What a bunch of imaginative jerks.
Global warming anybody?
Here is a planet several zillion million light years from earth, yet scientists know it all.
There are some things that can certainly be known, given some known accuracy of the instruments.
Matters such as the orbits of distant objects and the nature of the stars they are orbiting are not things that can be fudged. Orbital mechanics is also very well understood and has been checked and rechecked ad infinitum. Its why we can reliably get spacecraft to our own stars planets.
Global warming theories depend on much more fuzzy concepts and complex processes (and hence being much closer to pure speculation) than those we are discussing here.