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Keyword: fallacy

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  • Legalizing Medical Marijuana May Reduce Opioid Deaths (Propaganda)

    08/27/2014 7:45:57 AM PDT · by mgist · 42 replies
    JAMA ^ | 8/26/14 | Kuehn
    Author Insights: Legalizing Medical Marijuana May Reduce Opioid Deaths BY BRIDGET M. KUEHN on AUGUST 26, 2014 Marcus A. Bachhuber, MD, a Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Clinical Scholar at the Philadelphia Veterans Affairs Medical Center, and colleagues found that states that legalize marijuana experience lower rates of opioid deaths, on average, compared with states that don’t allow medical marijuana. Image: University of Pennsylvania Opioid-overdose deaths increased in states across the country between 1999 and 2010, but states that legalized medical marijuana saw less-steep increases than those without, according to a study published in JAMA Internal Medicine this week. Growing use...
  • Since marijuana legalization, highway fatalities in Colorado are at near-historic lows

    08/08/2014 1:36:04 PM PDT · by Mariner · 153 replies
    The Washington Post ^ | August 8th, 2014 | Radley Balko
    Since Colorado voters legalized pot in 2012, prohibition supporters have warned that recreational marijuana will lead to a scourge of “drugged divers” on the state’s roads. They often point out that when the state legalized medical marijuana in 2001, there was a surge in drivers found to have smoked pot. They also point to studies showing that in other states that have legalized pot for medical purposes, we’ve seen an increase in the number of drivers testing positive for the drug who were involved in fatal car accidents. The anti-pot group SAM recently pointed out that even before the first...
  • Obama's War on Straw Men

    06/12/2014 2:07:00 PM PDT · by Jan_Sobieski · 1 replies
    IJReview ^ | Washington Free Beacon
    http://www.ijreview.com/2014/06/146835-obama-declares-war-straw-men-celebrates-triumphant-victory/
  • Has Obama Created More Jobs Than Bush Yet?

    10/31/2012 3:38:02 PM PDT · by NaturalBornConservative · 2 replies
    Natural Born Conservative ^ | October 31, 2012 | Larry Walker Jr
    :: Card Stacking :: MythBuster III: Rational or Ridiculous?- By: Larry Walker, Jr. -Card stacking, or selective omission, is one of the seven propaganda techniques identified by the Institute for Propaganda Analysis. It involves only presenting information that is positive to an idea or proposal and omitting information contrary to it. Card stacking is used in almost all forms of propaganda, and is extremely effective in convincing the public. Although the majority of information presented by the card stacking approach is true, it is dangerous because it omits important information. The best way to deal with card stacking is...
  • Obama’s Fallacy of Composition

    08/02/2012 6:10:45 PM PDT · by NaturalBornConservative · 3 replies
    Natural Born Conservative ^ | AUGUST 1, 2012 | Larry Walker Jr
    You Didn’t Build That!- By: Larry Walker, Jr. -The "framework" is not a person, natural or legal, to whom a debt can be owed, "institutions" do not act, "society" has no mind, no will, and makes no contributions. Only persons do these things. Imputing responsibility and credit for accumulated wealth, current production and well-being to entities that have no mind and no will is nonsense. It is a variant of the notorious fallacy of composition. ~ Anthony de Jasay *The fallacy of composition arises when one infers that something is true of the whole from the fact that it is...
  • A Pernicious Logical Fallacy: Government “Investment”

    07/16/2012 10:46:51 AM PDT · by Etpa · 3 replies
    Engineering Thinking ^ | 7-16-12 | N. E. Walker
    One of the most pernicious fallacies is the idea that because money was “invested” (spent) by the government, and some benefits were purportedly achieved, the benefits prove the worth of such expenditures. For example, President George Bush said, “My administration has worked with Congress to invest in gas-saving technologies like advanced batteries and hydrogen fuel cells…” And more recently, President Obama has claimed that government investment is responsible for “…creating the Internet that allowed Microsoft and Google and Facebook to thrive.” Assuming that these investments were worthwhile is a fallacy, because alternatives were not tried.
  • Tax Fallacy (Part II): 95% B.S.

