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Keyword: genomics

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  • Epigenetics: The sins of the father - The roots of inheritance may extend beyond the genome...

    03/14/2014 1:07:40 PM PDT · by neverdem · 32 replies
    Nature News ^ | 05 March 2014 | Virginia Hughes
    The roots of inheritance may extend beyond the genome, but the mechanisms remain a puzzle. When Brian Dias became a father last October, he was, like any new parent, mindful of the enormous responsibility that lay before him. From that moment on, every choice he made could affect his newborn son's physical and psychological development. But, unlike most new parents, Dias was also aware of the influence of his past experiences — not to mention those of his parents, his grandparents and beyond. Where one's ancestors lived, or how much they valued education, can clearly have effects that pass down...
  • The ABC’s of Your DNA - ‘Genome: Unlocking Life’s Code,’ at the Smithsonian

    08/31/2013 12:00:21 PM PDT · by neverdem · 8 replies
    NY Times ^ | August 29, 2013 | EDWARD ROTHSTEIN
    WASHINGTON — It has been a decade since the human genome was first sequenced and the 3.2 billion rungs of our DNA ladder laid out for analysis. That achievement — mapping the fundamental biological code that defines our species and characterizes us as individuals — may have implications as important as the splitting of the atom or the discovery of the wheel. We can already envision custom-designed medicines as well as custom-designed fetuses. There are ethical questions to be asked and scientific questions to be answered. And nothing about the subject is simple. But credit “Genome: Unlocking Life’s Code,” an...
  • Genetic test fingers viral, bacterial infections: Method could help doctors treat children's fevers

    07/24/2013 12:29:45 AM PDT · by neverdem · 4 replies
    Science News ^ | July 16, 2013 | Tina Hesman Saey
    By differentiating between bacterial and viral fevers, a new test may help doctors decide whether to prescribe antibiotics. Fevers are a common symptom of many infectious diseases, but it can be difficult to tell whether viruses or bacteria are the cause. By measuring gene activity in the blood of 22 sick children, Gregory Storch, a pediatrician and infectious disease researcher at Washington University in St. Louis and colleagues were able to distinguish bacteria-sparked fevers from ones kindled by viruses. The activity of hundreds of genes changed as the children’s immune systems responded to the pathogens, but the team found that...
  • The revolutionary blood test that could predict how long you'll live

    07/09/2013 9:02:11 AM PDT · by Hojczyk · 36 replies
    Mail Online ^ | July 9,2013 | EMMA INNES
    Chemical 'fingerprint' in the blood could provide clues to health later in life Metabolites indicate future lung function, bone density, and blood pressure Could pave the way for new treatments for age related conditionsA revolutionary new blood test could tell you how long you will live, and how quickly you will age. Scientists have discovered a chemical ‘fingerprint’ in the blood that may provide clues to an infant's health and rate of ageing near the end of life. The discovery raises the prospect of a simple test at birth that could help doctors stave off the ravages of disease in...
  • Bed bugs evolved unique adaptive strategy to resist pyrethroid insecticides

    03/14/2013 8:52:14 PM PDT · by neverdem · 18 replies
    Nature ^ | 14 March 2013 | Fang Zhu et al.
    Recent advances in genomic and post-genomic technologies have facilitated a genome-wide analysis of the insecticide resistance-associated genes in insects. Through bed bug, Cimex lectularius transcriptome analysis, we identified 14 molecular markers associated with pyrethroid resistance. Our studies revealed that most of the resistance-associated genes functioning in diverse mechanisms are expressed in the epidermal layer of the integument, which could prevent or slow down the toxin from reaching the target sites on nerve cells, where an additional layer of resistance (kdr) is possible. This strategy evolved in bed bugs is based on their unique morphological, physiological and behavioral characteristics and has...
  • DNA sequencers stymie superbug spread

    11/16/2012 2:02:48 PM PST · by neverdem · 3 replies
    NATURE NEWS ^ | 14 November 2012 | Ewen Callaway
    Whole-genome analysis helps identify source of MRSA outbreak on infant ward. A superbug outbreak that plagued a special-care neonatal unit in Cambridge, UK, for several months last year was brought to an end by insights gained from genome sequencing. The case, reported today in Lancet Infectious Disease, marks the first time that scientists have sequenced pathogen genomes to actively control an ongoing outbreak1. Sharon Peacock, a clinical microbiologist at the University of Cambridge, and her team became involved in the outbreak after three infants at nearby Rosie Hospital’s 24-cot special-care baby unit tested positive for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) within...
  • Genomics: The single life - Sequencing DNA from individual cells is changing the way that...

