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Pre-loaded hydrogen fuel an engineering answer for efficiency, ease and safety
Cold Fusion Now ^ | May 30, 2013 | Ruby Carat

Posted on 06/01/2013 8:27:28 PM PDT by Kevmo

Pre-loaded hydrogen fuel an engineering answer for efficiency, ease and safety

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. Pre-loaded hydrogen fuel an engineering answer for efficiency, ease and safety

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Multiple independent labs are racing to produce a commercial product based on the Fleischmann-Pons Heat Effect (FPHE), most working quietly in their labs. But since the public demonstration of Andrea Rossi‘s E-Cat in January 2011, we’ve witnessed on the global theater the grueling process of actualizing a revolutionary technology.

Early prototype E-Cat had external hydrogen tank for fuel. It has been amazing to watch. A thermal generator based on nickel-hydrogen exothermic reactions, E-Cat design changes have been guided by efforts to make an efficient, easy-to-use, and safe commercial product.

The earliest prototypes were fueled by hydrogen gas from a canister connected to the unit. For obvious reasons, the danger of hydrogen tanks in a domestic environment present a problem, and having the fuel pre-loaded inside the new E-Cat HT removes a huge liability.

But a pre-loaded fuel cartridge also makes a compact device easy to use.

Previous announcements have set the life for a single charge at six months, after which time the contents can be recycled and a new one installed. As this first generation of new-energy technology filters out to the public, we can expect much longer life-cycles in the future.

How is this fuel pre-loaded into the less-than-a-gram nickel-powder mixture? The answer is proprietary at the moment. But what is possible?

Perhaps a material that absorbs hydrogen and then releases it slowly is used. Metallic-hydrides can do exactly that. Could there be amongst the nickel-powder another transition metal that serves this function?

While we wait to see what’s next for the E-Cat, there are others in the field that have discovered the pre-loaded reactor benefits, each having different designs.

Pre-loaded solid wire works to make heat

SEM image of treated Celani wire by MFMP. Francesco Celani used a pre-loaded wire for his live demonstrations last year at ICCF-17 and NIWeek 2012. A very different design than Rossi’s, this solid-cathode type cell is being reproduced by the Martin Fleischmann Memorial Project as an open-source enterprise with step-by-step activity documented and available online.

The group showed the results of loading hydrogen in their wire and how it affected resistivity and temperature. Stunning scanning electron microscope (SEM) images reveal close-up views of the metal and its bumpy surface.

Separating loading from activation for Pd-D systems solved by pre-loading

Pre-loading of hydrogen has also benefited palladium-deuterium (Pd-D) systems, helping to hasten initiation of the reaction, which can sometimes take weeks or even months to begin. Waiting so long for a reaction to occur makes data acquisition burdensome, and discoveries difficult.

Ideally, multiple cells would run at the same time, allowing several variables to be monitored and determined simultaneously. At one point, Drs. Fleischmann and Pons were running up to 32 cells, an expensive and still time-dependent undertaking.

SRI International experimented with pre-loading of hydrogen in fine wires as described in Calorimetric Studies of the Destructive Stimulation of Palladium and Nickel Fine Wires [.pdf]. From the paper, a description of how they did it:

SRI electrolytic cell with pre-loaded cathode. 1. Loading. When Pd wires were used as a substrate or as test objects these were pre-loaded electrolytically with either H or D in low molarity SrSO4 electrolytes (50μM) using procedures developed previously at SRI [8] and elsewhere [9].

2. Sealing. The atomic loading of H or D can be sealed inside the Pd lattice for extended periods (several hours or days) with the addition of very small concentrations of Hg2SO4 to the SrSO4 electrolyte and continued cathodic electrolysis [8,9]. The deposited Hg at monolayer coverage is a highly effective poison for hydrogen atom recombination, effectively preventing= desorption by inhibiting molecule formation.

The outcome?

The results show clearly that excess energy is generated both from Pd and Ni wires loaded either with deuterium or natural hydrogen5. However, data from Pd/D codeposited onto highly loaded Pd wires (solid triangles) sit on top of the plot, indicating that this category of wires generates the most excess heat. Interestingly, the Ni codeposited system also yields significant amounts of excess heat.

Pre-loaded NANOR devices can be electrically driven

Separating the long loading times from the activation of the reaction was achieved by Dr. Mitchell Swartz of JET Energy, Inc. with his nano-composite ZrO2-PdNi-D cell that is pre-loaded with hydrogen fuel creating a “reproducible active nanostructured cold fusion/lattice-assisted nuclear reaction (CF/LANR) quantum electronic device.”

