Free Republic 3rd Quarter Fundraising Target: $88,000 Receipts & Pledges to-date: $55,949
Woo hoo!! And we're now over 63%!! Thank you all very much!! God bless.

Keyword: speedofdark

Brevity: Headers | « Text »
  • How to catch a ripple in spacetime

    06/19/2016 12:26:13 PM PDT · by MtnClimber · 16 replies ^ | 17 Jun, 2016 | Janna Levin
    How do you build a real-world machine to test the most abstract of theories? Janna Levin talks with Rai Weiss, one of the original designers of LIGO, the four-kilometer-long instrument that has now twice detected the distant reverberations of two black holes crashing into one another. Janna Levin is a theoretical physicist — she works with pen and paper to turn the elegant rules of the universe into theory. Rainer Weiss, or Rai, as he’s known, is an experimental physicist — he thinks about how to find and measure something that may or may not exist outside of theory. Weiss...
  • Do We Need to Revise General Relativity?

    05/20/2016 11:56:18 AM PDT · by MtnClimber · 39 replies
    Real Clear Science ^ | Ross Pomeroy
    The idea that our Universe is filled with dark matter has been around for nearly a century. When astronomers noticed that orbital speeds towards the edges of spiral galaxies remain the same or even increase slightly, rather than decrease, they surmised that either there must be some huge unseen mass driving the rotation, or that the laws of gravity given by Einstein's General Relativity need to be changed. They elected the first option. Over that time, cosmologists have accumulated boatloads of evidence in favor of the notion that this invisible, "dark" matter -- which neither interacts with nor emits light...
  • Astronomy Picture of the Day -- LIGO Detects Gravitational Waves from Merging Black Holes

    02/11/2016 4:37:17 PM PST · by SunkenCiv · 30 replies
    NASA ^ | February 11, 2016 | (see photo credit)
    Explanation: Gravitational radiation has been directly detected. The first-ever detection was made by both facilities of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) in Washington and Louisiana simultaneously last September. After numerous consistency checks, the resulting 5-sigma discovery was published today. The measured gravitational waves match those expected from two large black holes merging after a death spiral in a distant galaxy, with the resulting new black hole momentarily vibrating in a rapid ringdown. A phenomenon predicted by Einstein, the historic discovery confirms a cornerstone of humanity's understanding of gravity and basic physics. It is also the most direct detection of...
  • Galactic center's gamma rays unlikely to originate from dark matter, evidence shows

    02/05/2016 1:08:03 PM PST · by MtnClimber · 15 replies
    Princeton University ^ | 4 Feb, 2016 | Catherine Zandonella, Office of the Dean for Research
    Bursts of gamma rays from the center of our galaxy are not likely to be signals of dark matter but rather other astrophysical phenomena such as fast-rotating stars called millisecond pulsars, according to two new studies, one from a team based at Princeton University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and another based in the Netherlands. Previous studies suggested that gamma rays coming from the dense region of space in the inner Milky Way galaxy could be caused when invisible dark matter particles collide. But using new statistical analysis methods, the two research teams independently found that the gamma ray...
  • Black holes can grow to 50 billion times the mass of the Sun... and then stop

    12/21/2015 1:15:25 PM PST · by Red Badger · 32 replies ^ | December 21, 2015 12:30 GMT | By Matt Atherton
    Black holes can only grow if they have a gas disc to feed on NASA Goddard Space Flight Center/Flickr ======================================================================================================== Black holes can only grow to 50 billion times the mass of the Sun, before they lose their only source of 'food' and stop growing. Scientists discovered that black holes have a size limit, as when it gets so big, the gas which feeds the great void loses its energy, and falls into the unknown. A researcher from the University of Leicester analysed the disc of gas which surrounds supermassive black holes at the centre of galaxies. He found that...
  • Dark matter and the dinosaur: New theory challenges notions on origins of human life

    12/12/2015 1:32:59 AM PST · by Squawk 8888 · 22 replies
    National Post ^ | December 12, 2015 | Joseph Brean
    TORONTO — Dark matter inspires many strange theories, but until now few have involved giant lizards and the origins of humanity. If physicist Lisa Randall’s theory is correct, however, there is a clear link between dark matter, the great unknown majority of universal stuff and the extinction of the dinosaurs, which cleared the path for the rise of mammals, including that special species, homo sapiens. Roughly, her idea is that the rotation of a vast disc of dark matter through our solar system dislodged an asteroid from a weak and distant orbit, and sent it hurtling toward Earth, where it...
  • Astronomy Picture of the Day 9-17-02

