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Solving the puzzle of Henry VIII
Southern Methodist University ^ | March 3, 2011 | Unknown

Posted on 03/03/2011 12:38:11 PM PST by decimon

Could blood group anomaly explain Tudor king's reproductive problems and tyrannical behavior?

DALLAS (SMU) – Blood group incompatibility between Henry VIII and his wives could have driven the Tudor king's reproductive woes, and a genetic condition related to his suspected blood group could also explain Henry's dramatic mid-life transformation into a physically and mentally-impaired tyrant who executed two of his wives.

Research conducted by bioarchaeologist Catrina Banks Whitley while she was a graduate student at SMU (Southern Methodist University) and anthropologist Kyra Kramer shows that the numerous miscarriages suffered by Henry's wives could be explained if the king's blood carried the Kell antigen. A Kell negative woman who has multiple pregnancies with a Kell positive man can produce a healthy, Kell positive child in a first pregnancy; But the antibodies she produces during that first pregnancy will cross the placenta and attack a Kell positive fetus in subsequent pregnancies.

As published in The Historical Journal (Cambridge University Press), the pattern of Kell blood group incompatibility is consistent with the pregnancies of Henry's first two wives, Katherine of Aragon and Anne Boleyn. If Henry also suffered from McLeod syndrome, a genetic disorder specific to the Kell blood group, it would finally provide an explanation for his shift in both physical form and personality from a strong, athletic, generous individual in his first 40 years to the monstrous paranoiac he would become, virtually immobilized by massive weight gain and leg ailments.

"It is our assertion that we have identified the causal medical condition underlying Henry's reproductive problems and psychological deterioration," write Whitley and Kramer.

Henry married six women, two of whom he famously executed, and broke England's ties with the Catholic Church – all in pursuit of a marital union that would produce a male heir. Historians have long debated theories of illness and injury that might explain the physical deterioration and frightening, tyrannical behavior that he began to display after his 40th birthday. Less attention has been given to the unsuccessful pregnancies of his wives in an age of primitive medical care and poor nutrition and hygiene, and authors Whitley and Kramer argue against the persistent theory that syphilis may have been a factor.

A Kell positive father frequently is the cause behind the inability of his partner to bear a healthy infant after the first Kell negative pregnancy, which the authors note is precisely the circumstance experienced with women who had multiple pregnancies by Henry. The majority of individuals within the Kell blood group are Kell negative, so it is the rare Kell positive father that creates reproductive problems.

Further supporting the Kell theory, descriptions of Henry in mid-to-late life indicate he suffered many of the physical and cognitive symptoms associated with McLeod syndrome – a medical condition that can occur in members of the Kell positive blood group.

By middle age, the King suffered from chronic leg ulcers, fueling longstanding historical speculation that he suffered from type II diabetes. The ulcers also could have been caused by osteomyelitis, a chronic bone infection that would have made walking extremely painful. In the last years of his life, Henry's mobility had deteriorated to the point that he was carried about in a chair with poles. That immobility is consistent with a known McLeod syndrome case in which a patient began to notice weakness in his right leg when he was 37, and atrophy in both his legs by age 47, the report notes.

Whitley and Kramer argue that the Tudor king could have been suffering from medical conditions such as these in combination with McLeod syndrome, aggravated by his obesity. Records do not indicate whether Henry displayed other physical signs of McLeod syndrome, such as sustained muscle contractions (tics, cramps or spasms) or an abnormal increase in muscle activity such as twitching or hyperactivity. But the dramatic changes in his personality provide stronger evidence that Henry had McLeod syndrome, the authors point out: His mental and emotional instability increased in the dozen years before death to an extent that some have labeled his behavior psychotic.

McLeod syndrome resembles Huntington's disease, which affects muscle coordination and causes cognitive disorder. McLeod symptoms usually begin to develop when an individual is between 30 and 40 years old, often resulting in damage to the heart muscle, muscular disease, psychiatric abnormality and motor nerve damage. Henry VIII experienced most, if not all, of these symptoms, the authors found.


Henry was nearly 18 when he married 23-year-old Catherine of Aragon. Their first daughter, a girl, was stillborn. Their second child, a boy, lived only 52 days. Four other confirmed pregnancies followed during the marriage but three of the offspring were either stillborn or died shortly after birth. Their only surviving child was Mary, who would eventually be crowned the fourth Monarch in the Tudor dynasty.

The precise number of miscarriages endured by Henry's reproductive partners is difficult to determine, especially when various mistresses are factored in, but the king's partners had a total of at least 11 and possibly 13 or more pregnancies. Only four of the eleven known pregnancies survived infancy. Whitley and Kramer call the high rate of spontaneous late-term abortion, stillbirth, or rapid neonatal death suffered by Henry's first two queens "an atypical reproductive pattern" because, even in an age of high child mortality, most women carried their pregnancies to term, and their infants usually lived long enough to be christened.

