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Keyword: physiology

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  • See these first-of-a-kind views of living human nerve cells

    11/13/2017 9:22:58 PM PST · by ETL · 22 replies ^ | November 09, 2017 | Laura Sanders
    New database could shed light on how people’s brains tick The human brain is teeming with diversity. By plucking out delicate, live tissue during neurosurgery and then studying the resident cells, researchers have revealed a partial cast of neural characters that give rise to our thoughts, dreams and memories. So far, researchers with the Allen Institute for Brain Science in Seattle have described the intricate shapes and electrical properties of about 100 nerve cells, or neurons, taken from the brains of 36 patients as they underwent surgery for conditions such as brain tumors or epilepsy. To reach the right spot,...
  • New human organ discovered, purpose of ‘mesentery’ unknown

    01/03/2017 5:21:48 PM PST · by BenLurkin · 36 replies
    The mesentery’s purpose isn’t fully understood, but its presence could hold the key to treating digestive diseases. It was previously thought that the organ was an unimportant group of structures, but it has now been classified as one single organ, which connects the abdomen to the intestine. The discovery that the mesentery was a single structure was first made by Irish researcher J Calvin Coffey at University Hospital Limerick in Ireland in 2012. Since then, he and his team studied the mesentery to prove it should be classified as an organ. "When we approach it like every other organ,” Coffey...
  • Copper is key in burning fat

    06/08/2016 6:24:29 AM PDT · by BenLurkin · 44 replies ^ | Monday, June 6, 2016 | Sarah Yang, Berkeley Lab
    A new study is further burnishing copper’s reputation as an essential nutrient for human physiology. A research team led by a scientist at the Department of Energy’s Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) and at UC Berkeley has found that copper plays a key role in metabolizing fat. Long prized as a malleable, conductive metal used in cookware, electronics, jewelry and plumbing, copper has been gaining increasing attention over the past decade for its role in certain biological functions. It has been known that copper is needed to form red blood cells, absorb iron, develop connective tissue and support the...
  • Is There a Brain Region Associated with a Belief in Social Justice?

    06/17/2014 7:31:51 PM PDT · by DogByte6RER · 28 replies
    IO9 ^ | June 17, 2014 | Anale Newiitz
    Is There a Brain Region Associated with a Belief in Social Justice? Some people believe that we could live in a just world where everybody gets what they deserve. Others believe that's impossible. Now, neuroscientists say they have evidence that the "just world hypothesis" is a cognitive bias that's connected with a specific part of the brain. This does not mean there is a "social justice center" in your brain. What neurologist Michael Schaefer and colleagues discovered is that there is a slightly different pattern of electrical impulses shooting through the brains of people who believe in a just world....
  • Zimmerman had two big advantages over Trayvon

    07/28/2013 12:47:05 PM PDT · by 2ndDivisionVet · 104 replies
    The Nevada Appeal ^ | July 27, 2013 | Professor Marilee Swirczek, Western Nevada College
    The Zimmerman verdict sits like a stone in the guts of many Americans. We struggle to put our finger on what sickens us, but we know something feels really bad. It wasn’t until I read Guy Farmer’s commentary (“Zimmerman trial marred by racial politics,” July 21) that I started to get it. Amid hundreds of words reviewing the facts of the case, which we all know by heart, Farmer reveals in 13 words what is wrong with the Zimmerman verdict: “Martin wasn’t an innocent young boy; he was a head taller than Zimmerman.” In that profoundly disturbing sentence, Farmer demonstrates...
  • Fat Cells Feel the Cold, Burn Calories for Heat

    07/01/2013 10:47:23 PM PDT · by neverdem · 9 replies
    ScienceNOW ^ | 1 July 2013 | Elizabeth Norton
    Enlarge Image Burning fat in the cold. White fat cells sense cold directly, and release energy to warm up. Credit: Biophoto Associates/Science Source Transforming fat cells into calorie-burning machines may sound like the ultimate form of weight control, but the idea is not as far-fetched as it sounds. Unexpectedly, some fat cells directly sense dropping temperatures and release their energy as heat, according to a new study; that ability might be harnessed to treat obesity and diabetes, researchers suggest. Fat is known to help protect animals from the cold—and not only by acting as insulation. In the early 1990s,...
  • Painting circuits on skin

    03/23/2013 10:21:35 AM PDT · by neverdem · 11 replies
    Chemistry World ^ | 22 March 2013 | Melissae Fellet
    A-ok. Yang Yu models the new liquid metal electrodes holding two batteries to power LEDs connected by a circuit © Jing LiuPainting a patient’s skin with a liquid metal ink could make heart monitoring much less painful and even let doctors keep an eye on a whole range of vital signs. Scientists used the ink to draw electrodes on to the skin, which could also be used to monitor muscle or brain activity.1Currently, doctors monitor a patient’s heartbeat by detecting the muscle’s electrical signals using electrocardiography (ECG). Disposable electrodes attach to a patient’s chest using a sticky paper backing. A...
  • Treat obesity as physiology, not physics (Gary Taubes)