    09/16/2002 10:05:58 PM PDT · by petuniasevan · 22 replies · 310+ views
    NASA ^ | 9-17-02 | Robert Nemiroff and Jerry Bonnell
    Astronomy Picture of the Day Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation written by a professional astronomer. 2002 September 17 A Force from Empty Space: The Casimir Effect Credit & Copyright: Umar Mohideen (U. California at Riverside) Explanation: This tiny ball provides evidence that the universe will expand forever. Measuring slightly over one tenth of a millimeter, the ball moves toward a smooth plate in response to energy fluctuations in the vacuum of empty space. The attraction is known as the Casimir Effect, named for...
  • Astronomy Picture of the Day -- A Force from Empty Space: The Casimir Effect

    12/05/2015 10:01:56 PM PST · by SunkenCiv · 11 replies
    NASA ^ | December 06, 2015 | (see photo credit)
    Explanation: This tiny ball provides evidence that the universe will expand forever. Measuring slightly over one tenth of a millimeter, the ball moves toward a smooth plate in response to energy fluctuations in the vacuum of empty space. The attraction is known as the Casimir Effect, named for its discoverer, who, 55 years ago, was trying to understand why fluids like mayonnaise move so slowly. Today, evidence indicates that most of the energy density in the universe is in an unknown form dubbed dark energy. The form and genesis of dark energy is almost completely unknown, but postulated as related...
  • Is Earth Growing a Hairy Dark Matter 'Beard'?

    11/23/2015 4:24:17 PM PST · by BenLurkin · 37 replies ^ | Nov 23, 2015 03:48 PM ET // by | Ian O'Neill
    Gary Prezeau of NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, Calif., describes the results of his theoretical model that goes some way to explain how streams of dark matter particles may interact with our planet's gravitational field. "A (dark matter) stream can be much larger than the solar system itself, and there are many different streams crisscrossing our galactic neighborhood," said Prézeau in a JPL press release. "When gravity interacts with the cold dark matter gas during galaxy formation, all particles within a stream continue traveling at the same velocity." As these streams begin to interact with a planet, according to...
  • Leading Harvard physicist has a radical new theory for why humans exist

    11/15/2015 7:47:38 AM PST · by SeekAndFind · 63 replies
    Business Insider ^ | 11/15/2015 | Jessica Orwig
    Where do we come from? There are many right answers to this question, and the one you get depends on who you ask. For example, an astrophysicist might say that the chemical components of our bodies were first forged in the nuclear fires of stars. On the other hand, an evolutionary biologist might look at the similarities between our DNA and that of other primates' and conclude we evolved from apes. Lisa Randall, a theoretical physicist at Harvard University, has a different, and novel answer, which she describes in her latest book, "Dark Matter and the Dinosaurs." Randall has written...
  • The Astronomer Who Wanted to Rearrange the Solar System, Using Nukes

    CalTech astronomer Fritz Zwicky was the first to conceive of dark matter, supernovas and neutron stars. He also had a theory about colonizing the solar system using nuclear bombs. We could terraform other planets, he argued, by pulverizing them and then moving them closer or further from the sun. ...
  • What are white holes?

    10/12/2015 8:35:22 AM PDT · by Red Badger · 40 replies ^ | October 9, 2015 | by Fraser Cain, Universe Today
    White Hole. Credit: =================================================================================================================== Black holes are created when stars die catastrophically in a supernova. So what in the universe is a white hole? It's imagination day, and we're going to talk about fantasy creatures. Like unicorns, but even rarer. Like leprechauns, but even more fantastical! Today, we're going to talk about white holes. Before we talk about white holes, let's talk about black holes. And before we talk about Black Holes, what's is this thing you have with holes exactly? Black holes are places in the universe where matter and energy are compacted so densely together that their...
  • NASA May Have Accidentally Created a Warp Field (MAY)

