OK, so let me see if I understand this.
If my atheist husband and I married in a civil ceremony, and I later was baptized, and then he left and divorced me in part due to conflicts my Christian faith represented, whereupon I became a Catholic, does that mean the Church would permit a subsequent Catholic marriage? Or not? I had thought that now that I’m becoming a Catholic I had to throw in the towel on love and marriage, but it sounds from this as though in some circumstances the Church would recognize the end of my marriage. Am I interpreting things correctly or grasping at straws?
I’m not an expert on tribunal or canon law. Since you are becoming a Catholic, I would take this issue up with the priest or instructor. It might be a very easy annulment, but I can’t make that judgment.
I don't think you need to "throw in the towel on love and marriage" at all. The thing to do is to talk to your parish priest and see what you need to do to petition for a decree of nullity.