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Keyword: paleolithic

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  • Neanderthals used resin 'glue' to craft their stone tools

    07/01/2019 9:19:39 AM PDT · by SunkenCiv · 20 replies
    EurekAlert! ^ | Wednesday, June 26, 2019 | University of Colorado at Boulder
    Archaeologists working in two Italian caves have discovered some of the earliest known examples of ancient humans using an adhesive on their stone tools--an important technological advance called "hafting." The new study, which included CU Boulder's Paola Villa, shows that Neanderthals living in Europe from about 55 to 40 thousand years ago traveled away from their caves to collect resin from pine trees. They then used that sticky substance to glue stone tools to handles made out of wood or bone... ...a chance discovery from Grotta del Fossellone and Grotta di Sant'Agostino, a pair of caves near the beaches of...
  • Found the oldest Neanderthal wooden tools in the Iberian Peninsula

    08/24/2018 3:34:06 PM PDT · by SunkenCiv · 14 replies
    Phys dot org ^ | April 4, 2018 | Centro Nacional de Investigacion sobre la Evolucion Humana
    The detailed analysis of this tool and the luminescence dating of the sediment that bears the wooden remains indicate that the objects were deposited around 90,000 years ago, and thus were made by neandertals. The Micro-CT analysis and a close examination of the surface have shown that a yew trunk was cut longitudinally into two halves. One of this halves was scraped with a stone tool and treated with fire to harden it and to facilitate the scraping to obtain a pointed morphology. Use-wear analysis revealed that it was used for digging in search of food, flint, or simply to...
  • Found the oldest Neanderthal wooden tools in the Iberian Peninsula

    04/06/2018 4:46:23 AM PDT · by SunkenCiv · 24 replies
    Phys dot org ^ | April 4, 2018 | Centro Nacional de Investigacion sobre la Evolucion Humana
    Archaeological excavations at the Aranbaltza site in the Basque Country coast (Northern Spain) have revealed several episodes of neandertal occupations with preserved wooden remains... In 2015, the excavation revealed two very well preserved wooden tools, one of which is a 15 cm-long digging stick... The detailed analysis of this tool and the luminescence dating of the sediment that bears the wooden remains indicate that the objects were deposited around 90,000 years ago, and thus were made by neandertals. The Micro-CT analysis and a close examination of the surface have shown that a yew trunk was cut longitudinally into two halves....
  • Family of three die after falling into boiling mud as sink hole opens up in volcanic area in Italy

    09/12/2017 9:20:16 AM PDT · by BenLurkin · 49 replies
    telegraph.co.uk ^ | 12 September 2017 • 4:18pm | Nick Squires, Rome
    An Italian couple and their 11-year-old son died in a freak accident on Tuesday when they fell into a 10ft-deep hole that suddenly opened up in a highly active volcanic area near Naples. Police said the child strayed beyond safety barriers and was swallowed up by the pit, plunging into boiling hot mud at the Solfatara Crater in Pozzuoli, part of a huge volcanic area known as the Campi Flegrei or Phlegrean Fields. His father, 45, reportedly rushed to his rescue but also fell into the sink-hole. The boy’s mother, 42, then went to their aid, but she too was...
  • Can Volcanic Gas Levels Predict an Eruption?

    06/19/2017 1:25:15 PM PDT · by JimSEA · 18 replies
    EOS ^ | June 12, 2017 | Alexandria Branscomb
    Before a volcano erupts, there are usually signs of what’s to come; small earthquakes, heat emission, and ground swelling, to name a few, have all been observed to precede eruptions. Volcanologists also monitor the changing composition of gas emissions at volcanoes in the months leading up to an eruption. However, precursory variations in gas have not yet been verified to occur in volcanoes hosting active lava lakes. To find out if volcanic gas emissions might also be used to predict eruptions at lava lake–hosting, carbon-poor volcanoes, Aiuppa et al. looked at Chile’s Villarrica volcano. Villarrica towers 2847 meters over the...
  • Europe’s Most Dangerous Supervolcano Is Waking Up; 500,000 Lives At Risk

    01/10/2017 5:16:20 AM PST · by gaggs · 49 replies
    When Mount Vesuvius erupted and buried the Italian city of Pompeii in ash, killing 2,000 people, it was regarded as one of the most catastrophic natural disasters and is still studied heavily today. By comparison, a nearby supervolcano called Campi Flegrei, which means “burning fields,” would put the lives of 500,000 Italians at risk and cause damage that would extend to the surrounding nations.
  • Massive Volcano Near Naples Begins Rumbling

    12/23/2016 2:45:57 PM PST · by marshmallow · 45 replies
    A volcanic field off the shore of Sicily, near Naples, has become active, scientists report. The Campi Flegrei volcano is much larger than nearby Mt. Vesuvius, the volcano whose eruption destroyed the ancient city of Pompei. An eruption of this “supervolcano” could endanger much of Europe. News of the volcanic activity was made public less than a week after the blood of St. Januarius failed to liquefy when displayed in the Naples cathedral. Sicilians have long believed that when the miracle of St. Januarius does not occur, disaster will follow for the people of Naples. A supervolcano caused the largest...
  • A supervolcano caused the largest eruption in European history. Now it’s stirring again.