    01/29/2010 9:34:20 PM PST · by NaturalBornConservative · 5 replies · 357+ views
    Natural Born Conservative ^ | January 29, 2010 | Larry Walker Jr.
    By: Larry Walker, Jr.Tax Fallacy II, 95% B.S.According to the Tax Policy Center, there were 151 million tax units in 2009 (excluding dependents of other tax units). Out of those 151 million tax units, 65.6 million, or 43.4% had zero or negative tax liabilities here. This confirms that only 56.6% of those who file income tax returns actually pay income taxes. But that's not the end of the story.According to the IRS Statistics of Income Report here, at the end of 2008, there were 9.2 million tax units who filed tax returns with additional taxes due. At the end of...
  • Obama's Tax Fallacy, Part I

    01/29/2010 9:34:19 PM PST · by NaturalBornConservative · 287+ views
    Natural Born Conservative ^ | Larry Walker, Jr.
    By: Larry Walker, Jr. [Updated]Barack Obama - "I gave 95% of all Working Families a tax cut..." Really?First of all 43.4% of Americans don't pay any income taxes. That leaves the rest of us. So did 95% of the 56.6% who actually pay income taxes get a tax cut? I doubt it, but even if that were true, it's not 95% of all Americans (or 'working families', whatever that means).Is a refundable tax credit the same as a tax cut?But the real fallacy lies in the fact that refundable tax credits are not tax cuts, but rather, they are subsidies....
  • Building block of life found on comet

    08/17/2009 8:26:35 PM PDT · by Gordon Greene · 43 replies · 1,915+ views
    Reuters.com ^ | Mon Aug 17, 2009 8:45pm EDT | Steve Gorman
    The amino acid glycine, a fundamental building block of proteins, has been found in a comet for the first time, bolstering the theory that raw ingredients of life arrived on Earth from outer space, scientists said on Monday. Microscopic traces of glycine were discovered in a sample of particles retrieved from the tail of comet Wild 2 by the NASA spacecraft Stardust deep in the solar system some 242 million miles (390 million km) from Earth, in January 2004. Samples of gas and dust collected on a small dish lined with a super-fluffy material called aerogel were returned to Earth...
  • LOGIC AND THE FOUNDATIONS OF PROTESTANTISM

    03/24/2008 3:36:37 PM PDT · by annalex · 612 replies · 4,566+ views
    The Coming Home Network ^ | Brian W. Harrison
    LOGIC AND THE FOUNDATIONS OF PROTESTANTISMby Brian W. Harrison As an active Protestant in my mid-twenties I began to feel that I might have a vocation to become a minister. The trouble was that while I had quite definite convictions about the things that most Christians have traditionally held in common—the sort of thing C.S. Lewis termed "mere Christianity." I had had some firsthand experience with several denominations (Presbyterian, Anglican, Lutheran, Methodist) and was far from certain as to which of them (if any) had an overall advantage over the others. So I began to think, study, search, and pray....
  • WHY ALL CONSERVATIVES SHOULD SUPPORT RUDY WITH ENTHUSIASM IN 2008

    03/04/2007 1:04:27 PM PST · by Al Simmons · 742 replies · 7,496+ views
    A CONSERVATIVE BUT RATIONAL MIND | 3/4/2007 | AL SIMMONS
    One recent anti-Rudy poster stated the following: "And if Rudy does get the nod, expect the MSM to open up the hype floodgates on the cross-dressing and the gay stuff -- oh, not condemning of course (wink) but how it's a big change, how will this play in the South, does this mean gay marriage is A-OK for the GOP." MY REPLY: And if they do it will be countered with images of Rudy's heroism during and after 9/11 and most Americans will be DISGUSTED - at the MSM, NOT at RUDY. The issue in 2008 will be the WOT...
  • CA: Minimum Wage is a Maximum Fallacy - Sacramento distortions…

    12/22/2005 1:08:52 PM PST · by NormsRevenge · 22 replies · 1,041+ views
    CaliforniaRepublic.org ^ | 12/22/05 | Anthony P. Archie
    With the California State of the State Address just weeks away, Capitol whisperers have divulged that a minimum wage increase will be included in Governor Schwarzenegger’s 2006 agenda, and that a preliminary proposal has tentative backing from the leadership of both parties. This is unfortunate news for working Californians because the minimum wage negatively distorts labor markets. The most well known distortion is the higher unemployment that results from minimum-wage laws. Setting the minimum wage above the level where employers and employees would have mutually agreed on labor services forces employers to cut back on the number of hires. This...
  • The Fallacy of Governing from the Center - A moderate road to success?