    04/24/2015 10:35:10 PM PDT · by Dallas59 · 52 replies ^ | 4/24/2015 |
    “Star Trek” introduced the world outside of rocket science circles to the concept of warp drive – the propulsion system that allowed the starship Enterprise to travel faster than the speed of light. Warp speed is the holy grail that would let us explore the universe safely surrounded and protected by a space-distorting warp field. After watching the SpaceX rocket recently just try to land on a platform, you’d think this ability is years if not decades away. Yet the buzz on space websites is that NASA may have accidentally discovered a way to create a warp field. Wait, what?...
  • Wormholes Untangle a Black Hole Paradox

    04/26/2015 10:30:30 AM PDT · by LibWhacker · 11 replies
    Quanta Magazine ^ | 4/24/15 | K.C. Cole
    Wormholes Untangle a Black Hole Paradox A bold new idea aims to link two famously discordant descriptions of nature. In doing so, it may also reveal how space-time owes its existence to the spooky connections of quantum information. By: K.C. ColeApril 24, 2015 Comments (19) One hundred years after Albert Einstein developed his general theory of relativity, physicists are still stuck with perhaps the biggest incompatibility problem in the universe. The smoothly warped space-time landscape that Einstein described is like a painting by Salvador Dalí — seamless, unbroken, geometric. But the quantum particles that occupy this space are more like...
  • Scientists Map the ["inferred"] Dark Matter Around Millions of Galaxies

    04/17/2015 2:15:22 PM PDT · by BenLurkin · 28 replies ^ | Ramin Skibba
    The research and maps, which span a large area of the sky, are the product of a massive effort of an international team from the US, UK, Spain, Germany, Switzerland, and Brazil. They announced their new results at the American Physical Society (APS) meeting in Baltimore, Maryland. According to cosmologists, dark matter particles stream and clump together over time in particular regions of the cosmos, often in the same places where galaxies form and cluster. Over time, a “cosmic web” develops across the universe. Though dark matter is invisible, it expands with the universe and feels the pull of gravity....
  • Fact or Fiction?: Dark Matter Killed the Dinosaurs

    04/02/2015 10:15:04 PM PDT · by grundle · 58 replies
    Scientific American ^ | March 25, 2015 | Lee Billings
    A new out-of-this-world theory links mass extinctions with exotic astrophysics and galactic architecture Every once in a great while, something almost unspeakable happens to Earth. Some terrible force reaches out and tears the tree of life limb from limb. In a geological instant, countless creatures perish and entire lineages simply cease to exist. The most famous of these mass extinctions happened about 66 million years ago, when the dinosaurs died out in the planet-wide environmental disruption that followed a mountain-sized space rock walloping Earth. We can still see the scar from the impact today as a nearly 200-kilometer-wide crater in...
  • Dark matter is apparently ‘darker’ than we thought

    03/27/2015 8:14:51 PM PDT · by BenLurkin · 48 replies
    WaPo ^ | Rachel Feltman
    A new study published Thursday in Science suggests that dark matter might be able to zip through the universe without slowing or dragging because particles of it don't even interact with each other. Based on what we can observe about the universe, galaxies should be tearing themselves apart. That's where so-called dark matter comes in: It's a term for the as-of-yet unobserved matter that must be bulking up cosmos, giving galaxies the gravity they need to spin at the rates they do without falling to pieces. But even though we haven't caught dark matter (so named because it doesn't interact...
  • How Do We Know Dark Matter Exists?

    03/12/2015 10:32:02 AM PDT · by BenLurkin · 46 replies ^ | Fraser Cain
    Now, you might be saying, if we don’t know what this thing is, and we can’t detect it. How do we know it’s actually there? Isn’t it probably not there, like dragons? How do we know dark matter actually exists, when we have no idea what it actually is? Oh, it’s there. In fact, pretty much all we know is that it does exist. Dark matter was first theorized back in the 1930s by Fritz Zwicky to account for the movement of galaxy clusters, but the modern calculations were made by Vera Rubin in the 1960s and 70s. She calculated...
  • Does Dark Matter Originate From Higgs Boson? New Theory To Be Tested At CERN's LHC

    03/07/2015 10:57:00 AM PST · by BenLurkin · 24 replies ^ | Avaneesh Pandey 
    Dark matter has long remained one of the greatest unsolved mysteries of the universe. While its presence can be inferred from the gravitational pull it exerts on visible matter, the fact that it does not emit or absorb any radiation makes it next to impossible to detect. ... The new model put forward by a team headed by Christoffer Petersson, a theoretical particle physicist from Chalmers University of Technology in Sweden, suggests that the Higgs boson, discovered by the LHC in 2012, might be responsible for the birth of dark matter particles. According to this model, if supersymmetry is real,...
  • The mystery signal from a galaxy far away:Brief pulse from deep in outer space baffles astronomers

