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International Criminal Organizations and Their Relationship with Terrorism
JFCOM training material | 2000 | varied

Posted on 07/11/2010 9:04:24 AM PDT by roaddog727

International Criminal Organizations and Their Relationship with Terrorism

Political-Criminal nexus (PCN) describes the concentration and fusion of official political and professional criminal Power that threatens democratic governability in many regions of the world. Alliances that further the mutual interests of those who wield political Power, and those who, by their occupation reject the rule of law have been strengthened by opportunities to supplant some key functions of the state. The PCN in Eurasia especially in Russia and the Ukraine has undermined their economies; significantly weakened their central governments; acted in concert with the political establishments and criminals in other regimes and regions. Where the PCN is strong, it produces the following:

• High corruption in the judiciary and local law enforcement agencies

• A protected criminal element and their political collaborators

• A denial of ordinary justice to the citizenry

• A loss of public trust in the rule of law and democratic governance and

• A further complication in the process of democratization.

Russia's PCN that emerged in the 1990's was the metamorphosis of the Soviet era's carefully masked PCN. Five years after the breakup of the SU, the GOR owned less than 20% of the country's economy. This was facilitated by the West's rush to bury Communism. Privatization was hijacked from its inception by the PCN. The illegal property grab by the "prikhvatiztisiia". The Growing "Silent Crisis" and an Established Democracy

However, corruption is not limited to Eurasia. An ongoing rash of corruption scandals in Western Europe is likely to benefit extremist political parties on both the right and the left. The nature of the political system in many continental European countries - with one or two large parties dominating governments for long periods of time - virtually guarantees that these scandals will continue for a number of years. Both nationalists and unreformed communists on the other side of the political spectrum are likely to benefit from the tainting of the "insider" parties, because they have for so long been on the "outside." This could translate into significantly increased support for those fringe parties that choose to portray themselves as reformers of a corrupt political system. Austria may be the first of many campaigns in Western Europe where nationalists use anti-corruption as an important part of their political message. Nationalists and the few remaining Communists such as the Party of Democratic Socialism in Germany have been "marginalized" in Western Europe since World War II. As outsiders, these parties on both ends of the political spectrum have an advantage when it comes to corruption. Since they have been excluded from the centers of Power, they can rightly argue they are corruption-free.

Fritz Ermarth, a former National Intelligence Officer at CIA and member of the U.S. National Security Council noted the threat from Russian organized crime sprang from two fundamental and interrelated realities: first, the grave weakness of the rule of law in Russia, and second, the perversions of what analysts have called economic reform. The Soviet communist system was itself a kind of structured lawlessness. To be sure, the Soviet Union had myriad laws. But they were not rules for regulating relations among the members of a self-governing society. Rather, they were tools for maintaining Power to be abused, ignored or used by those who held power. They afforded ample space for official and unofficial criminality. In the later Soviet period, the manifestations of this -- ranging from petty thievery, to organized crime, to enrichment of the patriarchy or "nomenklatura"-- expanded as the structures of Soviet Power decayed. The collapse of communist rule gave free rein to these phenomena in a new setting. The new setting is something which escapes a good definition. It has important features of Democracy and Capitalism, but it is not authentic Democracy and capitalism. Focusing on the economic side, this setting describes the term "crony capitalism" without much capitalism. It lacks firm property rights and good corporate governance. It is about the distribution and especially concentration of Wealth, but far less about investment and the creation of Wealth. But, above all, it is about the extraction and expatriation of wealth. This, along with the destruction of people's savings through gratuitous inflation in the early 1990s, deeply blighted the average Russian's view of Capitalism from the outset. The reformers took a course certain to alienate society; and they ignored the task of building public understanding and support. The Growing "Silent Crisis" and Russia

This came about in large measure because of the manner in which the reformers of the post-communist Regime tried to create Capitalism amidst the wreckage of the Soviet order. As one analyst observed, "they proceeded in good communist fashion to create a new capitalist class by basically appointing them". Relying largely on privileged, insider relationships or cronies, vast resources and enterprises were placed into private hands, often old communist hands, at less than fire-sale prices. Enterprises were sold off at less than cash Value of annual revenues in some cases. Export and import privileges were handed out to cronies. Thus, the process of Privatization was from the outset a rip-off at the expense of the state and society. Russian Ministry of Interior (MVD) officials consider corruption to be a deeply rooted problem in Russia. As has occurred in other countries, in Russia organized crime and public corruption appear together in a "symbiotic relationship". Organized crime groups are known to have provided money laundering and other services to corrupt officials in their efforts to illegally transfer state funds or property. However, the PCN can get worse. North Korea: The Ultimate Worst Case, a Mafia Nation-State? Iranian-North Korean Cooperation was forged during the Iran-Iraq war. North Korea needed capital; Iran needed technology. It began with Iran financing North Korea's Scud re-engineering program in the early 1980s. In return, Iran received 100 Scud-B missiles in the eighties, and another 100 Scud-C missiles in 1992, along with the infrastructure necessary to assemble more missiles. The Japanese press reported that in 1996 Iran provided North Korea funds for equipment to produce counterfeit $100 bills, and, more credibly, provided oil shipments, in exchange for No Dong missile technology. The Iranian Shahab-3 missile, test fired 22 July 1998, resembles the North Korean No Dong in size, shape and performance.