In the paper Energy Gain From Preloaded ZrO2-PdNi-D Nanostructured CF/LANR Quantum Electronic Components [.pdf] by Mitchell Swartz, Gayle Verner, and Jeffrey Tolleson, the authors write:

“The importance is they enable LANR devices and their integrated systems to now be fabricated, transported, and then activated. They are the future of clean, efficient energy production.”

A sixth-generation NANOR was publicly demonstrated in the office of Dr. Peter Hagelstein on the campus of Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) during the 2012 IAP Cold Fusion 101 course, operating from January 30 to mid-May. Swartz also described the technology in the 2013 IAP short course captured on video by Jeremy Rys.

Designed to run at low-power due to safety considerations for a multi-month demonstration on a public campus, “over several weeks, the CF/LANR quantum device demonstrated more reproducible, controllable, energy gain which ranged generally from 5 to 16 [14.1 while the course was ongoing].”

With the core smaller than 2 centimeters containing less than a gram of active material, this device produced LANR excess power density “more than 19,500 watts/kilogram of nanostructured material.”

From the paper, Swartz describes the “proprietary self-contained CF/LANR quantum electronic component, called a two terminal NANOR™-type of LANR device”:

The NANOR represents the pre-loaded core of the reactor. “At LANR’s nanostructured material “core” is an isotope of hydrogen, usually deuterons, which are tightly packed (“highly loaded”) into the binary metals, alloys, or in this case, nanostructured compounds, containing palladium or nickel, loaded by an applied electric field or elevated gas pressure which supply deuterons from heavy water or gaseous deuterium.”

“Loaded are isotopes of hydrogen -protons, protium, deuterons, deuterium, and hydrogenated organic compounds, deuterated organic compounds, D2, H2, deuterides and hydrides. Precisely for these NANOR-type LANR devices, the fuel for the nanostructured material in the core, is deuterium.”

“The preloaded nanostructured material is placed into the hermetically sealed enclosure which is specially designed to withstand pressure, minimize contamination, enable lock on of wires connecting to it. The enclosure is tightly fit with the electrodes.”

Described in the paper, the production of the preloaded core material involves “preparation, production, proprietary pretreatment, loading, post-loading treatment, activation, and then adding the final structural elements, including holder and electrodes.”

Fig. 2 – Series II and III two terminal NANOR™-type devices containing active ZrO2-PdNiD nanostructured material at their core.

Very pure materials are also required. “Contamination remains a major problem, with excess heat potentially devastatingly quenched,” the paper states.

The ratios of the NANOR’s composite elements are “in the range of Zr (~60-70%), Ni (0-30%), and Pd (0-30%) by weight, with the weights being before the oxidation step, and several later additional preparation steps. The additional D2 and H2 yield loadings (ratio to Pd) of up to more than 130% D/Pd.”

After several bakes, eventually an oxidized zirconia “surrounds, encapsulates, and separates the NiPd alloy into 7-10 nm sized ferromagnetic nanostructured islands located and dispersed within the electrically insulating zirconia dielectric.”

“Each nanostructured island acts as a short circuit elements during electrical discharge. These allow deuterons to form a hyperdense state in each island, where the deuterons are able to be sufficiently close together.”

The latest Series VI NANORs have had energy gains beyond 30.

More than basic science, it’s an engineering development

Pre-loaded core reactors have “a decreased size, decreased response time, improved and dual diagnostics, and increased total output energy density.”

They are compact, portable and durable. Suitable for small power needs, they can respond on-demand with scalable power.

It’s a ragged course to a next-generation clean energy technology. Even as the science is still uncertain, the new pre-loaded hydrogen reactors are an engineering development that brings us closer to that goal.


TOPICS: Heated Discussion
KEYWORDS: cmns; coldfusion; ecat; lenr

1 posted on 06/01/2013 8:27:28 PM PDT by Kevmo
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To: dangerdoc; citizen; Liberty1970; Red Badger; Wonder Warthog; PA Engineer; glock rocks; free_life; ..

The Cold Fusion/LENR Ping List

http://www.freerepublic.com/tag/coldfusion/index?tab=articles


http://lenr-canr.org/


2 posted on 06/01/2013 8:28:12 PM PDT by Kevmo ("A person's a person, no matter how small" ~Horton Hears a Who)
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To: Kevmo
Good evening, sir.

