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Keyword: neuroscience

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  • H. M., an Unforgettable Amnesiac, Dies at 82

    12/05/2008 12:48:51 AM PST · by neverdem · 20 replies · 2,040+ views
    NY Times ^ | December 5, 2008 | BENEDICT CAREY
    He knew his name. That much he could remember. He knew that his father’s family came from Thibodaux, La., and his mother was from Ireland, and he knew about the 1929 stock market crash and World War II and life in the 1940s. But he could remember almost nothing after that. In 1953, he underwent an experimental brain operation in Hartford to correct a seizure disorder, only to emerge from it fundamentally and irreparably changed. He developed a syndrome neurologists call profound amnesia. He had lost the ability to form new memories. For the next 55 years, each time he...
  • Scientists Identify Brain's 'Hate Circuit'

    11/02/2008 10:12:32 AM PST · by Lazamataz · 35 replies · 993+ views
    Yahoo News ^ | Nov 2, 2008 | Unknown Author
    WEDNESDAY, Oct. 29 (HealthDay News) -- British researchers say they've identified a "hate circuit" in the brain. This hate circuit shares part of the brain associated with aggression, but is distinct from areas related to emotions such as fear, threat, and danger, said researchers Professor Semir Zeki and John Romaya, of University College London's laboratory of neurobiology. The study was published online Oct. 29 in the journal PLoS One. "Hate is often considered to be an evil passion that should, in a better world, be tamed, controlled, and eradicated," Zeki said in a journal news release. "Yet to the biologist,...
  • Your Brain’s Secret Ballot

    10/28/2008 8:07:11 PM PDT · by neverdem · 10 replies · 559+ views
    NY Times ^ | October 28, 2008 | SAM WANG and JOSHUA GOLD
    AS we enter the final week of a seemingly endless election campaign, opinion polls continue to identify a substantial fraction of voters who consider themselves “undecided.” Although their numbers are dwindling, they could still determine the outcome of the race in some states. Comedians and other commentators have portrayed these people as fools, unable to choose even when confronted with the starkest of contrasts. Recent research in neuroscience and psychology, however, suggests that most undecided voters may be smarter than you think. They’re not indifferent or unable to make clear comparisons between the candidates. They may be more willing than...
  • Motherhood Improves Brain

    10/15/2008 3:28:30 AM PDT · by don-o · 26 replies · 835+ views
    Medical News Today ^ | Otober15, 2008
    Researchers in the US found that contrary to the popular view that having children reduces a woman's brainpower, having children actually improves her lifelong mental agility and protects her brain against the neurodegenerative diseases of old age. The research was carried out by Dr Craig Kinsley, professor of neuroscience at the University of Richmond, Virginia, and colleagues, and will be presented at the Society for Neuroscience 2008 conference which is to take place from 15 to 19 November in Washington DC. Kinsley said that while a woman may experience an apparent loss of brain function while she is pregnant, this...
  • Musicians Use Both Sides Of Their Brains More Frequently Than Average People

    10/05/2008 8:26:28 PM PDT · by TigerLikesRooster · 29 replies · 868+ views
    Science Daily ^ | 10/03/08
    Musicians Use Both Sides Of Their Brains More Frequently Than Average People ScienceDaily (Oct. 3, 2008) — Supporting what many of us who are not musically talented have often felt, new research reveals that trained musicians really do think differently than the rest of us. Vanderbilt University psychologists have found that professionally trained musicians more effectively use a creative technique called divergent thinking, and also use both the left and the right sides of their frontal cortex more heavily than the average person. The research by Crystal Gibson, Bradley Folley and Sohee Park is currently in press at the journal...
  • Lost in Translation (Chinese and English speaking dyslexics have differences in brain anatomy.)

    04/11/2008 2:06:32 AM PDT · by neverdem · 18 replies · 93+ views
    ScienceNOW Daily News ^ | 8 April 2008 | Constance Holden
    All dyslexics are not alike. According to new research, Chinese- and English-speaking people with the disorder have impairments in different regions of their brains. The findings shed light on the neurological basis of dyslexia and reveal fundamental differences in how brains process the two languages. Dyslexics, about 5% to 10% of the population in both the United States and China, have trouble making the connection between the sight and sound of a word. In English, this results in word distortions or transpositions of letters. "Dyslexia," for example, might be read as "Lysdexia." In Chinese, the problem can affect how a...
  • Chimps and college students as good at mental math