    01/27/2015 3:32:02 AM PST · by Las Vegas Dave · 30 replies ^ | Tuesday, Jan 27th 2015 | Mark Prigg
    Is it a message from far beyond out own galaxy? A brief mysterious pulse detected by Arecibo telescope has baffled boffins. The discovery of a split-second burst of radio waves by scientists using the Arecibo radio telescope in Puerto Rico raises major new questions over what caused it. The finding by an international team of astronomers, published July 10 in The Astrophysical Journal, marks the first time that a so-called 'fast radio burst' has been detected using an instrument other than the Parkes radio telescope in Australia.
  • Mystery radio bursts from outside the Milky Way baffles astronomers

    05/18/2014 7:00:11 AM PDT · by shove_it · 52 replies
    DailyMail/Drudge ^ | 16 May | JONATHAN O'CALLAGHAN
    ~snip~ In 1967 British astronomer Jocelyn Bell Burnell was left stunned by mysterious pulsing signals she detected coming from outside the solar system. For months she suggested the signals could be of an extraterrestrial intelligent origin, but they were later proven to be rapidly spinning stars known as pulsars. However, a new series of mysterious signals, known as Fast Radio Bursts (FRBs), has again got astronomers scratching their heads and wondering if, maybe, we’re picking up alien messages...
  • In theory, the Milky Way could be a 'galactic transport system' (it could be a huge wormhole!)

    01/22/2015 2:13:28 AM PST · by LibWhacker · 13 replies
    Science Daily ^ | 1/21/15 | Source: Sissa Medialab
    Based on the latest evidence and theories our galaxy could be a huge wormhole (or space-time tunnel, have you seen the movie "Interstellar?") and, if that were true, it would be "stable and navigable." This is the hypothesis put forward in a study published in Annals of Physics and conducted with the participation of SISSA in Trieste. The paper, the result of a collaboration between Indian, Italian and North American researchers, prompts scientists to re-think dark matter. "If we combine the map of the dark matter in the Milky Way with the most recent Big Bang model to explain the...
  • Why wormholes (probably) don’t exist

    01/27/2015 2:09:07 AM PST · by LibWhacker · 24 replies
    Galileo's Pendulum ^ | 1/26/15 | Matthew Francis
    The test rig for the Dark Energy Camera (DECam) at Fermilab. I picked this image today because it kinda sorta looks like the wormhole-making machine from the film version of Contact. [Credit: moi]A lot of science fiction plot devices are devoted to getting around the speed of light. In the real Universe, nothing with mass can travel faster than light, which means we can’t travel to distant stars without taking decades, centuries, or longer in transit. So, sci-fi draws from teleportation, hyperdrive, warp drive, and the ultimate cosmic short-cut: wormholes.[1] In some cases, the source of a science fiction...
  • Scientists proud of dark matter study that turns up nothing

    11/12/2013 6:08:01 PM PST · by Tailgunner Joe · 28 replies ^ | October 31, 2013 | Caroline Lee
    Scientists at the Homestake Gold Mine in South Dakota running the biggest, most sensitive dark matter detector yet released its first round of results yesterday -- and they found nothing. The Large Underground Xenon dark matter experiment, or LUX, consists of a vat of 368 kilograms of liquid xenon to minus 110 degrees Celsius, surrounded by a tank of water. LUX sits 4,850 feet underground at the old mine, shielded from cosmic rays. An international team of researchers watched for three months to see if any WIMPS -- weakly interacting massive particles -- would pass through the rock and reveal...
  • Physicists suggest possible existence of other kinds of dark matter

    05/26/2013 4:08:21 PM PDT · by neverdem · 51 replies ^ | May 24, 2013 | Bob Yirka
    Credit: Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 211302 (2013) ( —A team of Harvard University physicists has proposed the possible existence of a type of dark matter not described by current physics models. In their paper published in the journal Physical Review Letters, the team suggests it's possible that not all dark matter is cold and collision-less. In the visible universe, galaxies form into a disk shape—the Milky Way is a good example. All of its members align roughly along a single plane, this due to the forces of gravity and spin. Objects form into masses which, over time, spread out...
  • Theorists weigh in on where to hunt dark matter

