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The FReeper Foxhole Remembers The Penobscot Expedition (1779) - Jul. 22nd, 2004
www.uswars.net ^

Posted on 07/22/2004 12:00:11 AM PDT by SAMWolf



Lord,

Keep our Troops forever in Your care

Give them victory over the enemy...

Grant them a safe and swift return...

Bless those who mourn the lost.
.

FReepers from the Foxhole join in prayer
for all those serving their country at this time.


...................................................................................... ...........................................

U.S. Military History, Current Events and Veterans Issues

Where Duty, Honor and Country
are acknowledged, affirmed and commemorated.

Our Mission:

The FReeper Foxhole is dedicated to Veterans of our Nation's military forces and to others who are affected in their relationships with Veterans.

In the FReeper Foxhole, Veterans or their family members should feel free to address their specific circumstances or whatever issues concern them in an atmosphere of peace, understanding, brotherhood and support.

The FReeper Foxhole hopes to share with it's readers an open forum where we can learn about and discuss military history, military news and other topics of concern or interest to our readers be they Veteran's, Current Duty or anyone interested in what we have to offer.

If the Foxhole makes someone appreciate, even a little, what others have sacrificed for us, then it has accomplished one of it's missions.

We hope the Foxhole in some small way helps us to remember and honor those who came before us.

To read previous Foxhole threads or
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click on the books below.

The Penobscot Expedition
July through August 1779;
Penobscot Bay, Maine


In June 1779, Royal Navy transports escorted by three sloops of war landed 700-800 soldiers and marines at Majabagaduce, a peninsula near the mouth of the Penobscot River. From this location, which was then in Massachusetts territory, the British intended to protect their possessions in eastern Canada from American incursions, raid the colonists' coastal shipping, and launch forays against New England cities and towns farther south. In addition, British commanders hoped to establish a colony of American loyalists.


Map of Penobscot Bay showing location of Fort George and the initial position of three supporting Royal Navy frigates. Source: Allen, A Naval History of the American Revolution.


Upon learning of the British incursion, the Massachusetts General Court, then in session in Boston, authorized an expedition to destroy the Penobscot base. The General Court also petitioned the Continental Congress for assistance from three Continental Navy warships anchored in Boston harbor. Congress agreed, and Commodore Dudley Saltonstall, commander of the squadron, was picked to lead the naval portion of the expedition.

Armed vessels from the Massachusetts and New Hampshire state navies joined Saltonstall's force, as did 12 privateers cajoled into state service for the expedition. Overall, the amphibious task force boasted 19 armed ships mounting 344 guns and 24 transports. The latter vessels carried a landing force of approximately 1,200 men under Brigadier General Solomon Lovell. The bulk of these troops were Massachusetts militia, joined by 300 Continental Marines. Ultimately, the Penobscot expedition turned into the largest American naval expedition of the Revolutionary War.

Saltonstall's orders directed him to completely eliminate the British presence in the Penobscot. To do so, his superiors emphasized, he would have to "preserve the greatest harmony with the commander of the land forces, that the navy and army may cooperate and assist each other." It was guidance that the commodore would discount, to the detriment of the entire mission.



After delays in loading the transports - caused in part by reluctance among the privateer captains to partake in such an unremunerative operation - the task force sailed from Boston on 19 July. It first proceeded to the area of modern Boothbay to pick up reinforcements that never materialized. Underway once again, the American warships entered Penobscot Bay on 25 July. By this time, British naval commanders had good intelligence of the American force's composition and destination, and were preparing to find and destroy it.

When the Saltonstall's expedition first arrived in Penobscot Bay, British forces had only partially completed a dirt fortification, named Fort George, on the heights of the Majabagaduce peninsula. However, the three Royal Navy sloops, each mounting 18 guns, remained anchored in the bay nearby. A small party of British troops also had established a minor fortification on Nautilus Island just to the south of Majabagaduce peninsula. Hence, British gunners on land and on board the warships were able to engage in a desultory two-hour duel with the American expeditionary task force as it entered the bay, which inflicted little or no damage on either side.

