Keyword: steam

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  • Art Deco/Streamliner Trains of the 30s

    07/14/2014 3:27:36 AM PDT · by Reaganite Republican · 21 replies
    Reaganite Republican ^ | 14 July 2014 | Reaganite Republican
    New York Central's 20th Century Limited  (photo: Wikipedia) More at Reaganite Republican...
  • John Deere Tractor vs. 1800s Steam Tractor

    05/17/2014 11:31:00 AM PDT · by SWAMPSNIPER · 59 replies
    WIMP ^ | 5/17/14 | WIMP
    A modern John Deere tractor with 850 horsepower plays tug of war with an 1800s era steam tractor that has about 18 horsepower. While both are capable of getting an honest day's work done, there is only one that proves its dominance through sheer power.
  • Huge Big Boy steam locomotive coming back to life

    04/15/2014 4:27:36 PM PDT · by Navy Patriot · 73 replies
    Yahoo News (AP) ^ | April 15, 2014 | DAN ELLIOTT (AP)
    CHEYENNE, Wyo. (AP) — In its prime, a massive steam locomotive known as Big Boy No. 4014 was a moving eruption of smoke and vapor, a 6,300-horsepower brute dragging heavy freight trains over the mountains of Wyoming and Utah. It's been silent for half a century, pushed aside by more efficient diesels, but now it's coming back to life. The Union Pacific Railroad is embarking on a yearslong restoration project that will put No. 4014 back to work pulling special excursion trains. "It's sort of like going and finding the Titanic or something that's just very elusive, nothing that we...
  • Rural Retreat, VA, Train 42, December 24, 1957 (Christmas Eve Vanity)

    12/24/2013 7:31:53 PM PST · by Rodamala · 19 replies
    Youtube.com ^ | 12/27/1954 | O. Winston Link / Corky Zider
    Train 42, 'The Pelican', headed by N&W 4-8-4 Class J 603 arrives at Rural Retreat, VA eastbound from New Orleans to Washington shortly before 10pm Dec. 27th, 1957, and thunders off into the night. The Norfolk & Western Railway's own Class J was perhaps the finest of all express steam engines, and 603 is heard here in its last days of main line service with a consist of 17 cars. The photograph is of Train 17 'The Birmingham Special' westbound arriving later that same night at 11:37pm, being waved through by Agent J.L. Akers. The photograph and sound recording were...
  • Free Republic Steam Gamers' Group

    This was brought about by an idea in an earlier thread this week discussing Valve and PC Gaming. I had no idea how many other Freepers had Steam. A cursory glance indicated no existing groups for Free Republic, so I decided to create one. Request an invite at: http://steamcommunity.com/groups/FreeRepublicGamersMost of all, have fun, and stay true to the Constitution.
  • New WebCams - Cumbres & Toltec RR, Chama NM

    10/06/2012 3:24:34 PM PDT · by CedarDave · 21 replies
    Two live web cams went on line this weekend in Chama, NM showing the train yard of the steam-powered narrow gauge RR. As of the time of this posting, the daily eastbound passenger train from Antonito, CO has just arrived and stopped at the depot. After the passengers depart, the two other live steam engines will separate the cars for servicing and arranging for Sunday's departures. All of this under blue skies and autumn fall colors. Enjoy! http://www.coloradonewmexicosteamtrain.org/yard-cams.htm
  • Incredible black-and-white pictures capture how railroads and steamboats helped forge its future..

    07/20/2012 6:29:52 AM PDT · by C19fan · 23 replies
    UK Daily Mail ^ | July 19, 2012 | Staff
    They are images of a nation in motion - of a country building its future with expanding railroads and industrial opportunities. These glorious black-and-white photographs, which have been released by the Library of Congress, reveal America reveling in its new-found productivity, at a time when steam engines and steamboats were forging the nation ahead. The images, taken between 1870 and 1920, capture the determination with which America tackled the new century - and how the country also began enjoying the fruits of the 19th century's industrial labour, in what was termed the Gilded Age.
  • Tea Party picks up steam, demands further cuts (TP_ExPress bus trip starts in Napa, Aug 27th-)