    05/26/2013 6:21:28 PM PDT · by neverdem · 22 replies ^ | May 22, 2013 | Lori Ann White
    Enlarge Left panel: Air molecules whiz around at a variety of speeds, and some are very fast. When they collide with both heavy and light elements - for example, xenon (purple) and silicon (orange) - these fast moving particles have enough momentum to affect both nuclei. Right panel: Dark matter particles are moving more slowly and are less able to affect the heavy xenon nucleus. As a result, detectors made from lighter materials like silicon may prove to be more effective at picking up signals of dark matter. Credit: Greg Stewart/SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory ( —Now that it looks...
  • Universe has more hydrogen than we thought (Undark’ matter hidden in plain view)

    06/02/2012 11:45:49 AM PDT · by Ernest_at_the_Beach · 26 replies
    The Register ^ | 31st May 2012 23:59 GMT | Richard Chirgwin
    A re-analysis of radio telescope observations from three countries has yielded a surprising result: nearby galaxies harbour one-third more hydrogen than had previously been estimated. While nothing like enough matter to solve physics’ “dark matter” problem, the work by CSIRO astronomer Dr Robert Braun (chief scientist at the agency’s Astronomy and Space Science division in Sydney) also helps explain why the rate of star formation has slowed down. While there’s more hydrogen than astronomers had thought, its distribution makes star formation more difficult. Andromeda – the galaxy headed for a catastrophic collision with our own in about four billion years...
  • Results From South Pole Support Einstein’s Cosmological Constant

    04/04/2012 1:05:17 AM PDT · by lbryce · 5 replies
    R & D ^ | April 2,2012 | Staff
    Analysis of data from the National Science Foundation-(NSF) funded 10-m South Pole Telescope (SPT) in Antarctica provides new support for the most widely accepted explanation of dark energy, the source of the mysterious force that is responsible for the accelerating expansion of the universe. The results begin to hone in on the tiny mass of the neutrinos, the most abundant particles in the universe, which until recently were thought to be without mass. The SPT data strongly support Albert Einstein's cosmological constant—the leading model for dark energy—even though researchers base the analysis on only a fraction of the SPT data...
  • Survey gets a grip on dark energy (the BOSS project - Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey)

    03/31/2012 3:07:36 PM PDT · by NormsRevenge · 20 replies
    BBC News ^ | 3/30/12 | Jonathan Amos
    Astronomers have measured the precise distance to over a quarter of a million galaxies to gain new insights into a key period in cosmic history. The 3D map of the sky allows scientists to probe the time six billion years ago when dark energy became the dominant influence on the Universe's expansion. No-one knows the true nature of this repulsive force, but the exquisite data in the international BOSS survey will help test various theories. The analysis appears in six papers. These have all been posted on the arXiv preprint server. "This is an incredibly exciting time to be working...
  • New method 'confirms dark energy'

    05/19/2011 3:02:45 PM PDT · by decimon · 30 replies
    BBC ^ | May 19, 2011 | Paul Rincon
    First results from a major astronomical survey have confirmed the existence of mysterious dark energy using a cutting-edge technique. Dark energy makes up some 74% of the Universe and its existence explains why the Universe appears to be expanding at an accelerating rate. The finding was based on studies of more than 200,000 galaxies. Scientists used two separate kinds of observation to provide an independent check on previous dark energy results. Two papers by an international team of researchers have been accepted for publication in the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society journal. One type of observation used by...
  • Is an Adjacent Universe Causing the Dark Flow of Hundred of Millions of Stars at the Edge of the...