    12/17/2007 7:04:08 PM PST · by NormsRevenge · 4 replies · 82+ views
    Reuters on Yahoo ^ | 12/17/07 | Julie Steenhuysen
    CHICAGO (Reuters) - Chimps performed about as well as college students at mental addition, U.S. researchers said on Monday in a finding that suggests non-verbal math skills are not unique to humans. The research from Duke University follows the finding by Japanese researchers earlier this month that young chimpanzees performed better than human adults at a memory game. Prior studies have found non-human primates can match numbers of objects, compare numbers and choose the larger number of two sets of objects. "This is the first study that looked at whether or not they could make explicit decisions that were based...
  • Reading the Mind Of the Body Politic (Neuroscience in presidential politics)

    12/14/2007 12:28:14 PM PST · by HAL9000 · 9 replies · 233+ views
    Excerpt - Last Sunday at a San Francisco hotel ballroom, EmSense researchers fitted five volunteers, all undecided Republicans, with battery-powered headsets made of elastic and lined with bits of copper. As they watched the debate on a big screen, the wireless units, which the company calls "EmGear," collected data on their skin temperature, heart rate, eye-blinking and brain activity and beamed them to a bank of computers. The data were run through a formula created by EmSense to identify whether a response was positive or negative. When John McCain ran through a list of Hispanic politicians who had endorsed him,...
  • Faulty Wiring in the Aging Brain

    12/06/2007 8:53:34 PM PST · by neverdem · 64 replies · 176+ views
    ScienceNOW Daily News ^ | 5 December 2007 | Greg Miller
    Even seniors fortunate enough to avoid the horrors of Alzheimer's disease typically experience some declines in memory and other cognitive abilities. Little is known about why this happens, but a new study suggests that cognitive declines in healthy older adults may result when brain regions that normally work together become out of sync, perhaps because the connections between them break down. A team led by Harvard neuroscientists Jessica Andrews-Hanna and Randy Buckner used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to monitor brain activity in 38 young adults, mostly 20-somethings, and 55 older adults, age 60 or above. The researchers focused on...
  • Chimp beats students at computer game

    12/03/2007 10:11:14 PM PST · by neverdem · 36 replies · 188+ views
    Nature News ^ | 3 December 2007 | Ewen Callaway
    Young chimpanzee can recall number placement better than people can. A particularly cunning seven-year-old chimp named Ayumu has bested university students at a game of memory. He and two other young chimps recalled the placement of numbers flashed onto a computer screen faster and more accurately than humans. “It’s a very simple fact: chimpanzees are better than us — at this task,” says Tetsuro Matsuzawa, a primatologist at Kyoto University in Japan who led the study. The work doesn't mean that chimps are 'smarter' than humans, but rather they seem to be better at memorizing a snapshot view of their...
  • The Theory of Moral Neuroscience

    11/22/2007 11:04:02 PM PST · by neverdem · 36 replies · 210+ views
    Reason ^ | November 21, 2007 | Ronald Bailey
    Modern brain science is confirming an 18th century philosopher's moral theories"As we have no immediate experience of what other men feel, we can form no idea of the manner in which they are affected, but by conceiving what we ourselves should feel in the like situation," observed British philosopher and economist Adam Smith in the first chapter of his magisterial The Theory of Moral Sentiments (1759). "Whatever is the passion which arises from any object in the person principally concerned, an analogous emotion springs up, at the thought of his situation, in the breast of every attentive spectator." Smith's argument...
  • Imaging Neural Progenitor Cells In The Living Human Brain

    11/18/2007 1:52:06 AM PST · by neverdem · 4 replies · 99+ views
    Science Daily ^ | Nov. 17, 2007 | NA
    For the first time, investigators have identified a way to detect neural progenitor cells (NPCs), which can develop into neurons and other nervous system cells, in the living human brain using a type of imaging called magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). The finding may lead to improved diagnosis and treatment for depression, Parkinson's disease, brain tumors, and a host of other disorders. Research has shown that, in select brain regions, NPCs persist into adulthood and may give rise to new neurons. Studies have suggested that the development of new neurons from NPCs, called neurogenesis, is disrupted in disorders ranging from depression...
  • The Waning of I.Q.

    09/18/2007 11:39:45 PM PDT · by neverdem · 55 replies · 1,174+ views
    NY Times ^ | September 14, 2007 | DAVID BROOKS
    A nice phenomenon of the past few years is the diminishing influence of I.Q. For a time, I.Q. was the most reliable method we had to capture mental aptitude. People had the impression that we are born with these information-processing engines in our heads and that smart people have more horsepower than dumb people. And in fact, there’s something to that. There is such a thing as general intelligence; people who are good at one mental skill tend to be good at others. This intelligence is partly hereditary. A meta-analysis by Bernie Devlin of the University of Pittsburgh found that...
  • Top neuroscientist backs computer brain game [Train your brain?]

