My understanding is most graduate courses are pass-fail, with fail being a real rare occurrence as long as the money is paid on time.
As far as grades, you ought to see what a HS graduate from Ga public schools is capable of doing. It isn’t uncommon for a HS graduate Valedictorian to be required to take “learning support” classes before they are allowed to take real, college level classes. Back in the day the word was “remedial” not “learning support”.
Grades mean bupkis these days.
Not true, at least not based on my experience in graduate school. I saw several students cut from graduate programs in their first semesters after failing to make the cut.
Graduate schools often have a very high bar to reach. My graduate program required that we maintain a 3.0 or higher GPA. The expectation is that if you get into graduate school, you're serious about wanting the credentials and the knowledge it will bestow.
Your supposition does make sense, however, esp. in Ivy league schools considering the amount of money required for each course.
Not true, my 3.87 says differently. You do have the option of taking a class pass/fail, but it is not used in your graduation requirements.
Graduate school (at least at the University of CA during the 80s...) would give you an A through F grade. If you got less than a B - that was essentially an F.