals identity of Passenger Pigeon

    10/31/2010 5:11:44 AM PDT · by Palter · 47 replies · 1+ views
    Birdwatch ^ | 30 Oct 2010 | Birdwatch
    The extinct Passenger Pigeon, once the most numerous bird species in the world, has had its closest living relatives identified by DNA extracted from museum specimens.The Passenger Pigeon was a forest nomad, breeding in vast colonies and following sporadic crops of acorns and chestnuts around the dense deciduous forests of the eastern and central United States. the forests were once so vast that they could support tens of millions of the birds, which were known to form flocks so huge that they darkened the sky when dispersing. This made them easy prey for hunters' guns, and the greed and over-exploitation...
  • 'Mitochondrial Eve': Mother of All Humans Lived 200,000 Years Ago

    09/04/2010 10:15:45 AM PDT · by SunkenCiv · 66 replies
    ScienceDaily staff ^ | August 17, 2010 | materials provided by Rice U
    The most robust statistical examination to date of our species' genetic links to "mitochondrial Eve" -- the maternal ancestor of all living humans -- confirms that she lived about 200,000 years ago. The Rice University study was based on a side-by-side comparison of 10 human genetic models that each aim to determine when Eve lived using a very different set of assumptions about the way humans migrated, expanded and spread across Earth... "Our findings underscore the importance of taking into account the random nature of population processes like growth and extinction," said study co-author Marek Kimmel, professor of statistics at...
  • True causes for extinction of cave bear revealed

    08/24/2010 6:46:14 AM PDT · by decimon · 66 replies
    The cave bear started to become extinct in Europe 24,000 years ago, but until now the cause was unknown. An international team of scientists has analysed mitochondrial DNA sequences from 17 new fossil samples, and compared these with the modern brown bear. The results show that the decline of the cave bear started 50,000 years ago, and was caused more by human expansion than by climate change. "The decline in the genetic diversity of the cave bear (Ursus spelaeus) began around 50,000 years ago, much earlier than previously suggested, at a time when no major climate change was taking place,...
  • Critics point to flaws in longevity study

    08/01/2010 11:04:59 PM PDT · by neverdem · 11 replies · 3+ views
    Science News ^ | July 31st, 2010 | Tina Hesman Saey
    Questions have focused on the analytic platform used to find about 150 genetic variations linked to longevity Just like the fountain of youth, a study that purported to find genetic secrets to longevity may be a myth, critics say. Researchers led by Thomas Perls and Paola Sebastiani from Boston University reported July 1 in an online publication in Science that they had identified 150 genetic markers that distinguish centenarians from people with average life spans with 77 percent accuracy. Almost immediately the study came under fire because of a technical flaw. Most of the controversy stems from the devices used...
  • A Genetic Testing Dupe? The government says I am being misled by useless information about my...

    07/28/2010 3:49:26 PM PDT · by neverdem · 11 replies · 4+ views
    Reason ^ | July 27, 2010 | Ronald Bailey
    The government says I am being misled by useless information about my genes. I disagree. "Misleading and of little or no practical use to consumers" is the way that the Government Accountability Office (GAO) described the results of direct-to-consumer genetic screening tests in a report unveiled last week. To reach this damning conclusion, the GAO sent in genetic samples from five people for testing by four leading direct-to-consumer testing companies. For each donor the GAO sent two DNA samples, one sample using the person’s actual profile and one using a fictitious profile. Although the testing companies were not identified in...
  • Science finally answers the question: Which came first, the chicken or the egg? !!

    07/15/2010 5:17:18 PM PDT · by SeekAndFind · 55 replies
    The Star ^ | 07/15/2010 | Lesley Ciarula Taylor
    Scientists wielding a powerful supercomputer have cracked the mystery of which came first, the chicken or the egg. The short answer: the chicken. The long answer is contained in the analysis called Structural Control of Crystal Nuclei by Eggshell Protein by British scientists Colin Freeman and John Harding of the University of Sheffield and David Quigley and P. Mark Rodger of the University of Warwick, published in the current journal Angewandte Chemie. “It had long been suspected that the egg came first, but now we have the scientific proof that shows in fact the chicken came first,” said Freeman. Sort...
  • Mitochondrial genome analysis revises view of the initial peopling of North America