    11/05/2012 10:03:16 PM PST · by neverdem
    NATURE NEWS ^ | 31 October 2012 | Brian Owens
    Sequencing DNA from individual cells is changing the way that researchers think of humans as a whole. All Nicholas Navin needed was one cell — the issue was how to get it. It was 2010, and the postdoctoral fellow at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory in New York was exploring the genetic changes that drive breast cancer. Most of the cancer-genome studies before then had ground up bits of tumour tissue and sequenced the DNA en masse, giving a consensus picture of the cancer’s genome. But Navin wanted to work out the sequence from individual cells to see how they had...
  • Rapid test pinpoints newborns' genetic diseases in days

    10/04/2012 8:09:31 PM PDT · by neverdem · 9 replies
    NATURE NEWS ^ | 03 October 2012 | Monya Baker
    Method raises hopes for routine whole-genome sequencing in neonatal intensive care. A faster DNA sequencing machine and streamlined analysis of the results can diagnose genetic disorders in days rather than weeks, as reported today in Science Translational Medicine1. Up to a third of the babies admitted to neonatal intensive care units have a genetic disease. Although symptoms may be severe, the genetic cause can be hard to pin down. Thousands of genetic diseases have been described, but relatively few tests are available, and even these may detect only the most common mutations. Whole-genome sequencing could test for many diseases at...
  • Human Genome Is Much More Than Just Genes

    09/06/2012 10:04:50 PM PDT · by neverdem · 19 replies
    ScienceNOW ^ | 5 September 2012 | Elizabeth Pennisi
    Enlarge Image Zooming in. This diagram illustrates a chromosome in ever-greater detail, as the ENCODE project drilled down to DNA to study the functional elements of the genome. Credit: ENCODE project The human genome—the sum total of hereditary information in a person—contains a lot more than the protein-coding genes teenagers learn about in school, a massive international project has found. When researchers decided to sequence the human genome in the late 1990s, they were focused on finding those traditional genes so as to identify all the proteins necessary for life. Each gene was thought to be a discrete piece...
  • Genome Study Points to Adaptation in Early African-Americans

    01/08/2012 2:22:04 PM PST · by neverdem · 24 replies · 2+ views
    NY Times ^ | January 2, 2012 | NICHOLAS WADE
    Researchers scanning the genomes of African-Americans say they see evidence of natural selection as their ancestors adapted to the harsh conditions of their new environment in America. The scientists, led by Li Jin of the Chinese Academy of Sciences in Shanghai, report in the journal Genome Research that certain disease-causing variant genes became more common in African-Americans after their ancestors reached American shores — perhaps because they conferred greater, offsetting benefits. Other gene variants have become less common, the researchers say, like the gene for sickle cell hemoglobin, which in its more common single-dose form protects against malaria. The Shanghai...
  • The failure of the genome - If inherited genes are not to blame for our most common illnesses..?

    04/19/2011 12:03:55 AM PDT · by neverdem · 20 replies
    Guardian.co.uk ^ | 17 April 2011 | Jonathan Latham
    If inherited genes are not to blame for our most common illnesses, how can we find out what is? Since the human genome was sequenced, over 10 years ago, hardly a week has gone by without some new genetic "breakthrough" being reported. Last week five new "genes for Alzheimer's disease" generated sometimes front-page coverage across the globe. But take a closer look and the reality is very different. Among all the genetic findings for common illnesses, such as heart disease, cancer and mental illnesses, only a handful are of genuine significance for human health. Faulty genes rarely cause, or even...
  • I’ll Show You My Genome. Will You Show Me Yours?

    01/06/2011 5:57:32 PM PST · by neverdem · 6 replies
    Reason ^ | January 2011 | Ronald Bailey
    Our science correspondent reveals his genetic code. Soon you will too. Michael Cariaso, developer of the human genetics wiki SNPedia and the online gene analysis tool Promethease, has helped thousands of people unlock the secrets of their own genetic code. But when it comes to making his own gene screening tests publicly available for all the world to see, Cariaso prefers to hold the key close to his vest, worrying that such transparency might lead to personal embarrassment or discrimination by insurance companies or future employers. “Someone later might discover,” he says, “that I have genes for a short penis...
  • Regulating Personal Genomics to Death - The FDA threat to direct to consumer genetic testing.

    10/16/2010 9:52:37 AM PDT · by neverdem · 3 replies
    Reason ^ | October 12, 2010 | Ronald Bailey
    In 2008, Time magazine named retail DNA testing the invention of the year. A scant two years later it is questionable whether this exciting new industry will survive heavy-handed regulation by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). In June, the FDA sent letters [PDF] to the leading direct to consumer (DTC) genetic testing companies asserting the agency's authority to require "premarket review" of their tests in order to "protect the public from medical products that may pose an unreasonable risk of harm." So what are the "unreasonable risks" posed by the DTC tests?Unlike X-rays or pharmaceuticals, there are no...
  • Mitochondrial genome analysis revises view of the initial peopling of North America