    12/14/2005 10:31:24 AM PST · by NormsRevenge · 16 replies · 470+ views
    CaliforniaRepublic.org ^ | 12/14/05 | Thomas G. Del Beccaro
    Amidst the fallout from the special election, there is a renewed discussion about governing from the Center. It is a mantra championed by many a consultant and some “moderates” – in both the Democrat and Republican Parties - that claim you have to be a centrist/moderate to win/succeed in California. Simply stated, that simply isn’t true. It is not true because in order to succeed, politicians must be well defined to attract voters because the “very essence of leadership is that you have to have vision. You can't blow an uncertain trumpet.” Put another way, voters generally do not elect...
  • Brain-Based Values

    08/13/2005 12:26:50 PM PDT · by beavus · 50 replies · 847+ views
    American Scientist Online ^ | July-August 2005 | Patricia S. Churchland
    ...The book begins with a discussion of the medical use of embryonic tissue and the debate over whether a blastocyst (which is a ball of a few hundred cells) is a person. This section is thoughtful, clearheaded and informed by developmental neuroscience. One fallacy Gazzaniga exposes depends on the common idea that graded differences block principled legal distinctions. In the version referred to as the fallacy of the beard, the logic goes like this: If we cannot say how long a man's whiskers must be to qualify as a beard, we cannot distinguish between a bearded man and a clean-shaven...
  • Ask A Scientist: When does life begin?

    08/06/2005 9:39:34 PM PDT · by beavus · 552 replies · 6,106+ views
    Question: Hi, I was wondering about a bioethical issue that's really important today- abortion. Most of the debate about abortion revolves around when life begins, so I was wondering when most scientist's believe that life begins, since you obviously would know more about this subject. You don't have to give your moral beliefs or anything, but I would just like to know when you think that life begins... Thanks! =) Amit Srivastava Answer 1: This is an important topic, but even (or especially) for a scientist you and I must realize that my "moral beliefs" will affect the kind of...
  • Thomas Sowell: The fallacy with 90 lives

    11/23/2004 10:53:49 PM PST · by LibWhacker · 7 replies · 941+ views
    Naples Daily News ^ | 11/20/04 | Thomas Sowell
    Thomas Sowell: The fallacy with 90 lives By THOMAS SOWELL, Creators Syndiucate November 20, 2004 Cats are supposed to have nine lives but fallacies must have at least ninety. Some notions will be believed, no matter how many times they have been refuted by facts. One of these seemingly immortal fallacies is the implicit assumption that our enemies have unlimited resources, so that our efforts at strengthening ourselves militarily are doomed to be self-defeating. At least as far back as the 1930s, the intelligentsia and others have warned against military spending as setting off an "arms race" in which each...
  • Dems - Self fufilling failure?

    Based on the historical accounts of the existence Democracy (DEMS) and the true nature of the united states (a constitutional republic "Republicans"). It would seem that after 2000 years of abject failure the DEMS would find a new gig. Every democracy that has ever existed has devolved into a "mobocracy" and destroyed itself. The young in America are taught that the US is a Democracy. Unfortunately, this fallacy has been perpetuated since 1933 in the public education system and even reiterated ad nauseum in places of higher learning. Little if any attempt by the (gack) teachers to correct this grossly...
  • A Freeper's Introduction to Rhetoric (Part 12, Test Your Knowledge)

    01/12/2004 1:22:14 PM PST · by general_re · 54 replies · 2,453+ views
    Introduction to Logic | Irving M. Copi & Carl Cohen
    Referring to the fallacy discussions previously posted (and linked below) may be helpful before beginning. Among the following passages, identify those in which there is a fallacy; if there is a fallacy, analyze it, give its kind (whether relevance, or presumption, or ambiguity) and its specific name. Which is more useful, the Sun or the Moon? The Moon is more useful since it gives us light during the night, when it is dark, whereas the Sun shines only in the daytime, when it is light anyway. — GEORGE GAMOW (inscribed in the entry hall of the Hayden Planetarium, New York...
  • A Freeper's Introduction to Rhetoric (Part 11, Fallacies of Composition and Division)

    01/12/2004 7:42:02 AM PST · by general_re · 15 replies · 2,457+ views
    Introduction to Logic | Irving M. Copi & Carl Cohen
    Composition The term "fallacy of composition" is applied to both of two closely related types of invalid argument. The first may be described as reasoning fallaciously from the attributes of the parts of a whole to the attributes of the whole itself. A particularly flagrant example would be to argue that, since every part of a certain machine is light in weight, the machine "as a whole" is light in weight. The error here is manifest when we recognize that a very heavy machine may consist of a very large number of lightweight parts. Not all examples of this kind...
  • A Freeper's Introduction to Rhetoric (Part 10, Fallacies of Amphiboly and Accent)