    07/09/2010 7:49:08 PM PDT · by neverdem · 84 replies · 2+ views
    EurekAlert ^ | 28-Jun-2010 | NA
    Contact: Peggy Calicchia calicchi@cshl.edu 516-422-4012 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Mitochondrial genome analysis revises view of the initial peopling of North America June 29, 2010 – The initial peopling of North America from Asia occurred approximately 15,000-18,000 years ago, however estimations of the genetic diversity of the first settlers have remained inaccurate. In a report published online today in Genome Research (www.genome.org), researchers have found that the diversity of the first Americans has been significantly underestimated, underscoring the importance of comprehensive sampling for accurate analysis of human migrations. Substantial evidence suggests that humans first crossed into North America from Asia over...
  • English and Welsh are races apart DNA

    06/16/2010 12:25:16 AM PDT · by restornu · 50 replies · 1,167+ views
    BBC ^ | Sunday, 30 June, 2002,
    Genetic tests show clear differences between the Welsh and English It suggests that between 50% and 100% of the indigenous population of what was to become England was wiped out, with Offa's Dyke acting as a "genetic barrier" protecting those on the Welsh side. had genes that were almost identical. But there were clear differences between the genetic make-up of Welsh people studied. The research team studied the Y-chromosome, which is passed almost unchanged from father to son, and looked for certain genetic markers. Ethnic links: Many races share common bonds The English and Frisians studied had almost identical genetic...
  • DNA analysed from early European

    01/01/2010 3:19:58 PM PST · by decimon · 27 replies · 1,005+ views
    BBC ^ | Jan 1, 2010 | Paul Rincon
    Scientists have analysed DNA extracted from the remains of a 30,000-year-old European hunter-gatherer.> The researchers were able to assign the Kostenki individual to haplogroup "U2", which is relatively uncommon among modern populations. U2 appears to be scattered at low frequencies in populations from South and Western Asia, Europe and North Africa. Despite its rarity, the very presence of this haplogroup in today's Europeans suggests some continuity between Palaeolithic hunters and the continent's present-day inhabitants, argue the authors of the latest study. >
  • Using modern sequencing techniques to study ancient modern humans

    12/31/2009 9:25:55 AM PST · by decimon · 4 replies · 382+ views
    Cell Press ^ | Dec 31, 2009 | Unknown
    DNA that is left in the remains of long-dead plants, animals, or humans allows a direct look into the history of evolution. So far, studies of this kind on ancestral members of our own species have been hampered by scientists' inability to distinguish the ancient DNA from modern-day human DNA contamination. Now, research by Svante Pääbo from The Max-Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, published online on December 31st in Current Biology — a Cell Press publication — overcomes this hurdle and shows how it is possible to directly analyze DNA from a member of our own species who...
  • Clues to the mother and father of all genetic mysteries (gene expression depends on parent?)

    12/18/2009 7:08:31 PM PST · by SunkenCiv · 10 replies · 645+ views
    The Times ^ | Thursday, December 17, 2009 | Mark Henderson
    Research has revealed that a genetic variation protects against type 2 diabetes when inherited from a person's father, but increases risk of the same condition when it comes from the mother. It is among five DNA variants with different medical effects that depend on the parent of origin which have been identified by researchers at deCODE Genetics in Iceland... While hundreds of common genetic variations that affect disease risk have been discovered in the past two years, they together explain only a small fraction of the heritable factors that are known to play a part in conditions such as diabetes,...
  • Genetic studies show modern humans on Qinghai-Tibet Plateau 21,000 years ago

    12/17/2009 5:48:00 PM PST · by SunkenCiv · 7 replies · 503+ views
    Xinhua ^ | December 14, 2009
    ...The plateau, with an average altitude above 4,000 meters and known as "the Roof of the World" in southwestern China, is one of the most challenging areas in the world for human settlement due to its environmental extremes, such as extreme cold and low oxygen levels. ...with the drastic drop of temperature on the Earth in the Last Glacial Maximum of the Late Paleolithic Age, about 23,000 years ago, many species could not adapt to the changes and died out... From the perspective of genetic continuity studies, geneticists had also attempted to find out when modern humans settled on the...
  • The First Men And Women From The Canary Islands Were Berbers

    10/23/2009 8:30:30 PM PDT · by SunkenCiv · 14 replies · 942+ views
    Science News ^ | Wednesday, October 21, 2009 | Spanish Foundation for Science and Technology via Eurekalert
    A team of Spanish and Portuguese researchers has carried out molecular genetic analysis of the Y chromosome (transmitted only by males) of the aboriginal population of the Canary Islands to determine their origin and the extent to which they have survived in the current population. The results suggest a North African origin for these paternal lineages which, unlike maternal lineages, have declined to the point of being practically replaced today by European lineages... Although contribution is now mainly European, scientists state that North African and Sub-Saharan contribution was higher in the 17th and 18th centuries. The explanation as to why...
  • MU research team establishes family tree for cattle, other ruminants