    08/03/2011 2:18:29 PM PDT · by NormsRevenge · 4 replies
    SFGate.com ^ | 8/3/11 | Joe Garofoli
    National Tea Party leaders in California were thrilled about one by-product of the political bloodbath over raising the federal debt ceiling: The fight showed that after two years of rabble-rousing from outside the Capitol, the Tea Party has real power to shape the debate in Washington. Their challenge now that President Obama has signed the debt limit law: Can the Tea Party transform its government-shrinking mantra into long-term power, or will it be a one-hit wonder? They're not stopping to think about it. This month, Tea Partiers will storm town hall meetings of Republican and Democratic members of Congress and...
  • Japan: Workers enter No.2 reactor building(too much steam inside)

    05/18/2011 9:03:14 AM PDT · by TigerLikesRooster · 1 replies
    NHK ^ | 05/18/11
    Workers enter No.2 reactor building Workers have entered the No.2 reactor building at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear plant for the first time since an explosion there on March 15th. The Tokyo Electric Power Company, or TEPCO, sent 4 workers into the building on Wednesday morning to check radiation levels and other conditions. The utility says data on radiation levels in the building are necessary to proceed with a revised plan the firm announced on Tuesday to circulate water leaked from containment vessels back into reactors as coolant. TEPCO says the maximum radiation level in the building was 50 millisieverts per...
  • Does Geothermal Power Cause Earthquakes?

    03/23/2010 10:14:15 PM PDT · by ErnstStavroBlofeld · 12 replies · 843+ views
    Popular Science ^ | 3/23/2010 | Elizabeth Svoboda
    , Markus Häring caused some 30 earthquakes -- the largest registering 3.4 on the Richter scale -- in Basel, Switzerland. Häring is not a supervillain. He's a geologist, and he had nothing but good intentions when he injected high-pressure water into rocks three miles below the surface, attempting to generate electricity through a process called enhanced geothermal. But he produced earthquakes instead, and when seismic analysis confirmed that the quakes were centered near the drilling site, city officials charged him with $9 million worth of damage to buildings. The geothermal drill in Switzerland was shut down after it caused 100...
  • Historic Fort Erie train needs $429,000 in repairs

    03/10/2010 3:28:05 PM PST · by Willie Green · 20 replies · 367+ views
    Niagara Falls Review ^ | March 10, 2010 | KRIS DUBE,
    People and funding are needed to keep the great northern steam locomotive CN6218 on track. The train, built in 1942 and moved to Fort Erie in 1973, needs $429,000 worth of repairs. It's located at the Fort Erie Railroad Museum on Central Avenue. At a recent town budget meeting, the Fort Erie Historical Museum asked council for $100,000 to go towards restoring the deteriorating engine. Council agreed to allocate $50,000 this year and expects the next council to provide the other $50,000. "I think having a $50,000 commitment from council is a really positive sign of support," said museum administrator...
  • UK: Steam locomotive takes home passengers stranded by snow-delayed modern trains

    12/23/2009 2:36:49 PM PST · by Stoat · 55 replies · 3,375+ views
    The Daily Mail (U.K.) ^ | December 23, 2009 | James White
    Passengers stranded when modern-day trains fell victim to the freezing weather have been rescued by the crew of a steam engine. About 100 passengers climbed aboard the first mainline steam locomotive to be built in Britain for almost half a century at London Victoria when electric trains were delayed.  The 1940s technology used to power Tornado, a £3million Peppercorn class A1 Pacific, was able to withstand the snow and ice that brought much of the South East to a standstill on Monday night. Historic solution: The Tornado A1 locomotive came to the aid of stranded passengers let down by...
  • Climate Chief Dismisses E-Mail Outrage [Says Colleagues "Letting Off Steam."]

    12/08/2009 2:03:49 PM PST · by Steelfish · 23 replies · 675+ views
    CNN ^ | December 08, 2009
    Climate Chief Dismisses E-Mail Outrage By Hilary Whiteman, CNN December 8, 2009 (Video) IPCC chairman talks to CNNSTORY HIGHLIGHTS (CNN) -- One of the world's leading authorities on climate change has dismissed the contents of controversial e-mails leaked from the University of East Anglia as nothing more than friends and colleagues "letting off steam." "Well, I can tell you, privately when I talk to my friends, I use language much worse than that. This was purely private communications between friends, between, colleagues, they were letting off steam. I think we should see it as nothing more than that," Rajendra Pachauri,...
  • U.S. healthcare reform gathers steam in Congress