    09/07/2007 8:34:11 PM PDT · by bruinbirdman · 15 replies · 791+ views
    The Telegraph ^ | 9/7/2007 | Roger Highfield
    Baroness Greenfield, the well known neuroscientist and director of the Royal Institution, has joined the likes of Nicole Kidman and Chris Tarrant by putting her name to a computer game designed to train the brain. ** Train your brain: Take the MindFit test At the House of Lords she helped to launch a new fitness routine to play on the insecurities of the masses - the brain workout - and described the results of a trial that suggests that it could help arrest the ageing of the body's most complex organ. "You are your brain and it is vital your...
  • Chasing memory: one man's epic quest

    08/19/2007 5:01:26 PM PDT · by vbmoneyspender · 13 replies · 604+ views
    The Los Angeles Times ^ | August 19, 2007 | Terry McDermott
    Gary Lynch has spent decades trying to understand how the brain processes new information so that we can recall it later. The first time I spoke with the neuroscientist Gary Lynch, the conversation went something like this: Me: I'm interested in spending time in a laboratory like yours, where the principal focus is the study of memory. I'd like to explain how memory functions and fails, and why, and use the work in the lab as a means to illustrate how we know what we know. Lynch: You'd be welcome to come here. This would actually be a propitious time...
  • Implant boosts activity in injured brain - Deep-brain stimulation offers hope for minimally...

    08/01/2007 7:00:10 PM PDT · by neverdem · 17 replies · 588+ views
    Nature ^ | 1 August 2007 | Michael Hopkin
    Deep-brain stimulation offers hope for minimally conscious patients.CLEVELAND CLINIC Deep-brain stimulation might help trauma patients regain consciousness. Brain function has been improved in a patient who was in a minimally conscious state, by electrically stimulating a specific brain region with implanted electrodes. The achievement raises questions about the treatment of other patients who have been in this condition for years, the researchers say. Patients in a minimally conscious state, often the result of severe brain trauma, show only intermittent evidence of awareness of the world around them. Typically, they are assumed to have little chance of further recovery if they...
  • Origin of Deja Vu Pinpointed

    06/09/2007 2:48:14 PM PDT · by LibWhacker · 66 replies · 1,441+ views
    LiveScience ^ | 6/7/07 | Dave Mosher
    The brain cranks out memories near its center, in a looped wishbone of tissue called the hippocampus. But a new study suggests only a small chunk of it, called the dentate gyrus, is responsible for “episodic” memories—information that allows us to tell similar places and situations apart. The finding helps explain where déjà vu originates in the brain, and why it happens more frequently with increasing age and with brain-disease patients, said MIT neuroscientist Susumu Tonegawa. The study is detailed today in the online version of the journal Science.
  • Are Persons Just an Illusion? - Neuroscience and philosophy clash.

    04/27/2007 5:13:46 PM PDT · by neverdem · 72 replies · 1,525+ views
    Reason ^ | April 27, 2007 | Ronald Bailey
    Neuroscientists Martha Farah and Andrea Heberlein, in the January issue of the American Journal of Bioethics (subscription link), wonder if empirical insights from their discipline can naturalize personhood. In other words, they explore the notion that a person is a "natural kind" and "seeks objective and clear-cut biological criteria that correspond reasonably well with most peoples' intuitions about personhood. These criteria could then be substituted for intuition in those cases where intuitions fail to agree." This is an important issue, because trying to determine who is and is not a person figures in our ethical and policy debates over the...
  • The Brain on the Stand

    03/11/2007 1:24:09 PM PDT · by neverdem · 14 replies · 1,375+ views
    NY Times ^ | March 11, 2007 | JEFFREY ROSEN
    I. Mr. Weinstein’s Cyst When historians of the future try to identify the moment that neuroscience began to transform the American legal system, they may point to a little-noticed case from the early 1990s. The case involved Herbert Weinstein, a 65-year-old ad executive who was charged with strangling his wife, Barbara, to death and then, in an effort to make the murder look like a suicide, throwing her body out the window of their 12th-floor apartment on East 72nd Street in Manhattan. Before the trial began, Weinstein’s lawyer suggested that his client should not be held responsible for his actions...
  • The Brain Scan That Can Read People's Intentions

    02/08/2007 5:24:10 PM PST · by fanfan · 81 replies · 2,163+ views
    The Guardian ^ | February 9, 2007 | Ian Sample
    A team of world-leading neuroscientists has developed a powerful technique that allows them to look deep inside a person's brain and read their intentions before they act. The team used high-resolution brain scans to identify patterns of activity before translating them into meaningful thoughts, revealing what a person planned to do in the near future. It is the first time scientists have succeeded in reading intentions in this way. ~snip~ The use of brain scanners to judge whether people are likely to commit crimes is a contentious issue that society should tackle now, according to Prof Haynes. "We see the...