    12/22/2016 7:41:58 PM PST · by JimSEA · 31 replies
    Washington Post ^ | 12/21/2016 | Sarah Kaplan
    The Italian name for the caldera — Campi Flegrei, or “burning fields”— is apt. The 7.5-mile-wide cauldron is the collapsed top of an ancient volcano, formed when the magma within finally blew. Though half of it is obscured beneath the crystal blue waters of the Mediterranean, the other half is studded with cinder cones and calderas from smaller eruptions. And the whole area seethes with hydrothermal activity: Sulfuric acid spews from active fumaroles; geysers spout water and steam and the ground froths with boiling mud; and earthquake swarms shudder through the region, 125 miles south of Rome. And things seem...
  • The Supervolcano That Caused One Of The Biggest Eruptions In History Has Started To Stir

    12/22/2016 11:17:19 AM PST · by blam · 56 replies
    Science Alert ^ | 12-22-2016 | BEC Crew
    BEC CREW 22 DEC 2016 It's dangerously close to hitting a critical pressure point. A 12-km wide cauldron that forms a vast supervolcano on the coast of Italy is showing signs of reawakening after almost 500 years of inactivity. Not only is this site rumoured to be responsible for the extinction of the Neanderthals, it’s got 500,000 people living around it right now, and researchers say it appears to be approaching a critical pressure point that could lead to an eruption. You might imagine a supervolcano as like a regular volcano, only supersized, rising up out of the ground and...
  • Naples astride a rumbling mega-volcano

    12/21/2016 7:32:05 AM PST · by BenLurkin · 27 replies
    phys.org ^ | 12/20/2016
    A slumbering Campi Flegrei volcano under the Italian city of Naples shows signs of "reawakening" and may be nearing a critical pressure point, according to a study published Tuesday. Italian and French scientists have for the first time identified a threshold beyond which rising magma under the Earth's surface could trigger the release of fluids and gases at a 10-fold increased rate. This would cause the injection of high-temperature steam into surrounding rocks, said lead author Giovanni Chiodini, a researcher at Italy's National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology in Bologna. "Hydrothermal rocks, if heated, can ultimately lose their mechanical resistance,...
  • Dating the Uluzzian

    02/15/2014 6:08:44 PM PST · by SunkenCiv · 25 replies
    Popular Archaeology ^ | February 09, 2014 | Journal of Human Evolution
    Researchers have securely dated a prehistoric human stone tool industry that is thought to have been used by early modern humans, or possibly late Neanderthals, around the time when early modern humans were beginning to emerge in Europe, arguably sometime between 40,000 to 50,000 years B.P... The Uluzzian, a prehistoric stone tool techno-tradition represented by lithic artifacts unearthed by archaeologists at cave locations primarily in Italy and Greece, has been a central contender as a possible "transitional" industry between the typical stone tool types (the Mousterian) used by late European Neanderthals and those (Aurignacian, Châtelperronian) of the earliest modern human...
  • Italian 'Super Volcano' May Threaten Millions: Scientists plan to drill deep below Romans'...

    08/06/2012 7:54:17 PM PDT · by SunkenCiv · 35 replies
    Newser ^ | Monday, August 06, 2012 | Rob Quinn
    A hidden "super volcano" near Pompeii threatens an eruption that could make Vesuvius look like a picnic, scientists warn. The Phlegraean Fields zone of intense seismic activity -- which the ancient Romans believed was the gateway to hell -- could doom millions of people in the Naples area if it erupts, Reuters reports. Scientists plan to drill more than two miles below its surface to monitor any signs of a pending eruption in the huge chamber of molten rock, but some experts fear that the drilling itself could trigger an earthquake or eruption. Areas like the Phlegraean fields "can give...
  • Ground Rises Near Ancient Italian Volcano

    02/25/2007 1:47:41 PM PST · by Strategerist · 30 replies · 1,098+ views
    LiveScience ^ | February 23, 2007 | Andrea Thompson
    The ground on the western edges of Naples, Italy is rising, spurring worries of a possible volcanic eruption, but scientists now think they know exactly what is causing the uplift and may be able to better predict any potential eruption. Using GPS measurements, a group of scientists at the National Institute of Geophysics and Vulcanology in Italy monitored the ground’s motions for several years, and based on the patterns they observed, they believe the uplifting is caused by magma intruding from a shallow chamber. The rising motions of the ground reached a peak rate of about three feet per year...
  • Volcanoes Killed Off Neanderthals, Study Suggests