Initially, things went well for the revolutionary forces. On the 26th, Marines and militiamen, under covering fire from the American warships, took Nautilus Island and captured several British cannon. Two days later, a U.S. landing force stormed ashore on the southwest end of the Majabagaduce peninsula after two privateers had shelled the heavily wooded area above the landing beach. The initial echelon landed in three divisions, with approximately 200 militiamen on the left and in the center and 200 Continental Marines on the right. The Marines faced stiff resistance from several companies of British troops atop a steep bluff overlooking their landing point. Nevertheless, they cleared the bluff in less than 20 minutes, suffering 30-35 dead and wounded in the assault. Ensconced ashore, the American troops moved their artillery to a position only 600 feet from Fort George.



At this point, the American force began to move more cautiously, taking time to first build its own fortifications. Militia and marines next launched a night attack, conceived by Saltonstall, to seize a part of the British breastworks closest to the bay where the Royal Navy frigates had taken shelter. This would, the commodore believed, cut Fort George's garrison off from communication with their naval support, allowing the Americans to finish off each force individually. The assault on the breastworks succeeded initially, but the British men-of-war eventually opened fire on the position, causing the American forces to retreat to their own fortifications.

The results of the night-time action reinforced Brigadier General Lovell's reluctance to commit his mostly green troops to an attack on Fort George while they remained exposed to potentially heavy land- and sea-based cannon fire. He urged Commodore Saltonstall to attack the sloops, which his fleet outgunned, and thus remove that threat. Once this had been accomplished, the fleets guns could be used to suppress artillery fire from the fort during a subsequent American ground attack. Saltonstall, however, insisted that this course of action was too risky, continuing the pattern of ultra-cautious behavior that he had exhibited since the start of the operation.

In the ensuing days, Lovell and his militia commanders - and even some of Saltonstall's subordinates - pleaded with the commodore to attack the British sloops, but to no avail. Reports that a Royal Navy force had sailed from New York to relieve the Pensobscot defenders, and that Fort George was becoming stronger by the day, still could not persuade the timid commodore. The continuing impasse poisoned interservice relations between the land and sea forces, all the way down to the unit level.


Continental Marines storm the heights at Dice Head, Castine, Maine in August 1779. Courtesy US Naval Historical Museum.


Meanwhile Lovell and his men had been sending messages back to Boston on board fast ships - something the Commodore Saltonstall saw no need to do. The latter's superiors on the Navy Board of the Eastern District eventually supported Lovell's position and ordered Saltonstall to attack the British sloops and complete the operation before the Royal Navy relief force could arrive in his area. Reluctantly, Saltonstall made plans to take some sort of action on 13 August.

But by then it was too late. On the 13th, two American warships acting as pickets spotted a task force under the command of Sir George Collier approaching the bay. Collier's force consisted of six warships, including a 64-gun ship of the line and four frigates. Saltonstall's warships still outnumbered the British and carried more guns, but the armament on board the Royal Navy ships outranged that of the Americans and their gun crews were far superior to their American counterparts.

Nevertheless, Saltonstall still had the opportunity to engage the British, damage some of their ships, and perhaps allow part of his own force to escape. At first, that appeared to be what he might try to do, as the American forces formed a defensive crescent across the bay. However, as the British moved closer, Saltonstall and his captains concluded that they could not overcome the enemy force. The entire American fleet turned tail and fled up the Penobscot River. Most crews ran their ships aground and set them afire.


One part of Tory doctor John Calef's two part map of the retreat. Castine is in the lower left hand corner and the map is oriented with north pointing to the right. The American fleet's difficulty getting up river is clearly depicted. From the Journal of Dr. John Calef, in Eyewitness Accounts of the American Revolution, 1779 Reprint (New York:The New York Times and Arno press, 1971).


Lovell's men fared little better. At word of Collier's approach, they evacuated their positions and reembarked their transports. These vessels ultimately joined their warship counterparts on the banks of the Penobscot. What was left of the American expedition - soldiers and sailors - had to travel overland through the dense wilderness to make their way back to Boston. In all, the Americans lost 43 ships and approximately 500 men. Massachusetts, which incurred a heavy debt outfitting the expedition, also suffered a major financial blow.

The committee of inquiry looking into the Penobscot fiasco placed most of the blame on the "want of proper spirit and energy on the part of the commodore," and Saltonstall was subsequently discharged from the naval service. Fundamentally, the expedition's failure highlighted problems with ambiguous command arrangements during amphibious operations. It also underscored the difficulty of mounting a large, complex expeditionary operation with a cobbled-together, untrained, and mostly nonprofessional force. In addition, the palpable mistrust and lack of communications between the naval and ground commanders - and their respective subordinates - demonstrated the importance of building a sufficient level of confidence and mutual understanding between land and sea warriors before an amphibious operation commenced.



