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The Rise of the Crazy Ants
www.scientificamerican.com ^ | Feb 13, 2014 | By Dina Fine Maron

Posted on 04/21/2014 7:02:53 AM PDT by Red Badger

The English had the longbow. The Spanish had steel. Tawny crazy ants have their own formidable weapon—a protective acid sheath—that protects them against fire ant enemies. The revelation comes from a new study published this week.

Named for their butterscotch color and erratic movements, tawny crazy ants are the newest insect invaders sprawling throughout Texas and the Gulf states, unseating the reigning imported fire ants that have infested the region. Teeming out of electrical outlets and short-circuiting electronics, the tiny reddish-brown crazy ants have been making headlines as their numbers climb in the southeastern U.S. In some locales they can be so tightly packed together they are initially mistaken for dirt. Then they move.

As their population swells, the ants, formally known as Nylanderia fulva (but also sometimes called Rasberry crazy ants in honor of the Texas exterminator that discovered them), are harming the environment—not to mention people’s homes and electronics. Now we have a new clue as to why they are able to prevail over the previously dominant fire ants: Crazy ants produce chemicals they then rub on themselves as an antidote to fire ant venom. And the acidic substance exuded from where a stinger would be located on other ant species also doubles as a chemical weapon they spray at foes, allowing the crazy ants to defeat competitors that would otherwise help keep them in check.

The discovery stemmed from some initial observations of odd, and sometimes disturbing, ant behavior. Since these ants, native to northern Argentina and southern Brazil, first started showing up in Texas in 2002 it has been unclear why they were able to flourish. But it is undeniable that they do. When fire ants and crazy ants show up in roughly equal numbers and go for the same tasty cricket treat, new work reveals that the crazy ants typically win some 93 percent of the time. Moreover, many crazy ant colonies have been spotted inside fire ant mounds that still are home to some of their previous tenants, raising the alarm among bug experts that crazy ants can apparently snatch active nests from their cousins with ease.

Edward LeBrun, a researcher at the University of Texas at Austin, and his team published these and other findings February 13 in Science. One of the team’s astute observations that fueled their research into the ants’ chemical arsenal: crazy ants that had been involved in fire ant skirmishes typically engage in a very particular behavior sequence. After a run-in with a fire ant a crazy ant would stand on its hind and middle legs, fully curl up its body to touch its glandular opening at the tip of its abdomen to its mandibles, and then seemingly groom itself vigorously, rubbing a secretion along itself to apparently detoxify the venom. LeBrun’s team decided to dive further into what was happening.

That’s where the nail polish came in.

For this work LeBrun placed a dab of nail polish on the insect’s glandular hind opening to block it from exuding its secretions, and then, to create a control group, put an equal amount of nail polish on the sides of other crazy ants. Then he placed the ants among attacking fire ants. Crazy ants without blocked glands were able to hold their own—surviving attacks by the fire ants almost 100 percent of the time. Among the attacked crazy ants with blocked capabilities, about half died. And although some of the ants with sealed openings may have survived because the nail polish bubbled and allowed tiny bits of the protective secretions to emerge, the still-striking differences in survival rates indicates that this secretion and accompanying movement was protecting the ants.

The glandular secretion previously identified as formic acid was already known to be sprayed by the crazy ants as part of a defense mechanism, but this is the first work that has found an ant species apparently detoxifying itself with the substance. The researchers also tested the acid’s protection capabilities by exposing yet another ant species to either the fire ant venom and the possible crazy ant antidote or just the venom with a placebo. Only one-fifth of the ants without the antidote managed to survive compared with 100 percent of those that received the crazy ants’ formic acid. That’s a striking difference. Exactly how the formic acid works as a defense mechanism—whether it denatures the enzymes from the fire ants’ sting or changes the biological activity of the venom—remains unknown, Lebrun says. But the protective numbers do not lie, shedding light on a biological process at work.

