a skill the dogs probably learn from repeated, one-to-one interactions with their owners.
No. experiments show they understand it inherently.
Some do, some don't.
I was never able to get our otherwise brilliant Cairn to look anywhere but the end of my finger.
Yes, they do. But they’re been domesticated for a very long time.
Tests with wolves, even those reared with humans, demonstrate that understanding humans pointing is NOT inherent in wolves.
So the dog’s ability to understand human pointing has been a recent genetic development.