The authors explain that if a Kell positive father impregnates a Kell negative mother, each pregnancy has a 50-50 chance of being Kell positive. The first pregnancy typically carries to term and produces a healthy infant, even if the infant is Kell positive and the mother is Kell negative. But the mother's subsequent Kell positive pregnancies are at risk because the mother's antibodies will attack the Kell positive fetus as a foreign body. Any baby that is Kell negative will not be attacked by the mother's antibodies and will carry to term if otherwise healthy.

"Although the fact that Henry and Katherine of Aragon's firstborn did not survive is somewhat atypical, it is possible that some cases of Kell sensitization affect even the first pregnancy," the report notes. The survival of Mary, the fifth pregnancy for Katherine of Aragon, fits the Kell scenario if Mary inherited the recessive Kell gene from Henry, resulting in a healthy infant. Anne Boleyn's pregnancies were a textbook example of Kell alloimmunization with a healthy first child and subsequent late-term miscarriages. Jane Seymour had only one child before her death, but that healthy firstborn also is consistent with a Kell positive father.

Several of Henry's male maternal relatives followed the Kell positive reproductive pattern.

"We have traced the possible transmission of the Kell positive gene from Jacquetta of Luxembourg, the king's maternal great-grandmother," the report explains. "The pattern of reproductive failure among Jacquetta's male descendants, while the females were generally reproductively successful, suggests the genetic presence of the Kell phenotype within the family."


Catrina Banks Whitley is a research associate in the Office of Archaeological Studies at the Museum of New Mexico. Anthropologist Kyra Kramer is an independent researcher.

SMU is a nationally ranked private university in Dallas founded 100 years ago. Today, SMU enrolls nearly 11,000 students who benefit from the academic opportunities and international reach of seven degree-granting schools.

TOPICS: History
KEYWORDS: ancientautopsies; anneboleyn; blunt; elizabethi; emptydna; genetics; godsgravesglyphs; goodqueenbess; helixmakemineadouble; henryviii; industrialrevolution; kell; kellbloodgroup; mcleodsyndrome; mtdna; reformation; syphyllis
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Caption: Blood group incompatibility between Henry VIII and his six wives could have driven the Tudor king's reproductive woes, and a genetic condition related to his blood group could finally provide an explanation for his dramatic physical and mental changes at mid-life


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1 posted on 03/03/2011 12:38:12 PM PST by decimon
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To: SunkenCiv

Kell’s belles ping.

2 posted on 03/03/2011 12:39:04 PM PST by decimon
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To: decimon
Who is paying for this junk science ?

3 posted on 03/03/2011 12:40:44 PM PST by Uri’el-2012 (Psalm 119:174 I long for Your salvation, YHvH, Your law is my delight.)
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To: decimon

I LOVE watching the Tudors on netflix.

4 posted on 03/03/2011 12:40:44 PM PST by barbarianbabs
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To: decimon

Don’t know if diet played any part in it but all he mostly ate was red meat. I mean lots of it. I enjoy a steak and a burger every now and then but this guy was over the top.

5 posted on 03/03/2011 12:42:29 PM PST by ReverendJames (Only A Painter Or A Liberal Can Change Black To White.)
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To: decimon


6 posted on 03/03/2011 12:42:50 PM PST by silverleaf (All that is necessary for evil to succeed, is that good men do nothing)
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To: silverleaf

His boys couldn’t swim!

7 posted on 03/03/2011 12:44:19 PM PST by Dr. Ursus
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To: decimon

There is also a thoery about Anne Boleyn’s miscarriages that I think is interesting. The theory is that after she delivered Elizabeth, she developed problems with the Rh factor.

8 posted on 03/03/2011 12:45:17 PM PST by chae (I was anti-Obama before it was cool)
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To: UriĀ’el-2012

My thought as well. It’s consistent with Kell except for this, that and the other thing. yadda yadda

I had read that Henry’s leg problems were due to vanity, he wore garters to show off his calves. I don’t think anyone got a grant for that study:)

9 posted on 03/03/2011 12:47:57 PM PST by chickadee
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To: decimon

10 posted on 03/03/2011 12:49:58 PM PST by Eepsy
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To: decimon
He could have also had mumps as a child. At certain ages, the mumps can affect proper development of reproductive organs, the result of which may have been low testosterone. Low T folks often, of course, have low sperm count.

Furthermore, I read a report (the name and identity of which I cannot remember) that indicated that some low testosterone men have adrenalyn surges--are feisty and aggressive--apparent due to absence of the odd calming affect of normal T levels.

11 posted on 03/03/2011 12:50:50 PM PST by SonOfDarkSkies ('And what rough beast, its hour come round at last, slouches towards Bethlehem to be born?' Yeats)
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To: decimon

Thanks for posting this!