    07/09/2010 7:49:08 PM PDT · by neverdem · 84 replies · 2+ views
    EurekAlert ^ | 28-Jun-2010 | NA
    Contact: Peggy Calicchia calicchi@cshl.edu 516-422-4012 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Mitochondrial genome analysis revises view of the initial peopling of North America June 29, 2010 – The initial peopling of North America from Asia occurred approximately 15,000-18,000 years ago, however estimations of the genetic diversity of the first settlers have remained inaccurate. In a report published online today in Genome Research (www.genome.org), researchers have found that the diversity of the first Americans has been significantly underestimated, underscoring the importance of comprehensive sampling for accurate analysis of human migrations. Substantial evidence suggests that humans first crossed into North America from Asia over...
  • A Decade Later, Genetic Map Yields Few New Cures

    06/12/2010 7:33:55 PM PDT · by neverdem · 28 replies · 683+ views
    NY Times ^ | June 12, 2010 | NICHOLAS WADE
    Ten years after President Bill Clinton announced that the first draft of the human genome was complete, medicine has yet to see any large part of the promised benefits. For biologists, the genome has yielded one insightful surprise after another. But the primary goal of the $3 billion Human Genome Project — to ferret out the genetic roots of common diseases like cancer and Alzheimer’s and then generate treatments — remains largely elusive. Indeed, after 10 years of effort, geneticists are almost back to square one in knowing where to look for the roots of common disease. One sign of...
  • Synthetic Genome Brings New Life to Bacterium

    05/21/2010 2:05:13 AM PDT · by neverdem · 5 replies · 629+ views
    Science ^ | 21 May 2010 | Elizabeth Pennisi
    For 15 years, J. Craig Venter has chased a dream: to build a genome from scratch and use it to make synthetic life. Now, he and his team at the J. Craig Venter Institute (JCVI) in Rockville, Maryland, and San Diego, California, say they have realized that dream. In this week's Science Express (www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/abstract/science.1190719), they describe the stepwise creation of a bacterial chromosome and the successful transfer of it into a bacterium, where it replaced the native DNA. Powered by the synthetic genome, that microbial cell began replicating and making a new set of proteins. This is "a defining moment...
  • Lake sturgeon have genes from parasite, signs of human STD

    05/11/2010 11:12:45 AM PDT · by decimon · 19 replies · 577+ views
    Purdue University ^ | May 11, 2010 | Brian Wallheimer
    WEST LAFAYETTE, Ind. - While trying to find a DNA-based test to determine the sex of lake sturgeon, Purdue University researchers found that the sturgeon genome contains trematode genes that didn't originally belong to it and may harbor a protozoan parasite that causes a sexually transmitted disease in humans. Genetics professor Andrew DeWoody and postdoctoral associate Matthew C. Hale found the parasite and pathogen genes while analyzing DNA from the gonads of lake sturgeon, a species that is on the decline because of overfishing and pollution of its habitats. The only way to determine a lake sturgeon's sex currently is...
  • The Search for Genes Leads to Unexpected Places

    04/29/2010 9:35:42 PM PDT · by neverdem · 19 replies · 638+ views
    NY Times ^ | April 26, 2010 | CARL ZIMMER
    Edward M. Marcotte is looking for drugs that can kill tumors by stopping blood vessel growth, and he and his colleagues at the University of Texas at Austin recently found some good targets — five human genes that are essential for that growth. Now they’re hunting for drugs that can stop those genes from working. Strangely, though, Dr. Marcotte did not discover the new genes in the human genome, nor in lab mice or even fruit flies. He and his colleagues found the genes in yeast. “On the face of it, it’s just crazy,” Dr. Marcotte said. After all, these...
  • Bursting the genomics bubble

    04/04/2010 8:49:50 PM PDT · by neverdem · 22 replies · 671+ views
    Nature ^ | 31 March 2010 | Philip Ball
    The Human Genome Project attracted investment beyond what a rational analysis would have predicted. There are pros and cons to that, says Philip Ball. If a venture capitalist had invested in sequencing the human genome, what would she have to show for it? For scientists, the Human Genome Project (HGP) might lay the foundation of tomorrow's medicine, with drugs tailored to your genetics. But a venture capitalist would want medical innovations here and now, not decades hence. Nearly ten years after the project's formal completion, there's not much sign of them.A team of researchers in Switzerland now argue that the...
  • Disease Cause Is Pinpointed With Genome

    03/10/2010 9:39:39 PM PST · by neverdem · 9 replies · 347+ views
    NY Times ^ | March 10, 2010 | NICHOLAS WADE
    Two research teams have independently decoded the entire genome of patients to find the exact genetic cause of their diseases. The approach may offer a new start in the so far disappointing effort to identify the genetic roots of major killers like heart disease, diabetes and Alzheimer’s. In the decade since the first full genetic code of a human was sequenced for some $500 million, less than a dozen genomes had been decoded, all of healthy people. Geneticists said the new research showed it was now possible to sequence the entire genome of a patient at reasonable cost and with...