    09/24/2010 8:52:38 PM PDT · by SunkenCiv · 37 replies
    National Geographic News ^ | September 22, 2010 | Ker Than
    The Neanderthals were a hardy species that lived through multiple ice ages and would have been familiar with volcanoes and other natural calamities. But the eruptions 40,000 years ago were unlike anything Neanderthals had faced before, Cleghorn and company say. For one thing, all the volcanoes apparently erupted around the same time. And one of those blasts, the Campanian Ignimbrite, is thought to have been the most powerful eruption in Europe in the last 200,000 years... The researchers acknowledge that there are gaps in the volcanoes theory. For instance, the time line needs to be better defined -- did...
  • ...Flintstone Workshop of Neanderthals in... Poland... approx. 60,000 years old

    03/20/2019 9:37:46 PM PDT · by SunkenCiv · 35 replies
    Science in Poland ^ | March 13, 2019 | Szymon Zdzieblowski
    They probably appeared in Poland approximately 300,000 years ago. The oldest stone tools they used, discovered on the Vistula, are over 200,000 years old, and the remains are over 100,000 years old. "On the bank of the river in Pietraszyno, we discovered an unprecedented amount of flint products - 17,000 - abandoned by Neanderthals approximately 60,000 years ago" - says Dr. Andrzej Wisniewski from the Institute of Archaeology, University of Wroclaw. Since 2018, the researcher has been conducting joint excavations with researchers from the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig in the framework of a National Science Centre...
  • We should gene-sequence cave paintings to find out more about who made them

    02/16/2019 5:29:24 PM PST · by SunkenCiv · 30 replies
    Technology Review ^ | February 14, 2019 | Emerging Technology from the arXiv
    ...the origin of these artworks is shrouded in mystery. Nobody is quite sure what the artists used for paint or binder, how the pigmentation has been preserved for so long, and -- most controversial of all -- exactly when the images were made... Today we get a unique insight into this question thanks to the work of Clodoaldo Roldán at the University of Valencia in Spain and colleagues... One way to date ancient artifacts is with carbon dating. But this works only with pigments that have a biological origin, and with the exception of black, most of them do not....
  • New Fossil Found In Israel Suggests A Much Earlier Human Migration Out Of Africa

    01/26/2018 5:20:54 AM PST · by SMGFan · 30 replies
    npr ^ | January 25, 2018
    Archaeologists in Israel have discovered the oldest fossil of a modern human outside Africa. The fossil suggests that humans first migrated out of the continent much earlier than previously believed. The scientists were digging in a cave called Misliya, on the slopes of Mount Carmel on the northern coast of Israel. "The cave is one of a series of prehistoric caves," says Mina Weinstein-Evron of the Zinman Institute of Archaeology at the University of Haifa, who led the team. "It's a collapsed cave, but people lived there before it collapsed." The cave had been occupied for several hundred thousand years,...
  • Scientists discover oldest known modern human fossil outside of Africa

    01/25/2018 2:19:08 PM PST · by Red Badger · 20 replies
    phys.org ^ | 01/25/2018 | http://www.binghamton.edu/
    The left hemi-maxilla with teeth. Credit: Rolf Quam _________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ A large international research team, led by Israel Hershkovitz from Tel Aviv University and including Rolf Quam from Binghamton University, State University of New York, has discovered the earliest modern human fossil ever found outside of Africa. The finding suggests that modern humans left the continent at least 50,000 years earlier than previously thought. "Misliya is an exciting discovery," says Rolf Quam, Binghamton University anthropology professor and a coauthor of the study. "It provides the clearest evidence yet that our ancestors first migrated out of Africa much earlier than we...
  • Neanderthals In California? Maybe So, Provocative Study Says (Denisovians?)

    04/27/2017 10:42:29 AM PDT · by blam · 21 replies
    Times Republican ^ | 4-27-2017 | MALCOLM RITTER
    NEW YORK — A startling new report asserts that the first known Americans arrived much, much earlier than scientists thought — more than 100,000 years ago __ and maybe they were Neanderthals. If true, the finding would far surpass the widely accepted date of about 15,000 years ago. Researchers say a site in Southern California shows evidence of humanlike behavior from about 130,000 years ago, when bones and teeth of an elephantlike mastodon were evidently smashed with rocks. The earlier date means the bone-smashers were not necessarily members of our own species, Homo sapiens. The researchers speculate that these early...
  • Neandertals, Stone Age people may have voyaged the Mediterranean

    05/05/2018 9:08:13 PM PDT · by Theoria · 55 replies
    Science ^ | 24 April 2018 | Andrew Lawler
    WASHINGTON, D.C.—Odysseus, who voyaged across the wine-dark seas of the Mediterranean in Homer’s epic, may have had some astonishingly ancient forerunners. A decade ago, when excavators claimed to have found stone tools on the Greek island of Crete dating back at least 130,000 years, other archaeologists were stunned—and skeptical. But since then, at that site and others, researchers have quietly built up a convincing case for Stone Age seafarers—and for the even more remarkable possibility that they were Neandertals, the extinct cousins of modern humans. The finds strongly suggest that the urge to go to sea, and the cognitive and...