    10/19/2009 3:55:39 PM PDT · by decimon · 30 replies · 550+ views
    University of Missouri-Columbia ^ | Oct 19, 2009 | Unknown
    Information could be used to understand the evolution of biology and physiology of ruminants, develop healthier and more efficient cattle, find ancient relatives and understand human diseaseCOLUMBIA, Mo. ¬— Pairing a new approach to prepare ancient DNA with a new scientific technique developed specifically to genotype a cow, an MU animal scientist, along with a team of international researchers, created a very accurate and widespread "family tree" for cows and other ruminants, going back as far as 29 million years. This genetic information could allow scientists to understand the evolution of cattle, ruminants and other animals. This same technique also...
  • Indian ancestry revealed

    09/23/2009 5:45:59 PM PDT · by BGHater · 64 replies · 4,635+ views
    Nature News ^ | 23 Sep 2009 | Elie Dolgin
    The mixing of two distinct lineages led to most modern-day Indians. The population of India was founded on two ancient groups that are as genetically distinct from each other as they are from other Asians, according to the largest DNA survey of Indian heritage to date. Nowadays, however, most Indians are a genetic hotchpotch of both ancestries, despite the populous nation's highly stratified social structure. "All Indians are pretty similar," says Chris Tyler-Smith, a genome researcher at the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute near Cambridge, UK, who was not involved in the study. "The population subdivision has not had a dominating...
  • Chicken Bones Suggest Polynesians Found Americas Before Columbus

    09/16/2009 1:07:41 PM PDT · by Nikas777 · 86 replies · 1,473+ views
    livescience.com ^ | 04 June 2007 | Heather Whipps
    Chicken Bones Suggest Polynesians Found Americas Before ColumbusBy Heather Whipps, Special to LiveScience Which came first–the chicken or the European? Popular history, and a familiar rhyme about Christopher Columbus, holds that Europeans made contact with the Americas in 1492, with some arguing that the explorer and his crew were the first outsiders to reach the New World. But chicken bones recently unearthed on the coast of Chile—dating prior to Columbus’ “discovery” of America and resembling the DNA of a fowl species native to Polynesia—may challenge that notion, researchers say. “Chickens could not have gotten to South America on their own—they...
  • Neanderthals wouldn't have eaten their sprouts either

    09/07/2009 11:18:08 AM PDT · by SunkenCiv · 43 replies · 1,458+ views
    PhysOrg ^ | August 12th, 2009 | Denholm Barnetson
    Spanish researchers say they have found that a gene in modern humans that makes some people dislike a bitter chemical called phenylthiocarbamide, or PTC, was also present in Neanderthals hundreds of thousands of years ago... The scientists made the discovery after recovering and sequencing a fragment of the TAS2R38 gene taken from 48,000-year-old Neanderthal bones found at a site in El Sidron, in northern Spain, they said in a report released Wednesday by the Spanish National Research Council (CSIC)... Substances similar to PTC give a bitter taste to green vegetables such as Brussels sprouts, broccoli and cabbage as well...
  • Europe's first farmers replaced their Stone Age hunter-gatherer forerunners

    09/03/2009 11:47:19 AM PDT · by decimon · 28 replies · 1,113+ views
    University College London ^ | Sep 3, 2009 | Unknown
    Analysis of ancient DNA from skeletons suggests that Europe's first farmers were not the descendants of the people who settled the area after the retreat of the ice sheets. Instead, the early farmers probably migrated into major areas of central and eastern Europe about 7,500 years ago, bringing domesticated plants and animals with them, says Barbara Bramanti from Mainz University in Germany and colleagues. The researchers analyzed DNA from hunter-gatherer and early farmer burials, and compared those to each other and to the DNA of modern Europeans. They conclude that there is little evidence of a direct genetic link between...
  • DNA Not The Same In Every Cell Of Body

    07/19/2009 7:46:56 PM PDT · by djf · 447 replies · 4,852+ views
    ScienceDaily ^ | july 16, 2009
    Research by a group of Montreal scientists calls into question one of the most basic assumptions of human genetics: that when it comes to DNA, every cell in the body is essentially identical to every other cell. Their results appear in the July issue of the journal Human Mutation. This discovery may undercut the rationale behind numerous large-scale genetic studies conducted over the last 15 years, studies which were supposed to isolate the causes of scores of human diseases.
  • 'Junk' DNA Has Important Role, Researchers Find

