Skip to comments.Knights of Columbus Battle To Expel Pro-Abort Politician Members
Posted on 07/31/2004 5:58:49 PM PDT by cpforlife.org
Knights Battle . . .
To Expel Pro-Abort Politician Members
(Special to The Wanderer)
DALLAS As the American Catholic Church hierarchy contends with notorious pro-abortion Catholic politicians who publicly defy Church teaching in their political lives while flaunting their Catholicism by receiving Communion state delegates of the Knights of Columbus are contending with a proposal to expel member Knights in politics who support abortion rights.
This issue has been simmering in the Knights of Columbus for decades. But this year, as delegates meet in Dallas from August 3 to 5 for their national convention, a determined group of Knights from California and other states was expected to force the issue at the national convention.
Resolution N. 48 was submitted by ten KC councils in California; it was passed at the California KC State Convention in May. The resolution requires ipso facto forfeiture of membership for any public official who promotes abortion, infanticide, euthanasia, or assisted suicide.
As The Wanderer went to press on July 29, proponents of the measure were planning to go public to the international media covering the conference, and even to engage in public demonstrations to denounce any efforts to suppress the measure.
In California, two examples that Knights focused on were Los Angeles Assemblyman Rudy Bermudez and Orange County Assemblyman Lou Correa, both of whom have long public voting records supporting abortion and even celebrating the Roe v. Wade decision in legislative acts.
Bermudez publicly lists on his web site that he is a member of the Norwalk Knights of Columbus as he compiles a nearly perfect pro-abortion voting record. He has been recognized by Planned Parenthood Affiliates of California for his "unwavering 100% commitment to reproductive choice and family planning during the 2002 legislative year."
Correa, a member of the Garden Grove Council voted in four recent legislative sessions to give $200,000,000 to unrestricted Medi-Cal funding for abortion.
On a national level, the collaboration of Knight-politicians who enjoy the privileges, honors, and benefits of the Knights of Columbus membership in the "culture of death" machine is a scandal not only to all Knights, but to the entire Church in the United States.
For years, charges have flown that the Knights have an operative "house rule" on the matter of pro-abortion Knights who hold political office, which requires members not to raise the issue of a members personal or even public position on abortion.
Several years ago, a Massachusetts Knight obtained a tape recording featuring KC member Joe Mauro, now retired but then executive vice president of agencies and marketing for the national office, stating: "The house rule is anybody who writes you, or talks to you about it [abortion], Id prefer you kept silent on the issue."
The tape surfaced after an outspoken pro-life insurance field agent, John OGorman, was forced out of the Knights following his pro-life activism.
One decisive action against a pro-abortion Catholic politician was taken by the late Bishop James McHugh, when he was bishop of Camden, N.J. He forced the states pro-abortion Gov. Jim Florio to resign from the Knights.
In 2001, when the Supreme Council of the International Knights of Columbus met in Toronto, with 2,000 members in attendance, a New York chapter called on the Knights to take more vigorous action against politicians who are pro-abortion. Ed McKee, co-chairman of this New York Council, said that they were getting nowhere with tactics employed at the time.
However, Canadian Phil Zakoor, chief administrative officer of the Ontario State Council, objected to the New York resolution calling for such things as advertisements at election times to encourage pro-life voting.
In a speech to the organization the next day, Supreme Knight Carl A. Anderson acknowledged that the order has the resources to do more to defend life than it has done; the Knights of Columbus would continue its "defense of human life at all stages, from conception to natural death."
The battle likely to be waged in Dallas is closely related to the hierarchys own stance, since the Knights and the hierarchy have appeared to be passing the buck back and forth on this matter for years, and now the buck seems to be stopped in both camps.
Supreme Knight Anderson, on his way to Dallas, was unavailable for comment, as was his spokesman Paul McGlinchey.
Pro-Abort Politicians are not in communion with the Church and they are not eligible to be Knights.
Pro-Abort Politicians are a disgrace to the Church and to the Order. They never should have been allowed into the Order in the first place, and should have been expelled once their Pro-Death positions were known.
I ask that all who read this to pray that our Supreme Council does the right thing here. They need to lead the way on this most crucial matter.
How do you get to be a Knight?
Please let me know if you want on or off my Pro-Life Ping List.