    10/09/2009 1:48:01 PM PDT · by NormsRevenge · 8 replies · 578+ views
    Reuters on Yahoo ^ | 10/9/09 | John Whitesides
    WASHINGTON (Reuters) – U.S. President Barack Obama's push for healthcare reform gathered steam on Thursday as a Senate panel scheduled a key vote for next week and Democrats in the House of Representatives moved closer to unveiling a bill. The Senate Finance Committee will vote on Tuesday on its healthcare plan after budget analysts gave the bill a rosy report card, estimating it would meet Obama's goal of reducing the budget deficit over 10 years. The non-partisan Congressional Budget Office put the cost at $829 billion, below Obama's $900 billion goal, in a report on Wednesday that cleared the way...
  • Geology Picture of the Week, April 19-26, 2009: Lava ocean entry (with links to video)

    04/22/2009 10:01:24 PM PDT · by cogitator · 9 replies · 561+ views
    Leigh Hilbert and YouTube
    With Fernandina on the Galapagos still pouring lava into the oceans, I thought I'd post a couple of impressive ocean entry videos I found along with an image. The first video is Fernandina, the next two are Kilauea (Hawaii). Eruption in the Galapagos Islands (lava entry at night) Waikupanaha Ocean Lavafalls Kalapana ocean entry with lightning (and also a waterspout)
  • Photos: Firing up the British Steam Car

    04/03/2009 7:23:57 PM PDT · by JoeProBono · 13 replies · 838+ views
    news.cnet. ^ | April 3, 2009
    It looks like the love child of the Batmobile and an F-15 fighter jet. Deep in its genome are traces of a very early automotive bloodline, the Stanley Steamer.
  • Really chuffed: First full-size British steam locomotive for 50 years fires up

    08/01/2008 2:00:11 PM PDT · by Stoat · 80 replies · 2,827+ views
    Really chuffed: First full-size British steam locomotive for 50 years fires up Last updated at 22:25pm on 01.08.08  First came the sweet toot of the whistle, then a steady hiss. Finally, sporting her battleship-grey undercoat, Britain's first new steam locomotive in almost half a century emerged in all her majesty. It was a sight that took those old enough to remember back to a golden age of rail travel. Even though Tornado only had 120 yards of track to cover as she chugged into action in a Darlington rail yard, the moment was, with good reason, marked with a...
  • East Kern approves live steam railroad

    05/31/2008 10:14:27 AM PDT · by BenLurkin · 10 replies · 146+ views
    Saturday, May 31, 2008. ^ | Saturday, May 31, 2008. | ALLISON GATLIN
    MOJAVE - The East Kern Airport District directors approved in principle a plan to add a small live steam railroad to the Legacy Park under development at the Mojave Air and Space Port. The railroad is proposed by the Mojave Transportation Museum as a tourist attraction and means of conveying the community's long history as a railroad town. "We just saw it as a wonderful opportunity for tourism," said Cathy Hansen, museum board member and airport district director. Hansen abstained from the district directors' 4-0 vote on the proposal. The proposed railroad track would circle the park area. It could...
  • Study: Steam Hybrids Using Waste Heat Recovery Could Reduce Fuel Consumption Up To 31.7%

    04/28/2008 10:15:36 AM PDT · by Red Badger · 37 replies · 660+ views
    www.greencarcongress.com ^ | 04/28/2008 | Staff
    Results of the study indicate that a steam hybrid using exhaust waste heat could reduce fuel consumption by up to 31.7%, depending upon drive cycle and vehicle. A study by researchers at Loughborough University and the University of Sussex, both in the UK, has concluded that using waste heat from light-duty vehicle engines in a steam power cycle could deliver fuel economy advantages of between 6.3% and 31.7%, depending upon drive cycle, and that high efficiencies can be achieved at practical operating pressures. The basic concept of the “steam hybrid” system is that energy is recovered from the exhaust...
  • Steam explosion NYC

    07/18/2007 6:19:04 PM PDT · by Screamname · 7 replies · 598+ views
    Youtube.com ^ | 4/18/2007 | paryshnikov
    Nasty steam explosion in NYC... http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SImhkapRuIs Amazing how everyone is standing around like they`re watching a light show.
  • Question: Major Explosion in Manhattan