12 posted on 03/03/2011 12:53:06 PM PST by Miss_Meyet (One day your life will flash before your eyes. Make sure it's worth watching. Class of 2011 Ike HS)
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To: ReverendJames
The caveman diet ~ definitely a factor. Now, to his chilluns' ~ they seem to have suffered from indeterminate infertility ~ a totally different condition but fully explainable if Henry had some non-Gothic, non-Gaellic, non-Frankish ancestors in the mix ~ perhaps a Finn or Sa'ami.

The first Vasa King is just a generation ahead of Henry, and he had a Great Grandmother with Bourbon "titles" ~ so reciprocity could have brought Henry's Great Grandfather a clear blue eyed platinum blond beauty in the deal, and WHAMMO ~ indeterminate infertility.

13 posted on 03/03/2011 12:56:33 PM PST by muawiyah (Make America Safe For Americans)
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To: decimon

There is a very interesting documentary called Royal Deaths and Diseases. It’s hard to find, and I don’t think it was ever out on DVD. I’d buy it in a minute if it was.

Each segment dealt with another kind of royal disease, and one of them was pregnancy and childbirth. It was fascinating. In that segment they stated that they believed the royal wives were totally sequestered in chambers and basically fed crackers and wine. This was because of the belief that a woman could “mark” the child with her fears and upsets.

It was very well researched, and had lots of original notes and texts from the doctors. They did fatal wounds, madness, genetics, etc.

14 posted on 03/03/2011 12:56:35 PM PST by I still care (I miss my friends, bagels, and the NYC skyline - but not the taxes. I love the South.)
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To: decimon
One report I saw speculated that a severe jousting outcome (falling off a horse in full armor can have the same effect on the body as a 45mph crash sans seatbelt) let to his personality shift.
Something happened; he went from vigorous, dashing and (relatively) sane and benevolent ruler to a deadly tyrant, supposedly in a short period of time.
15 posted on 03/03/2011 12:56:50 PM PST by RedStateRocker (Nuke Mecca, Deport all illegals, abolish the IRS, DEA and ATF.)
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To: decimon

Henry had 1 orf 2 illegitimate children besides the 3 who survied childhood...Mary, Elizabetyh, Edward

His first wife, Catherine of Aragon had at least 6 children...4 of them boys

They were mostly born alive but succombed to cold etc

One healthy bonnie little boy was taken outside in a freezing January shortly after his birth to be baptised in the palace chapel...

He caught pnuemonia and died ...

Dumb Dumb Dumb Dumb things like that killed the babies and not necessarily the birth..

Anne Boleyn was pregnant at least twice...

She lost a little boy

Jane died at Edwards birth..

Anne of Cleves was never bedded...She was too “ugly” and spurned..

Catherine Howard, Anne’s cousin may have been preggers when she was beheaded...But it may have been a lovers

Katherine Parr never had any children but she was more of a nurse in Henry’s old age and bad health and not a young bed mate...

Divorced, beheaded, died, divorced, beheaded, survived

16 posted on 03/03/2011 12:58:00 PM PST by Tennessee Nana
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To: chae
That theory's not too far from this one. Similar problem with subsequent pregnancies.

The old theory was that he suffered from syphilis, which used to be known as "The Great Pretender" because it could produce so many symptoms. I don't know if anybody's dug up ol' Henry, but syphilitic lesions on bones are diagnostic.

17 posted on 03/03/2011 12:58:31 PM PST by AnAmericanMother (Ministrix of ye Chasse, TTGC Ladies' Auxiliary (recess appointment))
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To: Miss_Meyet; UriĀ’el-2012
Thanks for posting this!

You're welcome.

And let's thank Uri’el-2012 for paying for it.

18 posted on 03/03/2011 1:01:48 PM PST by decimon
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To: decimon

He could have also had a multitude of venereal diseases that impaired the mistresses/wives, causing miscarriages and stillborn births. Some speculate the same with John Kennedy;i.e., he gave Jackie diseases that caused her to miscarry and give birth to weak babies.

19 posted on 03/03/2011 1:02:54 PM PST by DallasDeb
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To: UriĀ’el-2012
I don't think this is junk science. It's just that we don't call it Kell. I had this with my two girls, but they now have a shot that they give the mother so that she won't reject the next child. My blood type is B-negative; both of my girls were "positives". If I had not gotten the shot, my body would have "rejected" my second daughter.

My eldest brother had this problem with his second child (in the 60's) and they ended up transfusing all of his blood. He did survive, but I remember it being dicey for him for quite a while. By the time I had children, they had developed the shot that I was given.

I just saw something on the History Channel that mostly pointed to his injuries while jousting, which were head injuries, for his behavior.

20 posted on 03/03/2011 1:05:16 PM PST by LibertarianLiz
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