    12/14/2012 6:41:08 PM PST · by neverdem · 115 replies
    Nature News ^ | 12 December 2012 | Gary Taubes
    The energy in–energy out hypothesis is not set in stone, argues Gary Taubes. It is time to test hormonal theories about why we get fat. “It is better to know nothing,” wrote French physiologist Claude Bernard in An Introduction to the Study of Experimental Medicine (1865), “than to keep in mind fixed ideas based on theories whose confirmation we constantly seek.” Embracing a fixed idea is one of the main dangers in the evolution of any scientific discipline. Ideally, errors will be uncovered in the trial-by-fire of rigorous testing and the science will right itself. In rare cases, however, an...
  • Receptor Scientists Nab Chemistry Nobel

    10/10/2012 7:49:50 PM PDT · by neverdem · 2 replies
    ScienceNOW ^ | 10 October 2012 | Robert F. Service
    According to George Bernard Shaw: "The most intolerable pain is produced by prolonging the keenest pleasure." Not to be picky George, but actually both sensations result from the activity of a diverse family of proteins on the surface of cells. This year's Nobel Prize in chemistry was awarded to two Americans—Robert Lefkowitz of Duke University in Durham, North Carolina, and Brian Kobilka of Stanford University School of Medicine in Palo Alto, California—who revealed the inner workings of these proteins, which also orchestrate a variety of things such as the way we see, smell, taste, feel, and fight infections. The notion...
  • Seeing cells under stress

    09/18/2012 7:42:06 AM PDT · by neverdem · 1 replies
    Chemistry World ^ | 17 September 2012 | Jennifer Newton
    The assembly includes a cell-stretching device, an atomic force microscopy head and an objective of the inverted microscopeAn analytical platform that imposes controlled mechanical strain onto live cells whilst monitoring changes in cell morphology and molecular signalling has been developed by scientists in Germany. Cellular processes induced by mechanical forces are crucial for bone healing and lung function. Understanding these processes could help to prevent and aid the development of therapies for mechanically induced lung and cardiovascular diseases and injuries.Christine Kranz and colleagues from the University of Ulm combined fluorescence microscopy with atomic force microscopy to analyse the cells. They...
  • The Hidden Truths about Calories

    09/01/2012 1:06:03 AM PDT · by neverdem · 18 replies
    Scientific American, ^ | August 27, 2012 | Rob Dunn
    Odds are you sometimes think about calories. They are among the most often counted things in the universe. When the calorie was originally conceived it was in the context of human work. More calories meant more capacity for work, more chemical fire with which to get the job done, coal in the human stove. Fat, it has been estimated, has nine calories per gram, whereas carbohydrates and proteins have just four; fiber is sometimes counted separately and gets awarded a piddling two. Every box of every food you have ever bought is labeled based on these estimates; too bad then...
  • Brain scan foretells who will fold under pressure

    04/03/2012 1:07:31 AM PDT · by U-238 · 12 replies
    Science Daily ^ | 3/2/2012 | Laura Sanders
    As any high school senior staring down the SAT knows, when the stakes are high, some test-takers choke. A new study finds that activity in distinct parts of the brain can predict whether a person will remain cool or crumble under pressure. The results, presented April 1 at the annual meeting of the Cognitive Neuroscience Society, offer some great new clues that may help scientists understand how the brain copes with stressful situations, says psychologist Thomas Carr of Michigan State University in East Lansing. “Sometimes you come across a study you wish you'd done yourself,” he says “This is such...
  • Frozen Fruit Flies Come Back to Life - Feeding flies a "cryoprotectant" can save them from the cold

    02/19/2012 12:10:56 AM PST · by neverdem · 13 replies
    Popular Science ^ | 02.13.2012 | Rebecca Boyle
    A larval fruit fly is hatched in the year 2011 and frozen while still pupating, half its body water solidified in frigid temperatures. After spending many generations in a state of suspended animation, the wee Drosophila melanogaster awakens and is allowed to grow up. One day, it wonders if it will ever be able to mate — but should it bring new larvae into this dystopian future? As it turns out, the fly can successfully mate after all, and its offspring are perfectly healthy new larvae. Too bad for the fly, it dies in the lab so scientists can find...
  • Terrorist 'pre-crime' detector field tested in United States