"The earliest prototypes were fueled by hydrogen gas from a canister connected to the unit. For obvious reasons, the danger of hydrogen tanks in a domestic environment present a problem, and having the fuel pre-loaded inside the new E-Cat HT removes a huge liability. "

Remember me asking if hydrogen was being used as a fuel ?

3 posted on 06/01/2013 8:53:41 PM PDT by UCANSEE2 (The monsters are due on Maple Street)
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To: Kevmo

game changing


4 posted on 06/01/2013 9:04:48 PM PDT by sten (fighting tyranny never goes out of style)
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To: Kevmo
we’ve witnessed on the global theater the grueling process of actualizing a revolutionary technology.

Cold fusion theater is a lot more accurate than cold fusion science.

5 posted on 06/01/2013 9:14:40 PM PDT by Moonman62 (The US has become a government with a country, rather than a country with a government.)
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To: Moonman62

You again? How’s that man crush coming along?

Thanks 4 Bumping The Thread T4BTT.

http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/chat/2965392/posts?page=19#19


6 posted on 06/01/2013 9:20:57 PM PDT by Kevmo ("A person's a person, no matter how small" ~Horton Hears a Who)
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To: UCANSEE2

Nope.

If it’s a chemical reaction, the energy densities are 10X those of the best chemical available. Hydrogen is among the best, being used as fuel in the space shuttle.


7 posted on 06/01/2013 9:23:12 PM PDT by Kevmo ("A person's a person, no matter how small" ~Horton Hears a Who)
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To: Kevmo
If it’s a chemical reaction, the energy densities are 10X those of the best chemical available.

If the "report" on Rossi's latest magic show is trustworthy, which it isn't.

8 posted on 06/01/2013 9:30:41 PM PDT by Moonman62 (The US has become a government with a country, rather than a country with a government.)
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To: Moonman62

Maybe one of these days a lurker will actually consider what you post on these threads to be something worth following up. Maybe someday.

Thanks 4 Bumping The Thread T4BTT.

http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/chat/2965392/posts?page=19#19


9 posted on 06/01/2013 9:37:23 PM PDT by Kevmo ("A person's a person, no matter how small" ~Horton Hears a Who)
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To: Kevmo

this guy has been stalling and stringing you along for over 3 years.

You are turning into a cultist.


10 posted on 06/01/2013 9:57:08 PM PDT by dila813
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To: dila813

Horse manure. I didn’t post any articles focused on Rossi for more than a year, until his device was independently tested.


11 posted on 06/01/2013 10:02:48 PM PDT by Kevmo ("A person's a person, no matter how small" ~Horton Hears a Who)
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To: Kevmo

so it took you only a year to warm up to the same con that was exposed as a fraud earlier


12 posted on 06/01/2013 10:06:42 PM PDT by dila813
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To: dila813

Has cold fusion been proven yet?


13 posted on 06/01/2013 10:07:28 PM PDT by Mmogamer (I refudiate the lamestream media, leftists and their prevaricutions.)
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To: Kevmo

I thought you were going to take the Mods advice and just ignore him? You seem to be a bit of a wanker too!


14 posted on 06/01/2013 10:08:06 PM PDT by Mastador1 (I'll take a bad dog over a good politician any day!)
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To: Kevmo
I didn’t post any articles focused on Rossi for more than a year,

But most of them mentioned Rossi.

until his device was independently tested.

It still hasn't been independently tested.

15 posted on 06/01/2013 10:10:32 PM PDT by Moonman62 (The US has become a government with a country, rather than a country with a government.)
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To: Mmogamer

Irrelevant to this thread, Rossi is a long time con artist


16 posted on 06/01/2013 10:16:39 PM PDT by dila813
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To: Moonman62

mentioned Rossi? That’s the standard? What a bunch of anti-science horse manure.

Thanks 4 Bumping The Thread T4BTT.

http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/chat/2965392/posts?page=19#19


17 posted on 06/01/2013 10:28:09 PM PDT by Kevmo ("A person's a person, no matter how small" ~Horton Hears a Who)
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To: dila813

oh sorry


18 posted on 06/01/2013 10:28:23 PM PDT by Mmogamer (I refudiate the lamestream media, leftists and their prevaricutions.)
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To: Mastador1; UCANSEE2

Who are you? Another lurker emerging from the shadows to throw in some kind of anti-science zinger and then get back to lurking?

Thanks 4 Bumping The Thread T4BTT.

http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/chat/2965392/posts?page=19#19


19 posted on 06/01/2013 10:29:36 PM PDT by Kevmo ("A person's a person, no matter how small" ~Horton Hears a Who)
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To: dila813

No, the device was independently tested.