Any Catholic who obstinately denies that abortion is always gravely immoral, commits the sin of heresy and incurs an automatic sentence of excommunication.
Canon Law and Church Teaching
Canon 1398: A person who procures a completed abortion incurs a latae sententiae excommunication.
Canon 751: Heresy is the obstinate denial or obstinate doubt after the reception of baptism of some truth which is to be believed by divine and Catholic faith; apostasy is the total repudiation of the Christian faith; schism is the refusal of submission to the Supreme Pontiff or of communion with the members of the Church subject to him.
Canon 1364 §1: an apostate from the faith, a heretic, or a schismatic incurs a latae sententiae excommunication.
The phrase latae sententiae literally means a broad sentence or wide judgment, in other words, a sentence or judgment which is applied widely. In this context, it refers to a type of excommunication which is automatic. Such a sentence of excommunication is incurred by the very commission of the offense, (CCC 2272) and does not require the particular judgment of a case by competent authority.
Apostasy, heresy, and schism are all offences which incur a sentence of excommunication automatically. Heresy is the obstinate denial of any truth of the Catholic faith, on a matter of faith or morals, which has been definitively taught by the Magisterium. The Magisterium has repeatedly and definitively taught that abortion is always gravely immoral. (CCC 2270 to 2275)
Pope John Paul II, Evangelium Vitae, n. 57: Therefore, by the authority which Christ conferred upon Peter and his Successors, and in communion with the Bishops of the Catholic Church, I confirm that the direct and voluntary killing of an innocent human being is always gravely immoral. This doctrine, based upon that unwritten law which man, in the light of reason, finds in his own heart (cf. Rom 2:14-15), is reaffirmed by Sacred Scripture, transmitted by the Tradition of the Church and taught by the ordinary and universal Magisterium.
Obtaining an Abortion
Any Catholic who deliberately and knowingly obtains a procured abortion commits a mortal sin and is also automatically excommunicated, under canon 1398.
Under the laws of secular society, if one person commits a crime, then anyone who deliberately and knowingly provides essential or substantial means for that person to commit that crime is called an accessory to that crime and is also subject to the penalties of law. Similarly, any Catholic who deliberately and knowingly provides essential or substantial means for any woman to procure an abortion also commits a mortal sin and also incurs the same sentence of excommunication.
Any Catholic who substantially assists another in the deliberate sin of abortion is also guilty of serious sin and also incurs a latae sententiae excommunication.
Believing in Abortion
Any Catholic who obstinately denies that abortion is always gravely immoral commits the sin of heresy. The sin of heresy also incurs a latae sententiae excommunication.
Unfortunately, some Catholics obstinately deny that abortion is always immoral, and some Catholics claim that abortion can, at times, be a morally-acceptable choice, and some Catholics claim that a person can, in good conscience, choose abortion. Under the Code of Canon Law of the Roman Catholic Church, canons 751 and 1364, all such Catholics are automatically excommunicated for the sin of heresy.
This sentence of latae sententiae excommunication applies to any Catholic who denies that abortion is gravely immoral, regardless of whether they keep this denial hidden or publicly reveal it.
Those Catholics who publicly announce their denial that abortion is always gravely immoral, or who publicly promote abortion, or who publicly argue in favor of legalized abortion, also commit a mortal sin and also incur a sentence of automatic excommunication.
This sentence of excommunication applies to Catholics who are politicians, as well as to those Catholics who are political commentators, or public speakers, or who write or otherwise publicly communicate their erroneous view that abortion can be morally-acceptable or that abortion should be legal. This sentence of excommunication also certainly applies to those Catholics who claim to be theologians or Biblical scholars, but who believe or teach that abortion is not always gravely immoral.
Those Catholics who promote abortion are automatically excommunicated for two reasons. First, they have fallen into the sin of heresy by believing that abortion is not always gravely immoral (canons 751 and 1364). Second, these Catholics are providing substantial assistance for women to obtain abortions by influencing public policy to make abortions legal, and to keep abortions legal, and to broaden access to abortion. Those who provide such substantial assistance commit a mortal sin and incur a sentence of automatic excommunication (canon 1398).
Voting for Abortion
Any Catholic politician who casts a vote with the intention of legalizing abortion, or of protecting laws allowing abortion, or of widening access to abortion, commits a mortal sin.