    05/27/2011 11:04:58 PM PDT · by neverdem · 41 replies
    Nature News ^ | 27 May 2011 | Sharon Weinberger
    Screening system aims to pinpoint passengers with malicious intentions. Planning a sojourn in the northeastern United States? You could soon be taking part in a novel security programme that can supposedly 'sense' whether you are planning to commit a crime. Future Attribute Screening Technology (FAST), a US Department of Homeland Security (DHS) programme designed to spot people who are intending to commit a terrorist act, has in the past few months completed its first round of field tests at an undisclosed location in the northeast, Nature has learned. Like a lie detector, FAST measures a variety of physiological indicators, ranging...
  • Probiotic found in breast milk helps alleviate symptoms of digestive disorders

    06/02/2010 4:17:06 PM PDT · by decimon · 6 replies · 260+ views
    New research published in the FASEB Journal suggests that Lactobacillus reuteri immediately affects nerves in the gut, explaining how probiotics workHere's another reason to breast feed your baby: Canadian researchers have discovered how a probiotic found in breastmilk reduces or eliminates painful cramping in the gut. In a new research report published online in the FASEB Journal (, these scientists use mice to show that a specific strain of Lactobacillus reuteri decreases the force of muscle contractions in the gut within minutes of exposure. This bacterium naturally occurs in the gut of many mammals and can be found in human...
  • Non-protein antifreeze helps Arctic beetle chill out

    11/24/2009 10:35:07 PM PST · by neverdem · 1 replies · 494+ views
    Chemistry World ^ | 23 November 2009 | Simon Hadlington
    Scientists in the US have discovered a new class of biological antifreeze molecules - the first that do not contain proteins. The antifreeze, extracted from an Alaskan beetle capable of surviving at -60°C, consists of linked mannopyranose and xylopyranose sugars, termed xylomannan, associated with a lipid. Large molecules that cause thermal hysteresis - a difference between the melting and freezing points of a solution - have been identified in many organisms that survive in the cold, from Antarctic fish to plants and bacteria. In all cases identified so far, thermal hysteresis appears to be caused by proteins, known as antifreeze proteins or...
  • Startle Response Linked to Politics

    09/20/2008 5:07:53 AM PDT · by TigerLikesRooster · 25 replies · 208+ views
    WP ^ | Shankar Vedantam
    Startle Response Linked to Politics More Sensitive May Mean More Conservative, Study Finds By Shankar Vedantam Washington Post Staff Writer Friday, September 19, 2008; A09 People who startle easily in response to threatening images or loud sounds seem to have a biological predisposition to adopt conservative political positions on many hot-button issues, according to unusual new research published yesterday. The finding suggests that people who are particularly sensitive to signals of visual or auditory threats also tend to adopt a more defensive stance on political issues, such as immigration, gun control, defense spending and patriotism. People who are less sensitive...
  • Not Just Meat Scaffolding

    08/09/2007 11:15:42 PM PDT · by neverdem · 5 replies · 617+ views
    ScienceNOW Daily News ^ | 9 August 2007 | Krista Zala
    Boning up. Mice with high osteocalcin levels (left) made far more insulin (pink) than regular mice.Credit: Hideaki Sowa, Karsenty Research Group, Columbia University Give your skeletal system some credit. Not only do your bones keep you upright, they produce red and white blood cells, store minerals, and help control pH. But that's not all: According to a new study, bones secrete a protein called osteocalcin that regulates sugar and fat absorption. The finding qualifies osteocalcin as a hormone, meaning the skeleton can now add being an endocrine organ to its impressive list of accomplishments. There have already been hints that...
  • Scientists find the key to cot deaths (Sudden Infant Death Syndrome - SIDS)

    10/31/2006 6:32:51 PM PST · by Stoat · 10 replies · 916+ views
    Times Online (U.K.) ^ | November 1, 2006 | Nigel Hawkes
    Scientists find the key to cot deathsBy Nigel Hawkes, Health Editor   It is hoped that babies with the brain abnormality that leads to cot death may be identified by a scan in the womb   SCIENTISTS believe that they have found the underlying cause of cot death, a condition that claims the lives of hundreds of babies every year.  Research into dozens of infant fatalities identified as the result of sudden infant death syndrome showed that the victims had a brain abnormality that prevents the detection of insufficient oxygen levels in the body. As a result, babies with...
  • Friends for Life: An Emerging Biology of Emotional Healing

    10/15/2006 1:29:21 PM PDT · by neverdem · 6 replies · 532+ views
    NY Times ^ | October 10, 2006 | DANIEL GOLEMAN
    A dear friend has been battling cancer for a decade or more. Through a grinding mix of chemotherapy, radiation and all the other necessary indignities of oncology, he has lived on, despite dire prognoses to the contrary. My friend was the sort of college professor students remember fondly: not just inspiring in class but taking a genuine interest in them — in their studies, their progress through life, their fears and hopes. A wide circle of former students count themselves among his lifelong friends; he and his wife have always welcomed a steady stream of visitors to their home. Though...