    04/16/2011 5:50:42 PM PDT · by LibWhacker · 30 replies
    Daily Galaxy ^ | 4/15/11
    Is an Adjacent Universe Causing the Dark Flow of Hundred of Millions of Stars at the Edge of the Observable Universe? Or, Might It Be Something ElseBack in the Middle Ages, maps showed terrifying images of sea dragons at the boundaries of the known world. Today, scientists have observed strange new motion at the very limits of the known universe -- kind of where you'd expect to find new things, but they still didn't expect this. A huge swathe of galactic clusters seem to be heading to a cosmic hotspot and nobody knows why. The unexplained motion has hundreds of...
  • Dark energy and flat Universe exposed by simple method

    11/24/2010 12:52:49 PM PST · by NormsRevenge · 39 replies
    BBC News ^ | 11/24/10 | BBC
    Researchers have developed a simple technique that adds evidence to the theory that the Universe is flat. Moreover, the method - developed by revisiting a 30-year-old idea - confirms that "dark energy" makes up nearly three-quarters of the Universe. The research, published in Nature, uses existing data and relies on fewer assumptions than current approaches. Author Christian Marinoni says the idea turns estimating the Universe's shape into "primary school" geometry. While the idea of the Earth being flat preoccupied explorers centuries ago, the question of whether the Universe itself is flat remains a debatable topic. The degree to which the...
  • Physicists Discover "Violation of a Fundamental Symmetry of the Universe"

    11/04/2010 12:31:54 PM PDT · by lbryce · 110 replies · 1+ views ^ | November 3, 2010 | Staff
    Today physicists announced that they may have found the key to explaining dark matter in the universe. It all has to do with the potential discovery of a "sterile neutrino." According to a release about the new study: Neutrinos are neutral elementary particles born in the radioactive decay of other particles. The known "flavors" of neutrinos are the neutral counterparts of electrons and their heavier cousins, muons and taus. Regardless of a neutrino's original flavor, the particles constantly flip from one type to another in a phenomenon called "neutrino flavor oscillation." An electron neutrino might become a muon neutrino, and...
  • Ray of hope in dark-matter hunt - Gamma-ray spike in Fermi telescope data hikes...

    07/25/2009 9:27:35 PM PDT · by neverdem · 12 replies · 289+ views
    Nature News ^ | 24 July 2009 | Zeeya Merali
    Gamma-ray spike in Fermi telescope data hikes anticipation.The jury is still out on whether Fermi has spied dark matter.NASA/DOE/International LAT Team The murky hunt for dark matter has just got a little bit brighter. New gamma-ray results from the FERMI telescope fit with previous tantalizing hints of a detection of the mysterious stuff.Last year, a series of independent experiments caused a stir because they seemed to have detected signals of dark matter, which is believed to make up 85% of the universe's matter."There's been tremendous excitement about cosmic ray signals that have dark matter as one possible explanation," says Neal...
  • Study plunges standard theory of cosmology into crisis

    05/05/2009 7:17:29 AM PDT · by decimon · 32 replies · 805+ views
    As modern cosmologists rely more and more on the ominous "dark matter" to explain otherwise inexplicable observations, much effort has gone into the detection of this mysterious substance in the last two decades, yet no direct proof could be found that it actually exists. Even if it does exist, dark matter would be unable to reconcile all the current discrepancies between actual measurements and predictions based on theoretical models. Hence the number of physicists questioning the existence of dark matter has been increasing for some time now. Competing theories of gravitation have already been developed which are independent of this...
  • Mysterious New 'Dark Flow' Discovered in Space

    09/25/2008 8:58:58 AM PDT · by nobama08 · 18 replies · 755+ views ^ | Thursday, September 25, 2008 | Clara Moskowitz
    As if the mysteries of dark matter and dark energy weren't vexing enough, another baffling cosmic puzzle has been discovered. Patches of matter in the universe seem to be moving at very high speeds and in a uniform direction that can't be explained by any of the known gravitational forces in the observable universe. Astronomers are calling the phenomenon "dark flow." The stuff that's pulling this matter must be outside the observable universe, researchers conclude.
  • Monster galactic cluster seen in deep Universe: European agency

    08/25/2008 3:56:31 PM PDT · by NormsRevenge · 15 replies · 307+ views
    AFP on Yahoo ^ | 8/25/08 | AFP
    PARIS (AFP) – An orbiting observatory has spotted a massive cluster of galaxies in deep space that can only be explained by the exotic phenomenon known as dark energy, the European Space Agency (ESA) said on Monday. Spotted in a scan by ESA's orbiting X-ray telescope XMM-Newton, the cluster's mass is about 1,000 times that of our own galaxy, the Milky Way, it said. The huge cluster, known by its catalogue number of 2XMM J083026+524133, lies 7.7 billion light years from Earth and helps confirm the existence of dark energy, the agency said. Under this hypothesis, most of the Universe...