When such a vote indicates that the Catholic politician believes that abortion is not always gravely immoral, such a politician incurs a sentence of automatic excommunication, under canons 751 and 1364, because of heresy.
When such a vote is intended to have the effect of making abortion legal, or more easily obtainable, or more widely available, such a politician incurs a sentence of automatic excommunication, under canon 1398, as someone who is attempting to provide substantial or essential means for women to obtain abortions. Catholic politicians who pass laws which legalize, protect, or widen access to abortion, are providing essential assistance to women who want to obtain abortions.
It is not sufficient for Catholic politicians to claim that they are personally opposed to abortion. If any Catholic politician favors legalized abortion, despite a claim of personal opposition, such a politician commits a mortal sin by promoting abortion and by voting in favor of abortion.
The same is true for any Catholic who casts any vote with the intention of legalizing abortion, or of protecting laws allowing abortion, or of widening access to abortion. Such a voter commits a mortal sin and incurs a sentence of automatic excommunication for two reasons. First, they are committing the sin of heresy by believing that abortion should be legal and available. Second, they are committing the grievous sin of providing women with substantial or essential assistance in obtaining abortions, by attempting to legalize or broaden access to abortion.
However, if, for a period of time, Catholic politicians and voters are unable to enact a law prohibiting all abortion, then Catholic politicians and voters may in good conscience vote for whichever law offers the greatest restrictions and limits on abortion. Subsequently, Catholic politicians and voters are required by the moral law to continue to enact further restrictions and limits on abortion, to the greatest extent possible, and, at every possible opportunity, to vote for laws which completely outlaw abortion.
Voting for Politicians
In general, the moral law requires Catholic voters to vote for those candidates who oppose abortion over those who favor abortion. However, there are exceptions to this general principle. For example, if a political candidate favors abortion, but is a member of a party which generally opposes abortion, a Catholic voter may, in good conscience, vote for that candidate, with the intention of giving more political power to the party which opposes abortion.
In another case, a Catholic voter might, in good conscience, vote for a pro-abortion candidate, if the political office would offer no opportunity for the elected candidate to vote for or against abortion. Even so, every Catholic voter should consider that anyone who supports abortion, as if it were a womans right, or as if it could ever be a moral choice, must necessarily be someone who has a seriously limited understanding of morality and justice. Such a person would not often be the better candidate for any office in place of one who understands that abortion is gravely immoral.
In every case, a Catholic should vote in such a way as to obtain as many restrictions on abortion as possible, and so as to obtain the end to legalized abortion as soon as possible.
Within any constitutional form of government, it would be ideal to have a constitutional clause or amendment which permanently and completely outlaws all procured abortions. Such an amendment must ban all abortions, regardless of circumstance, so that the direct and voluntary killing of an innocent prenatal human being will be always contrary to human law, just as it is always contrary to the moral law.
A constitutional amendment can permit certain medical procedures, which are absolutely necessary to save the life of the mother, and which indirectly result in the unintended and unsought death of the prenatal, only if there is no possible way to save the life of the prenatal. A prenatal is defined as any human being from conception to birth. Every reasonable effort should be made to save the lives of both mother and prenatal. If the life of the prenatal can be saved by no other possible option than by risking or allowing the death of the mother, then the prenatal must be saved.
Catholic teaching clearly allows for certain medical procedures, which indirectly and involuntarily result in the death of the prenatal, to save the life of the mother, but only when all options to save the life of the prenatal have been exhausted. Such a procedure is not an abortion and is not an exception wherein abortion is allowed.
On the other hand, a constitutional amendment which bans abortion with exceptions for various cases, such as rape, incest, or a risk to the mothers life, would be worse than having no such amendment at all.
Any woman who is willing to commit the sin of abortion, would also be willing to lie. If a constitutional amendment permitted abortion in cases of rape, then any woman willing to lie and to falsely claim that she was raped, would be able to also claim that she had a constitutional right to an abortion. The result would be that a constitutional amendment, which seems to ban abortion with some exceptions, would end up giving every woman who is willing to tell a lie, a purported constitutional right to abortion. This situation would be worse than having no such constitutional amendment at all.
Therefore, the only acceptable pro-life constitutional amendment would be one that, in accordance with Catholic teaching, bans all procured abortions without exception.
Here is an example of a just constitutional amendment protecting human life.
--- by Ronald L. Conte Jr.