    05/21/2009 9:21:28 AM PDT · by Maelstorm · 22 replies · 1,108+ views
    http://www.sciencedaily.com ^ | May 21, 2009 | Princeton University
    Scientists have called it "junk DNA." They have long been perplexed by these extensive strands of genetic material that dominate the genome but seem to lack specific functions. Why would nature force the genome to carry so much excess baggage? Now researchers from Princeton University and Indiana University who have been studying the genome of a pond organism have found that junk DNA may not be so junky after all. They have discovered that DNA sequences from regions of what had been viewed as the "dispensable genome" are actually performing functions that are central for the organism. They have concluded...
  • The Evolution of House Cats [genetic research about cat breeding]

    05/27/2009 2:49:52 PM PDT · by SunkenCiv · 31 replies · 1,970+ views
    Scientific American ^ | June 2009 | Carlos A. Driscoll, Juliet Clutton-Brock, Andrew C. Kitchener and Stephen J. O'Brien
    ...In the genetic analysis, published in 2007, Driscoll, another of us (O'Brien) and their colleagues focused on two kinds of DNA that molecular biologists traditionally examine to differentiate subgroups of mammal species: DNA from mitochondria, which is inherited exclusively from the mother, and short, repetitive sequences of nuclear DNA known as microsatellites. Using established computer routines, they assessed the ancestry of each of the 979 individuals sampled based on their genetic signatures. Specifically, they measured how similar each cat's DNA was to that of all the other cats and grouped the animals having similar DNA together. They then asked whether...
  • Genes of 'Bearded Lady' Revealed

    05/21/2009 2:59:34 PM PDT · by JoeProBono · 19 replies · 1,957+ views
    news.yahoo ^ | Thu May 21
    Julia Pastrana became famous as the "bearded lady" in the mid-1800s. Now, more than 150 years later, scientists have discovered the genetic mutations responsible for her rare condition. The disorder, known as congenital generalized hypertrichosis terminalis (CGHT) with gingival hypertrophy, is characterized by excessive growth of dark hairs all over the body, distorted facial features, and enlarged gums. In some cases, people can have CGHT with normal gums. All of these diseases fall into a group of conditions called congenital generalized hypertrichosis (CGH). The disease is difficult to study because it is so rare. After analyzing the genomes of members...
  • A Curious Case of Genetic Resurrection

    03/06/2009 3:24:15 PM PST · by neverdem · 9 replies · 608+ views
    ScienceNOW Daily News ^ | 6 March 2009 | Benjamin Lester
    Enlarge ImageCurious evolution. Lemurs and other prosimians have a working copy of IRGM, but new data show that junk DNA then rendered it nonfunctional in monkeys. Two mutations and the insertion of a retrovirus restored its function in apes and humans. Credit: Adapted from Cemalettin Bekpen/Stockxpert.com Some genes just won't stay dead. Between 40 million and 50 million years ago, a slice of DNA called IRGM stopped functioning in the ancestors of modern-day monkeys. But 25 million years later, in the lineage that led to humans and great apes, three random events turned the gene back on. In mammals...
  • First Americans arrived as 2 separate migrations, according to new genetic evidence

    01/08/2009 7:46:36 PM PST · by SunkenCiv · 27 replies · 737+ views
    Eurekalert ^ | Thursday, January 8, 2009 | Cathleen Genova
    The first people to arrive in America traveled as at least two separate groups to arrive in their new home at about the same time, according to new genetic evidence published online on January 8th in Current Biology, a Cell Press publication. After the Last Glacial Maximum some 15,000 to 17,000 years ago, one group entered North America from Beringia following the ice-free Pacific coastline, while another traversed an open land corridor between two ice sheets to arrive directly into the region east of the Rocky Mountains. (Beringia is the landmass that connected northeast Siberia to Alaska during the last...
  • A complete Neandertal mtDNA genome

    01/07/2009 4:22:16 PM PST · by decimon · 21 replies · 950+ views
    Panda's Thumb ^ | January 6, 2009 | Jim Foley
    > Green et al. 2008 Wrote: Analysis of the assembled sequence unequivocally establishes that the Neandertal mtDNA falls outside the variation of extant human mtDNAs, and allows an estimate of the divergence date between the two mtDNA lineages of 660,000 ± 140,000 years. >
  • DNA tracks ancient Alaskan's descendants