Surging in Electronics The finding comes at a time when the ants are spreading and displacing fire ants from the southeastern U.S. Their growth is bad news for the ecosystem because it is reducing the numbers of other arthropods like spiders and centipedes, which are staples for birds that would normally sup on them but would not typically eat the less tasty crazy ants. “It basically means that there will be a reduction in the amount of the food at the base of the food web which will ripple up to creatures like birds,” LeBrun says.

Moreover, despite the fire ants’ nips and painful stings, their human neighbors say they miss them because they tend to keep to their mounds unless disturbed by humans, LeBrun notes. Crazy ants, on the other hand, are known for infiltrating any available cavities for nesting, be they pipes, a fuse box or the inner-workings of a car, increasing the likelihood of property damage. “This is just busting out of the gates right now and making it into the national consciousness,” says Neil Tsutsui, an evolutionary biologist at the University of California, Berkeley.

The crazy ants’ propensity for short-circuiting electronics has also fueled speculation that the critters are attracted to the electronics themselves, a theory that has not been borne out by science. Another hypothesis, LeBrun says, is that when these ants are attacked—or electrically shocked—they give off alarm pheromones that bring other ants running. “It seems that crazy ants are quite attracted to their alarm pheromones,” he observes.

After the wily crazy ants descend on a household it’s difficult to estimate how many are there, but LeBrun says it is enough that when pesticide is applied “snowdrifts of dead ants” ring the buildings and people sweep them up by the “dustpan-full.” Their populations are so large that even after pesticide is applied, a few months later a colony can rebound—requiring more treatments.

Although it appears the fire ants will not be first in line to keep the crazy ant population at bay, there are still environmental factors that could limit their advance. When invasive imported fire ants were spreading in the U.S. natural forces such as hard freezes to the north and drought conditions to the west hamstrung their spread. Time will tell if the same factors limit crazy ants.

“The only way they are spreading is because of people,” Lebrun says. These ants do not fly so they normally only move, on average, 200 meters a year. When they nest in abandoned boxes, cars or other material such as potted plants, and the infested materials are then transported by humans, that is how they arrive in new areas. It’s time to be on the lookout for crazy ant stowaways.


TOPICS: Business/Economy; US: Florida; US: Louisiana; US: Texas
KEYWORDS: crazyants; nylanderiafulva

The Ant Sweeping the Southeastern U.S. Image: Joe A. MacGown with the Mississippi Entomological Museum

1 posted on 04/21/2014 7:02:53 AM PDT by Red Badger
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To: Red Badger

I hate ants. I fell into a fire ant nest when I was about 5 and had nightmares for years afterwards. I cannot watch a documentary on ants. Snakes and spiders, no problem.... it’s ants. One reason I’ll not return to Texas.


2 posted on 04/21/2014 7:09:00 AM PDT by Mercat
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To: Red Badger

In other news, obama’s crazy aunt’s funeral is scheduled for Thursday...


3 posted on 04/21/2014 7:09:12 AM PDT by null and void (...if you are too sure of your place in heaven you might be too arrogant to actually get there.)
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To: Red Badger

Are these the crazy aunts everyone warned me about? Are they usually found in the attic?


4 posted on 04/21/2014 7:09:49 AM PDT by Right Brother
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To: Right Brother

“Are they usually found in the attic?”

No, silly. They are found at family get togethers... passed out on the toilet with their bloomers around their ankles. Silly, RB! :)


5 posted on 04/21/2014 7:15:47 AM PDT by momtothree
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To: Mercat

Then you’ll like the fact that these ants drive out fire ants.

These ants bite, but it’s just like a normal ant bite, not the festering pustules that fire ant bites cause..............


6 posted on 04/21/2014 7:16:36 AM PDT by Red Badger (Soon there will be another American Civil War. Will make the first one seem like a Tea Party........)
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To: Right Brother

No, they show up at Thanksgiving then talk to the turkey on the table..................