Abortion: Its a choice that if left
unrepented can make your life a
living hell that never ends.
Source for #5 http://www.catholicplanet.com/articles/article78.htm
Is it my imagination, or is the sleeping giant knows as the RC church awakening?
Prayers offered. This is more good news. Sounds like many are waking up to take a stand.
Time to stand up and giv'em the BOOT.
Go to http://www.kofc.org/ and click on How to Join?
Why is this an issue? Why would the KofC tolerate this situation? There was a debate here some time ago about the difference between KofC and Masons, but if they have a rule allowing pro-aborts to get a free ride, I question the difference.
Knights of Columbus Battle To Expel Pro-Abort Politician Members.
Special PING and please PING your list.
Knights of Columbus Battle To Expel Pro-Abort Politician Members.
You have to save up for a dull sword and like brandy.
GO KNIGHTS of COLUMBUS!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
Pro-Life Resources and Communications from Supreme
I know little about the KofC, I dislike secret societies in general. Now I find that the KofC not only has abotion promoting scum in office, but has had a secret policy of accepting them and not criticizing them. I applaud the effort to purge the babykiller crowd, I question the ethics of an organized Catholic society needing this.
Growth of the Knights of Columbus
On Oct. 2, 1881, a small group of men met in the basement of St. Mary's Church on Hillhouse Avenue in New Haven, Connecticut. Called together by their 29-year-old parish priest, Father Michael J. McGivney, these men formed a fraternal society that would one day become the world's largest Catholic family fraternal service organization. They sought strength in solidarity, and security through unity of purpose and devotion to a holy cause: they vowed to be defenders of their country, their families and their faith. These men were bound together by the ideal of Christopher Columbus, the discoverer of the Americas, the one whose hand brought Christianity to the New World. Their efforts came to fruition with the incorporation of the Knights of Columbus on March 29, 1882. They were Knights of Columbus.
The Order has been called "the strong right arm of the Church," and has been praised by popes, presidents and other world leaders, for support of the Church, programs of evangelization and Catholic education, civic involvement and aid to those in need.
Father McGivney's founding vision for the Order also included a life insurance program to provide for the widows and orphans of deceased members. The Order's insurance program has expanded substantially to serve more effectively the Knights' growing membership. Year after year, the Knights of Columbus has earned the highest possible quality ratings for financial soundness from A.M. Best and Standard & Poor's. The Order provides the highest quality insurance, annuity and long-term care products to its members, along with many other fraternal benefits.
The Supreme Council is the governing body of the Knights of Columbus and is responsible for the development of the organization as a whole. Supreme Council duties include establishing the Order in new regions and setting up regional authorities, defining and advancing its values and goals, undertaking organization-wide initiatives, promoting awareness of the Knights' mission worldwide, and protecting the families of members through its extensive insurance program. Members working in local, or subordinate councils, however, carry on the majority of the Knights' beneficial work.
Our Founder: Father McGivney
Father Michael J. McGivney was a parish priest at St. Mary's Church in New Haven, Connecticut, when he founded the Knights of Columbus in 1882. The love and respect he generated enabled the Order to succeed beyond his greatest dreams.
Father McGivney's Life:
The Story of Father Michael J. McGivney's Life
Life and Legacy of Father McGivney Video (ram, 15 min.)
Spirituality of Father McGivney
Cause for Canonization of Father McGivney:
Canonization Guild News
Prayer for Canonization
Participation in the Guild
Contact the Guild
The Founder of the Knights of Columbus
Over a century ago, in mid-August 1890, one of the largest funerals in the history of Waterbury, Connecticut, took place. The throngs who attended were grieving the death, at age 38, of Father Michael J. McGivney, founder of the Knights of Columbus.
Delegations were present from almost every one of the 57 Knights of Columbus councils that had been chartered in the Order's first eight years. The bishop of Hartford and more than 70 of Connecticut's Catholic priests were joined by many civic leaders. It was reported that every available carriage within miles had been rented for the great procession.
Father McGivney's funeral was an indication of the love and respect the people felt for this hard-working, holy, parish priest. It also reflected the deep personal appeal that immigrant Catholics immediately found in the Knights of Columbus. Since that time, the Order's growth has never stopped. Today, the Knights of Columbus is the largest society of Catholic men in the world, with more than 1.6 million members in the United States, Canada, Mexico, the Philippines and several Central American and Caribbean countries.