Pakistan began its efforts to gain missile technology to offset India's progress in the early 1980's. By 1991 China had provided Pakistan with more than 30 complete M-11 missiles. Pakistan also nurtured its relations with North Korea and was present at the No Dong's first test flight in May 1993. The Pakistani "Ghauri" missile, test fired on April 6, 1998, again bears a remarkable resemblance to the No Dong. By itself the North Korean missile development is just the tip of the iceberg. North Korea represents the ultimate example of criminality in a nation-state. Distressing statistics indicate that it is a country of: - 21 million people; - 300,000 famine deaths per year; - 49-year life expectancy for men; - 62% of children under 7 years are malnourished; - $900 annual GDP per capita; however, 25% of GDP spent on military; - 1.1 million-member armed forces (fifth largest in the world); and - $200 million spent annually on nuclear program.

Despite severe food shortages and economic difficulties, North Korea has imported $156 million worth of weapons since 1995, according to the South Korean Defense Ministry. Most of the weapons came from Kazakstan and other former Soviet republics, and China. The isolated, communist North spent $12 million this year to buy 40 Soviet-designed MiG-21 fighter planes and eight helicopters from Kazakstan and Russia - - a real steal. Kazakstan inherited a large number of combat jets and other military equipment after the 1991 Soviet collapse and has peddled excesses on world arms market at bargain rates. The United States denounced the deal and reportedly threatened to cut $75 million in annual aid to Kazakstan as punishment. In response, the Kazak government fired its Defense minister and the chairman of the State Security Committee in July, stating the MiG-21's had been sold illegally to North Korea. In 1998, North Korea spent $2.78 million on explosives, tank engines and military blankets from China, $ 2.6 million on ammunition and anti-air artillery pieces from Kazakstan, $3.15 million on tank engines and batteries from Slovakia,and $ 43 million on helicopters and trucks from Russia. North Korea also purchased 6,000 diving suits from Japan in 1996. Such suits were found on the dead bodies of North Korean agents killed while infiltrating South Korea by submarine in recent years. Despite its indigent status as a "basket case" Nation, North Korea has imported $156 million worth of weapons since 1995 despite these severe food shortages and economic difficulties, according to the South Korean Defense Ministry. North Korea is largely dependent on foreign aid to feed its people. Famine, by some estimates, has already taken two million lives. Where does North Korea get its money? As noted, an Iranian-North Korean Cooperation was forged during the Iran-Iraq war. North Korea needed capital; Iran needed technology. It began with Iran financing North Korea's Scud reengineering program in the early 1980s. But North Korea's external sources of capital goes far beyond a weapons trade relationship between rogue states. Japanese press reported that in 1996 Iran provided North Korea funds and equipment to produce counterfeit $100 bills, and more credibly, provided oil shipments in exchange for North Korean "No Dong" missile technology. Furthermore, the North Korean government has become a Nation of global smugglers. Since 1994, authorities around the world in more than 30 countries have detained or arrested North Korean nationals, including diplomats, for alleged drug trafficking, counterfeiting and smuggling. North Koreans have been arrested for smuggling everything from illegal drugs to cigarettes, endangered species, weapons, precious metals, and consumer goods. North Korea as a Nation-State exists because of its criminal activities. Summary

OC/IOC have a debilitating affect not only on the struggling countries of the former Soviet Union and Eastern European nations, and on the rest of the world in general. Through their actions, criminals can manipulate the world money marker, destabilize currencies, corrupt businesses, societies and nations.

