The Constitution follows a very simple formula - they outline the desire or problem - then propose the proper solution.
For example - Congress shall have the power to promote the the useful arts and sciences is the desire - it itself is not a mandate - the power given to Congress to promote the useful arts and sciences is the granting of exclusive rights (patents).
Similarly the desire is for a well regulated militia to secure a free state - the proposed solution was that the right of the people to keep and bear arms would not be infringed.
There are numerous examples of EXACTLY this formulation. The preceding clause gives the reason for the power granted (or denied).