To mark the Order's 100th anniversary in 1982, the Knights of Columbus brought the remains of Father McGivney from Waterbury back to St. Mary's Church in New Haven, where he founded the Order. There he now rests in a setting in which daily Mass is offered for deceased Knights and prayers are said in his honor. His cause for canonization is proceeding.
Cause for Canonization
In 1997, Archbishop Daniel A. Cronin of Hartford, Connecticut, formally opened the cause for canonization of Father Michael J. McGivney. Dominican Father Gabriel B. O'Donnell was named the postulator, or promoter, of the cause.
The Knights of Columbus has established a Guild to advance the cause of Father McGivney. The McGivney Guild gathers evidence on its namesake's life and character, collects information about favors people have received as the result of his intercession, promotes his canonization cause, and offers spiritual benefits to its members.
Knights Report Record Giving
Donations to charities totaled $130 million. Hours of volunteer service exceed 61 million.
The charitable gifts of the nearly 1.7 million members of the Knights of Columbus reached all-time record highs in 2003. According to the organization's annual Survey of Fraternal Activity, Knights at all levels reported raising and contributing to charity $130 million. For 2002, the figure was $128.5 million.
The total includes $21.5 million disbursed by the Knights international office through various foundations, including funds earmarked for the pope, Christians in the Holy Land and the programs of the bishops conferences of the United States, Canada and Mexico, among others. In 2003 the Knights partnered with the Wheelchair Foundation to send several thousand wheelchairs to landmine victims and people with disabilities in Afghanistan and other Middle Eastern countries. Additionally, working with the Archdiocese for the Military Services, USA, the Knights published 200,000 copies of a Catholic prayer book for U.S. troops stationed in Iraq, Afghanistan and elsewhere.
"Charity is the first lesson a member learns when he joins the Knights, and these figures show how much that means to him," said Carl A. Anderson, supreme knight of the Catholic fraternal benefit society and chief executive officer.
Knights of Columbus gifts went beyond money, as members reported volunteering an all-time high of 61 million hours of time in 2003. The 2002 figure was 60.8 million.
"We are committed to our communities," said Anderson. "Whether it is volunteering at Special Olympics games, visiting veterans in hospitals, or helping out in our local Catholic parishes and schools, we seek to better the lives of our neighbors."
The annual Survey of Fraternal Activity was filed by close to 12,000 state and local units of the Knights, or approximately 73 percent of all officially chartered groups.
Other 2003 fraternal survey statistics show that 381,128 Knights were blood donors and that members made 5.7 million visits to the sick and bereaved.
All good, all laudable. John Kerry agrees with every one of them.
Please understand I am not attacking, but Masons can post similar and laudable public activities. The issue is this, and it looks like it will be resolved, can a public official advocate the killing of babies and yet remain a Knight? As of now, the answer is YES.
OK, can you describe the rituals involved? The last time I asked I was told NO.
Now I find that the KofC not only has abotion promoting scum in office,>>>>
So does the Catholic Church, most of the bishops are silent and do not rebuke the politicians and still allow them to receive Holy Communion.
In order to be a member of the Knights of Columbus one has to be in Concert with the Holy See. Some people lie on their application and interview and are accepted into membership.
Once they are in and it is found out that they are not in concert it is hard to get them out especially if they own insurance since the k of c must comply with state insurance regulations and just can't cancel memberships and a policy. It is a mutual benefit association which sells life insurance to its members.
Adopting this policy on pro aborts is a step in the right direction. I hope our church and bishops start doing the same and come down on the priests, employees, politicians, etc. who claim to be Catholic and are pro abortion.
There are really no secrets. One must attend 3 degree ceremonies and be tested on faith and character during the 3rd degree. Each degree is a learning experience.
St John Vianney Council bump.
KofC is a secret society in the same way that the Boy Scouts and the Rotary club are secret societies. They are also the most consistently pro-life religious lay organization in America. They contribute a lot of money and people to pro-life activities, such as the march in D.C every year. They are also, in fact the first organization, other than the police and fire departments, to have provided aid to victims of the World Trade Center attack. Don't be so quick to criticize.