    07/18/2007 3:01:43 PM PDT · by RinaseaofDs · 202 replies · 14,070+ views
    Telephone call with client | 7/18/2007 | RinaseaofD's
    I just hung up with a client located on the E40's in Manhattan. Tons of sirens to the point where he felt compelled to check on what was up. He came back to the phone and said there had just been a massive explosion near their building, and that they were evacuating. Any NYC Freepers have any information on this? Happened at 6 PM EDT or there abouts.
  • Some coffee stands get steamier (scantily clad baristas in a bid for business)

    01/22/2007 11:28:23 AM PST · by XR7 · 29 replies · 2,190+ views
    The Seattle Times ^ | 1/22/07 | Amy Roe
    In a short, sheer, baby-doll negligee and coordinated pink panties, Candice Law is dressed to work at a drive-through espresso stand in Tukwila, and she is working it. Customers pull their trucks up to the window, where Law greets each with an affectionate nickname, blows kisses, and vamps about as she steams milk for a mocha. "You want whipped cream?" she asks, a sly smile playing on her pierced lip... "Do you like my leg warmers?" she asks. "Aren't they hot?" Hot is not the half of it. To stand apart from the hordes of drive-through espresso stands that clutter...
  • Mount St. Helens shoots steam into air

    05/30/2006 10:52:48 AM PDT · by NormsRevenge · 67 replies · 2,104+ views
    AP on Yahoo ^ | 5/30/06 | AP
    VANCOUVER, Wash. - Mount St. Helens shot a steam and ash plume at least 16,000 feet into the air Monday after a large rockfall from the lava dome in the volcano's crater, scientists said. Pilots reported the plume rose between 16,000 and 20,000 feet in the air, scientists at the Cascades Volcano Observatory said. The rockfall coincided with a magnitude 3.1 earthquake shortly after 9 a.m. Monday at the mountain, scientists said. Such events are expected during growth of the lava dome, they said. "There is no evidence of an explosion associated with this event," the observatory said in a...
  • Full Steam Ahead: Brussels Draws Up Plan For 'EU Navy'

    05/20/2006 8:05:31 PM PDT · by blam · 6 replies · 483+ views
    The Telegraph (UK) ^ | 5-21-2006 | Justin Stares
    Full steam ahead: Brussels draws up plan for 'EU navy' By Justin Stares in Brussels (Filed: 21/05/2006) The European Commission has drawn up plans to set up a European coastguard, which critics fear is a back-door attempt by Brussels to create an EU navy with its own powers to stop and search shipping. Plans to upgrade the European Maritime Safety Agency (EMSA) into a fully-fledged coastguard are buried in a document revising European Union (EU) transport policy that is due to be published next month. Armed coastguard will be embryonic naval service They come on the back of other "empire...
  • Senate Vote Gives Immigration Bill Steam

    05/17/2006 9:47:43 AM PDT · by NormsRevenge · 63 replies · 1,169+ views
    AP on Yahoo ^ | 5/17/06 | Suzanne Gamboa - ap
    WASHINGTON - The Senate voted Wednesday to exclude illegal immigrants convicted of a felony or three misdemeanors from a chance at remaining in the United States under what critics say is an amnesty program. The unanimous vote on an amendment that before Easter had been considered a "poison pill" provided added momentum for broad immigration bill that would give legal status to millions of illegal immigrants and put many of them on a path toward citizenship. The amendment by two of the bill's leading opponents, Republican Sens. Jon Kyl of Arizona and John Cornyn of Texas, was softened Tuesday in...
  • Geology Picture of the Week, March 26-April 1, 2006: Poas Volcano (new activity reported)

    03/30/2006 7:53:16 AM PST · by cogitator · 2 replies · 329+ views
    OVSICORI ^ | March 27, 2006 | Staff
    Two pictures of Poas. Basically, though Poas hasn't (to my knowledge) erupted magmatically, it has a crater lake that comes and goes depending on the level of hydrothermal activity and the season (i.e., rainy season or dry season). A "phreatic" eruption is a gas/steam eruption, and Poas has them quite a bit. Apparently it had settled down for awhile, and now it's gearing up again. When it's dry and active, the lake turns into a big fumarole: When it's less active and there's more rain, it's quite pretty: Go here for actual pictures of the most recent activity: Fotografías del...
  • Geology Pictures of the Week, Jan 29-Feb 4, 2006: Augustine (AK) Eruption and Kootenai Falls, MT