7 posted on 04/21/2014 7:17:30 AM PDT by Red Badger (Soon there will be another American Civil War. Will make the first one seem like a Tea Party........)
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To: Diana in Wisconsin

Garden Ping!......................


8 posted on 04/21/2014 7:18:24 AM PDT by Red Badger (Soon there will be another American Civil War. Will make the first one seem like a Tea Party........)
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To: Red Badger

Tawny Crazy ant invasion, that’s racist. Just “acts of love” don’t you know.


9 posted on 04/21/2014 7:19:05 AM PDT by februus
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To: Mercat

When I was a kid in the mid-60’s, we lived in texas. We had a sugar box above the fridge that turned out to be full of ants. When we traced the trail, it went out the back door and to a path they had created dirt path through our back yard lawn and down the alley to the point where we just stopped following. it.

In our current home (KY) last week we noticed some very small and dark ants in our bathroom. They would show up in ones or twos until a few days ago I noticed a few by the charger base of our electric tooth brush. When I picked it up it turned out there were thousands of them in it. I rinsed it out and they just kept coming. It was amazing that there were that many in thre.

I figured the electromagnetism must have somehow attracted them. For now the ant problem has completely disappeared.


10 posted on 04/21/2014 7:19:40 AM PDT by cuban leaf
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To: Mercat

…sorry….sometimes I can't help myself...

11 posted on 04/21/2014 7:20:08 AM PDT by moehoward
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To: Red Badger

I was battling with them for a few years until I figured out which poison to use to get rid of them (the liquid baits)


12 posted on 04/21/2014 7:21:46 AM PDT by TexasFreeper2009 (Obama lied .. the economy died.)
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To: Red Badger

13 posted on 04/21/2014 7:23:06 AM PDT by mkmensinger
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To: TexasFreeper2009

Fire ants or crazy ants?...............


14 posted on 04/21/2014 7:31:19 AM PDT by Red Badger (Soon there will be another American Civil War. Will make the first one seem like a Tea Party........)
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To: Red Badger

Sorry, wrong kind of crazy aunt.

15 posted on 04/21/2014 7:33:24 AM PDT by PLMerite
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To: cuban leaf

It may be that they are attracted to the acids...............


16 posted on 04/21/2014 7:37:31 AM PDT by Red Badger (Soon there will be another American Civil War. Will make the first one seem like a Tea Party........)
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To: Mercat

That would be wise. Though crazy ants don’t sting, there are such vast numbers of them that they overwhelm. A common story is that people do not know their yard has been taken over, so send their dog out there to do its business.

Just a short time later, the dog is frantic to get back inside because it is covered with ants. Once this happens, the dog will refuse to go out in that yard again. A similar story with people, that they will be covered up to their knees or even hips and get a panic response.


17 posted on 04/21/2014 7:48:19 AM PDT by yefragetuwrabrumuy (WoT News: Rantburg.com)
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To: Red Badger

There is a biological trick used against fire ants, in which you get a glass jar and put a little honey in it, then set it next to their nest. When a bunch of ants get in there, pour in two cups of boiling water to kill them, then seal the jar and bring it inside.

Then you leave in in a cool, dark place for a couple of weeks, and hopefully some mold will grow on it. Then you pour it on their nest, and hopefully, it not only wipes out that nest, but one or two adjacent nests.

Since this trick seems to work for fire ants, I wonder how it might work against crazy ants.

There are a few problems, for example, there are no obvious above ground signs of their nests, which they exit and enter through small holes in the ground, even for a giant nest. So getting the plague inside it might be difficult.

But we won’t know unless we try.


18 posted on 04/21/2014 8:00:26 AM PDT by yefragetuwrabrumuy (WoT News: Rantburg.com)
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To: Red Badger

I hate ants. They’re destructive and have a painful bite/sting.