Since they are a Catholic organization of very good standing, it is natural for Catholic politicians to want to be members to appear to be Catholic. This just formalizes their standards, and gets rid of one more place for CINOs to hide. They are to be commended for this, not attacked.
Please notify me via FReepmail if you would like to be added to or taken off the Catholic Discussion Ping List.
Are you a Catholic?
Vivat Jesus Ping!
**is the sleeping giant knows as the RC church awakening?**
I believe so; the sex abuse scandal shook the roots -- the common people like us--and we are demanding these thihngs.
Coleus,What happened with our witch?Any news?
Local Councils have monthly meetings. We begin with the Lord's Prayer and the Pledge of Allegiance. The meetings normally run an hour and we plan that months activities, activities that are public and throughout the community. We normally end with a Hail Mary. Our meetings are closed, much like a company board meeting, but there is nothing secretive about them. Sometimes we have a guest who is not a Knight make a presentation.
After the meetings we generally eat meals prepared by ourselves wives and families. Down here in Louisiana those meals are da' best!
Here is an example of a Knight project: Years ago our Pastor was frustrated at the low attendance at stations of the cross during lent. We decided to help by having Fish Frys starting before and lasting past the Stations. The attendance went up 10 fold. half the proceeds went to the parish and half went to the Knights progams such as help w the handicapped.
The KofC is a Catholic family organization. We live and work throughout Catholic communities around the US.
The Supreme Council would do well to do the right thing here. I'm guessing there are quite a few men out there like me who will never join the Knights of Columbus as long as they refuse to put their foot down on this.
Catholic Discussion at # 38!!
I'm really surprised that the Knights let pro-abortion guys in, in the first place.
In my org., Ancient Order of Hibernians, pro-abortion men are NOT ADMITTED.
narses, fyi: It was the KofC who got "Under God" in the Pledge. Check it out.
Knights Defend 'under God' in Pledge
NEW HAVEN, CT Stating that the fundamental self-understanding of the United States from the Declaration of Independence through everyday practices by Congress and the president is in jeopardy, the Knights of Columbus, which led the effort to persuade President Dwight D. Eisenhower and the U.S. Congress in the 1950s to add the words "under God" to the Pledge of Allegiance, has filed a friend of the court brief before the U.S. Supreme Court in the case of United States of America v. Newdow. In that case, a divided panel of the 9th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals declared mandatory recitation of the pledge unconstitutional because of the words "under God."
The opinion of the 9th Circuit Court, the Knights argue, "threatens not only one patriotic rite and one particular federal statute." The opinion "challenges the American principle that fundamental rights are inalienable by the State because they exist prior to the State," the Knights said in their brief.
If reciting the Pledge of Allegiance is unconstitutional because it refers to a nation "under God," the brief continues, "then reciting the Declaration of Independence, which refers to the Creator as the source of rights, is surely cast in doubt." The nation's "self-understanding," the brief concludes, would then be called into question.
The Knights' brief notes that in prior judgments the court has affirmed the role of religion in American life without establishing or endorsing a state religion. Presidents, too, the brief states, have enjoined God in inaugural addresses and other public speeches.
Calling the 9th Circuit Court's decision "at war" with tradition, the brief argues that the Supreme Court should overturn the appeals court's ruling.
The brief was signed by Supreme Knight Carl A. Anderson, who holds a law degree and is admitted to practice before the U.S. Supreme Court, and Supreme Advocate Paul R. Devin, along with Catholic University of America Columbus School of Law Professor Robert Destro. The Becket Fund for Religious Liberty filed the brief on behalf of the Knights.
I know, a friend was one of the organizers of that effort 50 years ago. As I said, I am not attacking the KofC, I am shocked that they 1 - allow babykillers in, and 2 - have a secret policy of tolerance for same.
We're working on it! With 1.7 million members it's tough.
Is the Ancient Order of Hibernians a Catholic organization?
Wow! Very good. Our bishop down here in Florida (Bp. Galeone of St. Augustine) is very pro-life and was recently inducted into the Knights, which he said was one of the greatest moments of his life.
The Knights have been one of the staunchest and most faithful groups in the Church, and I'm glad to see they're exercising a little discipline on their wayward politically-connected members, who obviously thought that being a Knight was just like being a Rotarian or an Elk. It's not.
Thank you. I will pray that this effort succeeds. In time, in Our Lord's Time, I will explore membership.
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