    01/31/2006 10:01:46 AM PST · by cogitator · 5 replies · 588+ views
    Alaska Volcano Observatory ^ | January 30, 2006 | USGS
    A two-fer this week; first, a picture of the strong Augustine eruption that happened Sunday. The linked page goes to the page with numerous IMPRESSIVE pictures of this year's activity. Part 2: "The River Wild" was on TV this weekend. I searched and found that the two rivers it was filmed on were in Montana. One of the rivers is the Kootenai River, featuring Kootenai Falls. According to the caption for this picture, Kootenai Falls at this stage is "runnable".
  • Geology Picture of the Week, December 18-24, 2005: Augustine Volcano Erupts (Alaska)

    12/19/2005 12:53:37 PM PST · by cogitator · 35 replies · 5,162+ views
    NASA Earth Observatory ^ | December 14, 2005 | MODIS
    Here's a couple pictures of Augustine from ground level or air. I seem to remember that the late Kraffts (famous and somewhat reckless volcano photographers) did some nuee ardente photography on the slopes of Augustine. However, they were unsatisfied with the results, so later on they went to Mount Unzen in Japan, and a larger-than-expected nuee ardente incinerated them. If you play with fire... 1986 Eruption A nuee ardente heads downslope On a quieter day
  • Military: Gitmo hunger strike loses steam

    09/20/2005 7:59:21 PM PDT · by NormsRevenge · 17 replies · 445+ views
    ap on Yahoo ^ | 9/20/05 | AP
    SAN JUAN, Puerto Rico - The number of detainees on a hunger strike at the U.S. prison in Guantanamo Bay has fallen by almost two-thirds since last week, a military official said Tuesday. Forty-five detainees are currently on the hunger strike, down from 131 last week, Guantanamo spokeswoman Lt. Angela King Sweigart said in an e-mail message. Detainees must miss nine straight meals for the military to classify them as being on a hunger strike. On Thursday, the military said the hunger strike had grown to include 131 detainees — more than a quarter of the base's some 500 prisoners...
  • Question about steam locomotives

    02/10/2005 4:02:38 PM PST · by franksolich · 6 replies · 629+ views
    blatant shameless vanity | February 10, 2005 | self
    Okay, so I am sitting around after work, at peace with the world and seeking argument from no one, when I learn that the famous 4-8-8-4 "Big Boy" steam locomotives of the Union Pacific were NOT the largest in the world. I am confused, because every book I have about railways insists the "Big Boys" were the largest steam locomotives, ever, in the world. But the the Guiness Book of World Records throws a loop, insisting that in 1916 the Virginian Railway had a 2-8-8-8-4-6 locomotive, and that between 1914 and 1929, the Erie Railroad ran a freight train using...
  • Steam secret of natural fission

    11/23/2004 4:11:14 PM PST · by LibWhacker · 56 replies · 1,515+ views
    e4engineering.com ^ | 11/22/04 | Stuart Nathan
    The world's only known natural nuclear reactor, which decommissioned itself over two billion years ago, could provide insights into how modern nuclear plants can operate more safely. The site, in Gabon, West Africa, ran for 150million years without blowing up, and storing its own waste in a safe manner. The reactor was a natural deposit of uranium. Today, and for the last two billion years, natural uranium will not undergo nuclear reactions, because it contains too little of the fissionable isotope, uranium-235 (U235). But in the distant past, U235 was more abundant, comprising 3% of the total amount - the...
  • Geology Pictures of the Week, November 7-13, 2004: Volcanoes and more volcanoes

    11/10/2004 11:16:48 AM PST · by cogitator · 689+ views
    Various | Various | Various
    Link post: access the thread for discussion and comment in the Chat section: Geology Pictures of the Week, November 7-13, 2004: Volcanoes and more volcanoes
  • Geology Pictures of the Week, November 7-13, 2004: Volcanoes and more volcanoes

    11/10/2004 11:13:08 AM PST · by cogitator · 1 replies · 438+ views
    Various and sundry | Various | Various
    Link post: access the thread for discussion and comment in the Chat section: Geology Pictures of the Week, November 7-13, 2004: Volcanoes and more volcanoes
  • Mount St. Helens Activity Again

    10/11/2004 8:42:45 AM PDT · by Pyro7480 · 33 replies · 1,901+ views
    Volcano Cam ^ | 10/11/2004 | Pyro7480
    Steam event at Mount St. Helens visible at web cam link above. It was also shown on cable news earlier this morning.
  • Japan:New Fat-Busting Microwave Oven Unveiled