    01/04/2004 8:13:07 AM PST · by general_re · 5 replies · 3,165+ views
    Introduction to Logic | Irving M. Copi & Carl Cohen
    Amphiboly The fallacy of amphiboly occurs when one is arguing from premisses whose formulations are ambiguous because of their grammatical construction. The word "amphiboly" is derived from the Greek, its meaning in essence being "two in a lump," or the "doubleness" of a lump. A statement is amphibolous when its meaning, is indeterminate because of the loose or awkward way in which its words are combined. An amphibolous statement may be true in one interpretation and false in another. When it is stated as premiss with the interpretation that makes it true, and a conclusion is drawn from it on...
  • A Freeper's Introduction to Rhetoric (Part 9, Fallacies of Ambiguity and Equivocation)

    01/02/2004 1:01:51 PM PST · by general_re · 14 replies · 2,677+ views
    Introduction to Logic | Irving M. Copi & Carl Cohen
    FALLACIES OF AMBIGUITY The meaning of words or phrases may shift as a result of inattention, or may be deliberately manipulated within the course of an argument. A term may have one sense in a premiss, quite a different sense in the conclusion. When the inference drawn depends upon such changes it is, of course, fallacious. Mistakes of this kind are called "fallacies of ambiguity" or sometimes "sophisms." The deliberate use of such devices is usually crude and readily detected — but at times the ambiguity may be obscure, the error accidental, the fallacy subtle. Five varieties are distinguished in...
  • A Freeper's Introduction to Rhetoric (Part 8, Accident and Converse Accident)

    12/31/2003 8:20:58 AM PST · by general_re · 21 replies · 1,629+ views
    Introduction to Logic | Irving M. Copi & Carl Cohen
    Accident and Converse Accident The fallacies of accident and converse accident arise as a result of the careless, or deliberately deceptive, use of generalizations. In most important affairs, and especially inpolitical or moral argument, we rely on statements of how things generally are, how people generally behave, and the like. But even where general claims are entirely plausible, we must be careful not to apply them to particular cases mechanically or rigidly. Circumstances alter cases; a generalization that is true by and large may not apply in a given case, for good reasons having to do with the special (or...
  • A Freeper's Introduction to Rhetoric (Part 7, False Cause and Begging the Question)

    12/30/2003 11:34:11 AM PST · by general_re · 27 replies · 2,235+ views
    Introduction to Logic | Irving M. Copi & Carl Cohen
    False Cause It is obvious that any reasoning that relies on treating as the cause of some thing or event what is not really its cause must be seriously mistaken. But often we are tempted to suppose, or led to suppose, that we understand some specific cause-and-effect relation when in fact we do not. The nature of the connection between cause and effect, and how we determine whether such a connection is present or absent, are central problems of inductive logic and scientific method. These problems are discussed in detail in Part Four of this book. Presuming the reality of...
  • A Freeper's Introduction to Rhetoric (Part 6, Fallacies of Presumption and the Complex Question

    12/29/2003 8:51:40 AM PST · by general_re · 13 replies · 1,663+ views
    Introduction to Logic | Irving M. Copi & Carl Cohen
    FALLACIES OF PRESUMPTION Some mistakes in everyday reasoning are the consequence of an unjustified assumption, often suggested by the formulation of the argument. The reader, or listener, or even the author of the passage may be caused — through oversight or by deliberate design — to assume the truth of some unproved and unwarranted proposition. When such dubious assumptions buried in the argument are crucial for the support of the conclusion, the argument is bad and can be very misleading. Unwarranted leaps of this kind are called fallacies of presumption. In fallacious arguments of this kind the premisses are, again,...
  • A Freeper's Introduction to Rhetoric (Part 5, the Irrelevant Conclusion)

    12/26/2003 10:42:37 PM PST · by general_re · 10 replies · 1,424+ views
    Introduction to Logic | Irving M. Copi & Carl Cohen
    Irrelevant Conclusion: Ignoratio Elenchi The fallacy of ignoratio elenchi (literally, false refutation) is committed when an argument purporting to establish a particular conclusion is instead directed to proving a different conclusion. The premisses "miss the point"; the reasoning may seem plausible in itself, and yet the argument misfires as a defense of the conclusion in dispute. Arguments in the sphere of social legislation frequently commit this fallacy; a program of a particular kind, designed to achieve some larger objective that is widely shared, is supported by premisses that do provide reasons to share the larger end, but that tell us...
  • A Freeper's Introduction to Rhetoric (Part 4, the Appeal to Emotion and the Appeal to Force)