    01/03/2009 9:23:34 AM PST · by BGHater · 7 replies · 430+ views
    The Anchorage Daily News ^ | 28 Dec 2008 | George Bryson
    10,300 YEARS OLD: Tests of Southeast Natives challenge prior anthropological results. An ancient mariner who lived and died 10,000 years ago on an island west of Ketchikan probably doesn't have any close relatives left in Alaska. But some of them migrated south and their descendents can be found today in coastal Native American populations in California, Mexico, Ecuador, Chile and Argentina. That's some of what scientists learned this summer by examining the DNA of Tlingit, Haida and Tsimshian Indians in Southeast Alaska. Working with elders at a cultural festival in Juneau, they interviewed more than 200 Native Alaskans who allowed...
  • DNA tracks ancient Alaskan's descendants [ On Your Knees Cave man ]

    12/30/2008 8:09:14 PM PST · by SunkenCiv · 13 replies · 756+ views
    ADN ^ | December 28th, 2008 | George Bryson
    An ancient mariner who lived and died 10,000 years ago on an island west of Ketchikan probably doesn't have any close relatives left in Alaska... But some of them migrated south and their descendents can be found today in coastal Native American populations in California, Mexico, Ecuador, Chile and Argentina. That's some of what scientists learned this summer by examining the DNA of Tlingit, Haida and Tsimshian Indians in Southeast Alaska. Working with elders at a cultural festival in Juneau, they interviewed more than 200 Native Alaskans who allowed them to swab tiny amounts of saliva from their cheeks to...
  • Scientists Sequence Half the Woolly Mammoth's Genome

    11/19/2008 11:01:29 AM PST · by Abathar · 30 replies · 644+ views
    Scientific American ^ | 11/19/08 | Kate Wong
    Thousands of years after the last woolly mammoth lumbered across the tundra, scientists have sequenced a whopping 50 percent of the beast’s nuclear genome, they report in a new study. Earlier attempts to sequence the DNA of these icons of the Ice Age produced only tiny quantities of code. The new work marks the first time that so much of the genetic material of an extinct creature has been retrieved. Not only has the feat provided insight into the evolutionary history of mammoths, but it is a step toward realizing the science-fiction dream of being able to resurrect a long-gone...
  • Now: The Rest of the Genome

    11/10/2008 7:54:59 PM PST · by Soliton · 35 replies · 289+ views
    The New York Times ^ | November 10, 2008 | CARL ZIMMER
    Over the summer, Sonja Prohaska decided to try an experiment. She would spend a day without ever saying the word “gene.” Dr. Prohaska is a bioinformatician at the University of Leipzig in Germany. In other words, she spends most of her time gathering, organizing and analyzing information about genes. “It was like having someone tie your hand behind your back,” she said. But Dr. Prohaska decided this awkward experiment was worth the trouble, because new large-scale studies of DNA are causing her and many of her colleagues to rethink the very nature of genes. They no longer conceive of a...
  • Genome-Wide Analysis of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms Uncovers Population Structure in No. Europe

    10/30/2008 2:00:48 PM PDT · by SunkenCiv · 23 replies · 708+ views
    PLoS ONE ^ | October 24, 2008 | Salmela E, Lappalainen T, Fransson I, Andersen PM, Dahlman-Wright K, et al.
    Principal Findings In this study, we analysed almost 250,000 SNPs from a total of 945 samples from Eastern and Western Finland, Sweden, Northern Germany and Great Britain complemented with HapMap data. Small but statistically significant differences were observed between the European populations (FST = 0.0040, p<10-4), also between Eastern and Western Finland (FST = 0.0032, p<10-3). The latter indicated the existence of a relatively strong autosomal substructure within the country, similar to that observed earlier with smaller numbers of markers. The Germans and British were less differentiated than the Swedes, Western Finns and especially the Eastern Finns who also showed...
  • Ancient iceman probably has no modern relatives

    10/30/2008 2:49:25 PM PDT · by MissCalico · 28 replies · 1,124+ views
    Yahoo News ^ | October, 30, 2008 | Reporting by Michael Kahn
    Ancient iceman probably has no modern relatives Buzz UpSendSharePrint Thu Oct 30, 2:21 pm ET Reuters – An undated handout file photo shows "Otzi", Italy's prehistoric iceman. "Otzi", … LONDON (Reuters) – "Otzi," Italy's prehistoric iceman, probably does not have any modern day descendants, according to a study published Thursday. A team of Italian and British scientists who sequenced his mitochondrial DNA -- which is passed down through the mother's line -- found that Otzi belonged to a genetic lineage that is either extremely rare or has died out. Otzi's 5,300-year-old corpse was found frozen in the Tyrolean Alps in...