Thanks 4 Bumping The Thread T4BTT.

http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/chat/2965392/posts?page=19#19


20 posted on 06/01/2013 10:30:26 PM PDT by Kevmo ("A person's a person, no matter how small" ~Horton Hears a Who)
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To: Kevmo

There's the "independent" lead author with Rossi in 2011.

21 posted on 06/01/2013 10:39:51 PM PDT by Moonman62 (The US has become a government with a country, rather than a country with a government.)
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To: Moonman62

Gosh, you’d think a lurker would follow up, just once.

Thanks 4 Bumping The Thread T4BTT.

http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/chat/2965392/posts?page=19#19


22 posted on 06/01/2013 10:49:58 PM PDT by Kevmo ("A person's a person, no matter how small" ~Horton Hears a Who)
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To: Kevmo

someone has to bring some reality to these propaganda pieces, can’t wait till the guy is booked into the pen


23 posted on 06/01/2013 10:52:20 PM PDT by dila813
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To: dila813

can’t wait till the guy is booked into the pen
***Faith position. My faith position was that until Rossi submitted to independent testing, he wasn’t worth posting about.

Thanks 4 Bumping The Thread T4BTT.

http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/chat/2965392/posts?page=19#19


24 posted on 06/01/2013 10:55:16 PM PDT by Kevmo ("A person's a person, no matter how small" ~Horton Hears a Who)
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To: Kevmo

Kevmo, you know and I know that it wasn’t independent, there are lots of independent labs available and they didn’t use one.


25 posted on 06/01/2013 10:57:45 PM PDT by dila813
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To: dila813

Kevmo, you know... that it wasn’t independent,

***Horse sheeite, Bowlsheet, BullShiite, Bull$$#!+

You WISH it wasn’t independent. But all of the objections have been dealt with and shown to be hypercritical.

T4BTT


26 posted on 06/01/2013 11:00:28 PM PDT by Kevmo ("A person's a person, no matter how small" ~Horton Hears a Who)
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To: dila813

Time to go out of my way to ignore you.

Thanks 4 Bumping The Thread T4BTT.

http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/chat/2965392/posts?page=19#19


27 posted on 06/01/2013 11:02:34 PM PDT by Kevmo ("A person's a person, no matter how small" ~Horton Hears a Who)
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To: Mastador1

You seem to be a bit of a wanker too!
***Gosh, so do you!

Thanks 4 Bumping The Thread T4BTT.

http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/chat/2965392/posts?page=19#19


28 posted on 06/01/2013 11:04:23 PM PDT by Kevmo ("A person's a person, no matter how small" ~Horton Hears a Who)
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To: Kevmo

No Kevmo, someone who tries to read your posts but gets irritated by juvenile responses to people. You say you are not going to respond, but then like a child you allow yourself to be provoked. And juvenile like attacking me for pointing out you childishness. Why bother to private mail me and then attack me for being a lurker on the open forum? It is hard to concentrate on your posts when not only others but you yourself muck them up with foolishness, and that is why you are a wanker too!


29 posted on 06/01/2013 11:07:54 PM PDT by Mastador1 (I'll take a bad dog over a good politician any day!)
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To: Kevmo

There you see, SO childlike!!


30 posted on 06/01/2013 11:08:37 PM PDT by Mastador1 (I'll take a bad dog over a good politician any day!)
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To: Mmogamer

Stanford Research Institute International is currently running several cells proving LENR. They are doing the science, testing the metals which are coming out from the mix after running the units where these metals were not at the start (like Helium).


31 posted on 06/01/2013 11:10:12 PM PDT by MHGinTN (Being deceived can be cured.)
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To: Moonman62

If the “report”
***If the “supposedly skeptical freepers”
were trustworthy, we would have made great strides by this time.

Thanks 4 Bumping The Thread T4BTT.

http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/chat/2965392/posts?page=19#19


32 posted on 06/01/2013 11:12:11 PM PDT by Kevmo ("A person's a person, no matter how small" ~Horton Hears a Who)
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To: Mmogamer

However, I don’t think SRI is testing anything from Rossi.


33 posted on 06/01/2013 11:14:49 PM PDT by MHGinTN (Being deceived can be cured.)
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To: Mastador1

Oops. That freepmail was intended for another freeper. Please forgive me for ... ummm... what I called you in that freepmail.