    12/22/2003 5:47:04 AM PST · by general_re · 7 replies · 1,862+ views
    Introduction to Logic | Irving M. Copi & Carl Cohen
    The Appeal to Emotion: Argument Ad Populum This common fallacy and the two that follow it are so evidently fallacious that they require little explanation. In each case, the premisses plainly are not relevant to the conclusion and are deliberately chosen as instruments with which to manipulate the beliefs of the listener or reader. The argument ad populum, the appeal to emotion (literally "to the people," and by implication to the mob's easily aroused emotions) is the device of every propagandist and demagogue. It is fallacious because it replaces the laborious task of presenting evidence and rational argument with expressive...
  • A Freeper's Introduction to Rhetoric (Part 3, the Argument Ad Hominem)

    12/21/2003 5:59:01 AM PST · by general_re · 24 replies · 2,693+ views
    Introduction to Logic | Irving M. Copi & Carl Cohen
    Argument Ad Hominem The phrase ad hominem translates into "against the person." It names a fallacious attack in which the thrust is directed, not at a conclusion, but at the person who asserts or defends it. This fallacy has two major forms, because there are two major ways in which the attack can be personalized. Argument Ad Hominem, Abusive Participants in strenuous argument sometimes disparage the character of their opponents, deny their intelligence or reasonableness, question their integrity, and so on. But the character of an individual is logically irrelevant to the truth or falsehood of what that person says,...
  • A Freeper's Introduction to Rhetoric (Part 2, the Appeal to Inappropriate Authority)

    12/20/2003 4:42:14 AM PST · by general_re · 17 replies · 2,877+ views
    Introduction to Logic | Irving M. Copi & Carl Cohen
    The Appeal to Inappropriate Authority: Argument Ad Verecundiam In attempting to make up one's mind about some difficult or complicated question, it is entirely reasonable to be guided by the judgment of an acknowledged expert who has studied the matter thoroughly. When we argue that a given conclusion is correct on the ground that an expert authority has come to that judgment, we commit no fallacy. Indeed, such recourse to authority is necessary for most of us on very many matters. Of course, an expert's judgment constitutes no conclusive proof; experts disagree, and even in agreement they may err; but...
  • A Freeper's Introduction to Rhetoric (Part 1, Introduction and the Argument From Ignorance)

    12/19/2003 5:46:41 AM PST · by general_re · 61 replies · 3,590+ views
    Introduction to Logic | Irving M. Copi & Carl Cohen
    FALLACIES . . . arguments, like men, are often pretenders. — Plato It would, be a very good thing if every trick could receive some short and obviously appropriate name, so that when anyone used this or that particular trick, he could at once be reproved for it. — Arthur Schopenhauer WHAT IS A FALLACY? An argument, whatever its subject or sphere, is generally constructed in such a way as to prove that its conclusion is true. But any argument can fail to fulfill this purpose in either of two ways. One way it can fail is by assuming a...
  • DENIED

    09/14/2002 8:52:04 AM PDT · by DGallandro · 42 replies · 378+ views
    Author Direct | Saturday, September 14, 2002 | David Gallandro
    DENIED! You never think it will happen to you, or somone you know. But you knew when the whole cockamamie "national instant check system with 3-day waiting period" was enacted, you had this nagging doubt in your mind, "What happens if these computers, powered by unstable operating systems, serviced and maintained by human beings, makes a mistake that affects an innocent man's life?" The Brady Bunch at the VPC are crowing about how effective the instant check and 3-day waiting period is at keeping guns out of the hands of criminals, and cutting down on "crimes of passion". But...
  • Fallacy: Ad Hominem Tu Quoque

    Also Known as: "You Too Fallacy" Description of Ad Hominem Tu Quoque This fallacy is committed when it is concluded that a person's claim is false because 1) it is inconsistent with something else a person has said or 2) what a person says is inconsistent with her actions. This type of "argument" has the following form: Person A makes claim X. Person B asserts that A's actions or past claims are inconsistent with the truth of claim X. Therefore X is false. The fact that a person makes inconsistent claims does not make any particular claim he makes false...
  • Fallacy: Ad Hominem

    03/18/2002 8:12:30 AM PST · by Brookhaven · 60 replies · 2,091+ views
    Description of Ad Hominem Translated from Latin to English, "Ad Hominem" means "against the man" or "against the person." An Ad Hominem is a general category of fallacies in which a claim or argument is rejected on the basis of some irrelevant fact about the author of or the person presenting the claim or argument. Typically, this fallacy involves two steps. First, an attack against the character of person making the claim, her circumstances, or her actions is made (or the character, circumstances, or actions of the person reporting the claim). Second, this attack is taken to be evidence against...