To Act against this growing silent crisis, nations need to work together in accord with the emerging concept of cooperative security and develop a strategic approach: • Define national, regional and global objectives and priorities; • Assess this crisis to identify and analyze the threat as well as its evolution and vulnerabilities; • Employ regulatory and non-regulatory responses and accountability: Enhancing law enforcement and judicial capabilities and coordinating the responses. • Governments and private sectors must cooperate developing the necessary cultural foundations that allow the average citizen to believe in law enforcement agencies and officials. • Regulatory and non-regulatory capabilities must function like two wheels of a cart. Actions must be synchronized. [As the Mayor of Palermo reminds his audiences, without the synchronization of the two capabilities, " was better when it was worse;"] • Coordinate, evaluate and reassess. Additionally, states must encourage government and private sector Cooperation such as a business anti-smuggling coalition in order to enhance profits and good publicity. Businesses can investigate themselves without having to meet certain formal legal requirements. Criminals continually find vulnerabilities such as safe havens created unwittingly by incompatible laws, ineffective Cooperation and interaction of government and law enforcement agencies and a lack of mutual assistance. Areas for special emphasis include: evidence sharing, customs, immigration and financial regulatory bodies, extradition treaties, "creative" procedures as well as multilateral protocols such as the 1988 Vienna Convention and FATF. In conclusion, identify the Structure and nature of ICO's: their communications, finances and personnel; create distrust by collaboration within your interagency, creating an independent anti-corruption agency. The current assessment of Eurasia is not good. Newly emerging democratic governments are unstable. There is a general lack of real commitment to law enforcement agencies. Moreover, these agencies have insufficient investigatory skills. This condition exists because of a lack of effective anti-crime legislation. So what must be done? A Eurasian Response should look like this: • EDUCATION: The key is the development of a strong cultural identity, a culture of lawfulness. • Legislation of regionally harmonized anti-ICO and corruption laws. • Regional cooperation within law enforcement agency task forces. • Improved information exchange mechanisms. • Enhanced border control and customs facilities and asset confiscation. • Liaison Officer's Exchange Programs. • Joint operations, technical assistance, and criminal code modernization

The growing silent crisis is a clear and present danger to established and emerging democracies that will not grace the global community with time to find a solution. International Criminal Organizations create a vampire syndrome which enables them to live off the economic lifeblood of a Nation without killing the state. ICO's shun normal governmental social responsibilities and seek only profit. The secret nature of ICO's debilitates democracies. Vital democratic institutions become vulnerable to corruption and blackmail. Illegal Power cliques appear. ICO's target new democracies because of their fledgling free markets. A Pax Mafiosa, a nonagression pact between ICO's, is developing in order to prevent criminal conflict over global divisions. Big criminal syndicates penetrate giant corporations, manipulate money markets, destabilize weak currencies, and can even buy a nation. This is a real threat; this is today. One needs only to look at Columbia, Lebanon, or Mexico as western examples.

TOPICS: Crime/Corruption
KEYWORDS: corruption
I would normally not post something like this, but as I was reading it today, It very much struck me that our current Federal government shows many characteristics of this malady.

Take note of the first bullet points. Most disturbing.

AS always, Have at it

1 posted on 07/11/2010 9:04:26 AM PDT by roaddog727
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To: roaddog727

Drug abusers are financing terrorists.

2 posted on 07/11/2010 9:05:48 AM PDT by Venturer
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To: roaddog727

This has long been a topic of academic research interest for me being I believe that the two largest Mexican cartels are developing/establishing ties with known terrorist groups. Do you have a live link for this article?

3 posted on 07/11/2010 9:06:24 AM PDT by cranked
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To: roaddog727

This is an interesting item, sent out by our friends with NAFBPO with this comment:

DHS/FBI (U//FOUO) Potential Terrorist Attack Methods

For Official Use Only-FUOU document on-line.

One must seriously question whether DHS is protecting us or selling us out to the terrorists, our mortal enemies that have vowed to destroy every single one of us infidels..

4 posted on 07/11/2010 9:13:18 AM PDT by AuntB (Illegal immigration is simply more "share the wealth" socialism and a CRIME not a race!)
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To: roaddog727

The most disturbing thing is that it is only now being noticed. It has been going on here for a long time. Began under carter, went into overdrive with clinton, continued unabated under bush, and obama is the decapitation strike.

5 posted on 07/11/2010 9:20:41 AM PDT by MestaMachine (De inimico non loquaris sed cogites- Don't wish ill for your enemy; plan it)
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To: MestaMachine

No doubt.

6 posted on 07/11/2010 9:26:52 AM PDT by roaddog727 (It's the Constitution, Stupid!)
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To: roaddog727

This article could have used a good editor. Lots of repetition and way too long to say so little. The author must have been paid by the word.

7 posted on 07/12/2010 5:45:54 AM PDT by Mind-numbed Robot (Not all that needs to be done needs to be done by the government)
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To: Mind-numbed Robot

Government contracted White-paper...

Need I say more?

8 posted on 07/12/2010 10:17:31 AM PDT by roaddog727 (It's the Constitution, Stupid!)
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To: roaddog727

Thanks. That explains it all.

9 posted on 07/12/2010 10:43:13 AM PDT by Mind-numbed Robot (Not all that needs to be done needs to be done by the government)
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