34 posted on 06/01/2013 11:17:47 PM PDT by Kevmo ("A person's a person, no matter how small" ~Horton Hears a Who)
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To: Mastador1

For responding to your unprovoked insult?


35 posted on 06/01/2013 11:18:58 PM PDT by Kevmo ("A person's a person, no matter how small" ~Horton Hears a Who)
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To: MHGinTN

it seems im drunk... id hoped cold fusion was real.. oh well


36 posted on 06/01/2013 11:23:40 PM PDT by Mmogamer (I refudiate the lamestream media, leftists and their prevaricutions.)
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To: MHGinTN

we need a like button


37 posted on 06/01/2013 11:24:34 PM PDT by Mmogamer (I refudiate the lamestream media, leftists and their prevaricutions.)
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To: Mmogamer

Actually, what SRI is showing is that LENR —what you would call ‘cold fusion’ perhaps— is happening. The tests are getting more energy out (as heat) than they are putting in, plus they’re getting hydrogen fusing to make forms of Helium and they are getting beyond baseline amounts of Tritium.


38 posted on 06/01/2013 11:35:41 PM PDT by MHGinTN (Being deceived can be cured.)
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To: Mastador1

On second pass, it turns out that I wasn’t calling YOU that ugly appellation, I was calling OTHERs that name, while I was pointing out that you were previously a lurker.

So, in light of that, what’s your objection? That I have harsh names for my detractors in freepmail?


39 posted on 06/01/2013 11:40:30 PM PDT by Kevmo ("A person's a person, no matter how small" ~Horton Hears a Who)
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To: MHGinTN

oh good.. progress at least


40 posted on 06/01/2013 11:53:08 PM PDT by Mmogamer (I refudiate the lamestream media, leftists and their prevaricutions.)
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To: Mmogamer
Go to minute 27 in the linked video. An SRI scientist is explaining the transmutation to Helium4. Enjoy:

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SglvSJIlKFQ

41 posted on 06/01/2013 11:56:11 PM PDT by MHGinTN (Being deceived can be cured.)
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To: MHGinTN; Mmogamer

fascinating subthread


42 posted on 06/02/2013 1:00:32 AM PDT by Kevmo ("A person's a person, no matter how small" ~Horton Hears a Who)
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To: MHGinTN

The opening of the video says it’s a 1999 documentary.

Do you have anything a bit more recent showing the progress in the last 14 years?


43 posted on 06/02/2013 3:30:29 AM PDT by Right Wing Assault (Dick Obama is more inexperienced now than he was before he was elected.)
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To: UCANSEE2

“Remember me asking if hydrogen was being used as a fuel ? “

I suppose it is a “fuel” in the same way we speak of fuel rods in a fission reactor...


44 posted on 06/02/2013 5:47:09 AM PDT by babygene ( .)
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To: Kevmo

Hydrogen, unlike gasoline, does NOT behave well at room temperature. There is no way, EVER, that we should use hydrogen as a fuel in consumer vehicles. The result of hydrogen use is predictable.

BOOM!!!


45 posted on 06/02/2013 7:12:56 AM PDT by TruthInThoughtWordAndDeed (Yahuah Yahusha)
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To: Right Wing Assault

Not on Yuotube. I was offering the video to answer the question asked by another poster.


46 posted on 06/02/2013 7:46:07 AM PDT by MHGinTN (Being deceived can be cured.)
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To: TruthInThoughtWordAndDeed

In several sci fi rpg’s I’ve played, the fuel for a reactor was a tank of water.


47 posted on 06/02/2013 11:20:27 AM PDT by Mmogamer (I refudiate the lamestream media, leftists and their prevaricutions.)
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To: TruthInThoughtWordAndDeed

I think it’s worth it to use hydrogen when the independently measured energy density of the latest LENR device was 10,000X of gasoline.


48 posted on 06/02/2013 2:18:34 PM PDT by Kevmo ("A person's a person, no matter how small" ~Horton Hears a Who)
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To: TruthInThoughtWordAndDeed
"There is no way, EVER, that we should use hydrogen as a fuel in consumer vehicles. The result of hydrogen use is predictable. BOOM!!!"

Nope.....wrong. Hydrogen gas is used daily in tens (if not hundreds) of thousands of places, from cc/min to tons/min quantities, quite safely. The techniques of handling it safely are well developed and available off-the-shelf. Gasoline, when first used as a vehicular fuel, was perceived in much the same terms. Yet today, people use it in their cars, routinely, with minimal problems.

49 posted on 06/04/2013 6:24:41 AM PDT by Wonder Warthog
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