    08/23/2004 10:06:06 AM PDT · by TigerLikesRooster · 40 replies · 869+ views
    Reuters via Yahoo! News ^ | 08/23/04 | N/A
    New Fat-Busting Microwave Oven Unveiled Mon Aug 23, 7:28 AM ET Add Technology - Reuters to My Yahoo! TOKYO (Reuters) - Eyeing up that juicy steak but worried about your waistline? Japanese electronics maker Sharp Corp. (6753.T) says it has developed a new fat-busting microwave oven that can melt some of your worries away. Unveiling its invention to media on Monday, Sharp said the microwave generates "superheated steam" at a temperature of about 572 degrees Fahrenheit, hot enough to melt fat and reduce oil and salt from steak, chicken, fish and other foods. Osaka-based Sharp said the product was developed...
  • Solar halo shines over Changsha

    05/21/2004 5:06:45 AM PDT · by Momaw Nadon · 2 replies · 354+ views
    Xinhuanet ^ | Thursday, May 20, 2004
    BEIJING, May 20 (Xinhuanet) -- Residents in Changsha, Capital of central China's Hunan Province have enjoyed the golden opportunity to see an atmospheric wonder: a solar halo. Yesterday, the sun was wrapped by a grey and black band and the sight looked more beautiful as colorful rings appeared outside the ring. The spectacular sight lasted three and half hours in the city. Meteorological experts make it clear the solar halo can not foretell good or ill luck since it is only an atmospheric phenomenon. Solar halos indicate the increase of steam and the coming of low pressure. (CRIENGLISH.com)
  • Yellowstone's Explosive Secret

    03/24/2004 3:14:50 PM PST · by Momaw Nadon · 63 replies · 1,076+ views
    CBSNEWS.com ^ | Tuesday, March 23, 2004 | Sandra Hughes
    (CBS) For years, CBS News Correspondent Sandra Hughes reports, scientists have tried to understand the dynamic nature of Yellowstone National Park. "It's beautiful up here, everybody should see this at one time or another," says one appreciative observer. Scientist Lisa Morgan may have unlocked one piece in the puzzle, deep below the park's biggest lake. "It is kind of the last unmapped frontier in Yellowstone National Park," says Morgan. What she found looks more like the surface of the moon. Using sonar she's identified a massive bulging dome the size of seven football fields. The only other underwater dome in...
  • CA: Secretary of state in hot seat as recall gains steam

    07/07/2003 7:24:02 AM PDT · by NormsRevenge · 42 replies · 456+ views
    Mercury News ^ | 7/7/03 | Phil Yost - Op/Ed
    <p>Secretaries of state, the ones who oversee elections, not foreign affairs, labored in blissful obscurity before Florida's Katherine Harris.</p> <p>At the end of the 2000 presidential election, as Harris' rulings on ballots and deadlines improved the chances of fellow Republican George W. Bush, America learned the political importance of decisions on election law -- and how much partisan suspicion a secretary of state can engender.</p>
  • CA: Governor's allies assail recall's top proponent (Pure BS Alert)

    06/11/2003 6:57:15 AM PDT · by NormsRevenge · 4 replies · 192+ views
    San Francisco Chronicle ^ | 6/11/03 | Carla Marinucci
    <p>Democratic supporters of Gov. Gray Davis mounted a fierce defense Tuesday against a movement to recall him by publicly calling conservative GOP Rep. Darrell Issa -- who has donated nearly $700,000 toward the recall effort -- a political "extremist" out of step with California voters.</p>
  • VIKINGS RAPED, PILLAGED THEN DID IRONING

    05/09/2003 1:56:42 PM PDT · by vannrox · 81 replies · 492+ views
    The Daily Record ^ | May 5 2003 | Editorial Staff
    VIKINGS RAPED, PILLAGED THEN DID IRONING May 5 2003 VIKINGS were responsible for introducing ironing to Scotland. The pillaging Scandinavians were surprisingly conscious of their appearance and regularly smoothed their clothes. Excavations across Scotland have revealed evidence that the Nordic warriors used ironing boards and smoothing stones to make the job easier. Dr Euan MacKie, of Glasgow University, said he found out about the ironing culture by chance 10 years ago, when his colleague's child found a piece of a whalebone on the Hebridean island of North Uist. He said: "It is probably right to say Vikings introduced ironing to...