19 posted on 04/21/2014 8:03:46 AM PDT by trisham (Zen is not easy. It takes effort to attain nothingness. And then what do you have? Bupkis.)
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To: Red Badger

crazy ants

I tried every poison imaginable and nothing worked against them (I actually think I heard them laughing at me and thanking me for the bath!), until I tried those liquid ant baits.


20 posted on 04/21/2014 8:12:50 AM PDT by TexasFreeper2009 (Obama lied .. the economy died.)
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To: yefragetuwrabrumuy

Maybe we could put their little heads on spikes all around the house as a warning...................


21 posted on 04/21/2014 8:15:06 AM PDT by Red Badger (Soon there will be another American Civil War. Will make the first one seem like a Tea Party........)
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To: TexasFreeper2009

I use a water hose. That seems to keep them down.....................


22 posted on 04/21/2014 8:15:53 AM PDT by Red Badger (Soon there will be another American Civil War. Will make the first one seem like a Tea Party........)
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To: Mercat
You need to avoid more than Texas to avoid fire ants.


23 posted on 04/21/2014 8:54:22 AM PDT by thackney (life is fragile, handle with prayer)
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To: Red Badger

“These ants bite, but it’s just like a normal ant bite, not the festering pustules that fire ant bites cause...”

I wonder if the formic acid in some form could be used in a salve to get rid of the effects of fire ant stings?


24 posted on 04/21/2014 8:59:08 AM PDT by Dr. Bogus Pachysandra ( Ya can't pick up a turd by the clean end!)
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To: thackney

There was a good article on this in the May issue of Reader’s Digest.


25 posted on 04/21/2014 8:59:21 AM PDT by Focault's Pendulum (I live in NJ....' Nuff said!)
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To: Dr. Bogus Pachysandra

Ammonia (a base) works on jellyfish stings. It might work on ant bites.....................


26 posted on 04/21/2014 9:02:48 AM PDT by Red Badger (Soon there will be another American Civil War. Will make the first one seem like a Tea Party........)
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To: yefragetuwrabrumuy

I used to get these large ant mounds in the yard around my farmhouse in Ohio. Just black ants. I’d drink a 4-pack of Guiness Stout, and the pee on the mounds. Next day, ants all gone.


27 posted on 04/21/2014 9:03:30 AM PDT by Dr. Bogus Pachysandra ( Ya can't pick up a turd by the clean end!)
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To: Dr. Bogus Pachysandra

They weren’t gone, they were just at home sleeping it off.


28 posted on 04/21/2014 9:50:01 AM PDT by Dogbert41 (Up yours NSA !)
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To: yefragetuwrabrumuy

From DirtDoctor.com, the best way to control fire ants is to spread dry molasses from a feed store at 20 lbs./1,000 sq.ft. It’s easy and economical. I’ve been doing it for years and nary a fire ant mound to be found. The sugar is also good for the biological activity in the soil.


29 posted on 04/21/2014 11:55:56 AM PDT by jtonn
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To: Red Badger

BEST.POST.OF.THE.DAY


30 posted on 04/21/2014 2:04:13 PM PDT by Mercat
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To: Red Badger

I have a crazy aunt. She’s not really insane, but she is kinda crazy.


31 posted on 04/21/2014 7:04:21 PM PDT by Blue Collar Christian (Vote Democrat. Once you're OK with killing babies the rest is easy. <BCC><)
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To: Red Badger

“Then they move....”

Eeeek!


32 posted on 04/22/2014 11:31:24 AM PDT by Diana in Wisconsin (I don't have 'Hobbies.' I'm developing a robust Post-Apocalyptic skill set...)
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To: Diana in Wisconsin

33 posted on 04/22/2014 11:36:50 AM PDT by Red Badger (Soon there will be another American Civil War. Will make the first one seem like a Tea Party........)
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To: Red Badger

I, for one, welcome our new insect overlords.


34 posted on 04/22/2014 11:37:08 AM PDT by Constitution Day
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