TOPICS: VetsCoR
KEYWORDS: americanrevolution; freeperfoxhole; maine; marines; paulrevere; penobscotexpedition; veterans
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THE PRICE OF INDECISION: THE PENOBSCOT EXPEDITION
by ALEX GROFF Eagle Scout Troop 412 Glen Burnie, Maryland


The Penobscot Expedition was the worst United States naval defeat until Pearl Harbor. Beginning as a forty-six1ship flotilla, the American forces entered Penobscot Bay strong and sure, but left either scuttled, burning or seized by British forces -- forces that began as three ships and a single manned fort. Two questions immediately arise from this debacle: how did it happen and how can we make sure it never happens again.



If nothing else, the presence of the sloop Providence gave a feeling of confidence to the expedition. Once under the command of John Paul Jones, Providence had won a number of victories for the United States -- then the united colonies -- and now it stood alongside the flagship, Warren, leading the task force to the Bagaduce Peninsula. When the American fleet started north in July of 1779, the British 74th Regiment Afoot under Brigadier Francis MacLean had been settled in Fort George for a little over a month. This was ample time to construct a battery at the southern tip of the peninsula, but not enough for anything more.

The first American advance came at five in the morning on July 28th, when the transport ships dropped off the first part of the six hundred soldier attack force at Dyce's Head, on the west side of the peninsula. The American forces quickly overcame British soldiers stationed outside the fort and found themselves at the clearing before the fort. Seeing the forces grouping together at the edge of the woods, MacLean reached for the white flag while calling feeble defense orders. Speaking later on the mission, MacLean said, "I was in no situation to defend myself; I only meant to give them one or two guns... and then have struck my colors...." Victory seemed in the hands of the Americans.



However, as American General Lovell arrived at the encampment and hour behind the attack, siege was the last thing on his mind. His plan was to "dig in" and organize, hoping to capture Fort George "soon."

"Soon", though, was not soon enough. As the Americans lost their momentum "digging in," the British worked hard to further fortify their position, strengthen walls and call in naval reinforcements. General Lovell and Commodore Saltonstall began to argue about a naval barrage versus a military siege, both taking on the infamous 'you first' attitude. On August 10th the two commanders finally agreed to a combined attack... but nothing happened. Lovell was prepared for a full assault, but Saltonstall wouldn't provide necessary reinforcements.


Destruction of the American Fleet at Penobscot Bay, 14 August 1779


Twenty days after the initial attack, Friday the 13th, Lovell finally led the second attack and succeeded on land, but it was too late. Already a new fleet of British ships were on their way and again Saltonstall called off the naval attack. A few ships, including the Providence, stood and fought, but most were destroyed by their crews to escape capture. Thirty-seven of the forty-six American ships were lost; 474 men were killed or captured. The entire American force in Penobscot was routed.

The true shame of the expedition, though, was not the loss of the fort -- which remained in British possession until after the war -- but the lesson that went unheeded: the need for more cooperation between military branches and less indecision disguised as patience. For as the Anzio campaign of World War II showed once again, indecision is surely paid for with lives.

1 posted on 07/22/2004 12:00:12 AM PDT by SAMWolf
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To: snippy_about_it; PhilDragoo; Johnny Gage; Victoria Delsoul; The Mayor; Darksheare; Valin; ...
A case for real poetic justice


I don't know whether or not it's because most Americans are woefully ignorant of history or if it's because most of us sat through history classes in which our country's founders were painted as glowing heroes with no warts or character flaws, but we have this tendency to expect our leaders to be superhuman.

Then we get very upset when we find out that they are as vulnerable as the rest of us.


Sir George Collier


One of my favorite characters in history is Paul Revere. Most of us know him for his midnight ride on the 18th of April in '75.

How much else do we know about him? He was a silversmith of great reputation in Boston. I have a locket that is a reproduction of one of his designs.

But how many of us realize that the same Paul Revere that school children are taught was the super patriot who warned the good people of Lexington and Concord that the British were coming was also court martialed.


Paul Revere


His problems began in what is now Castine, Maine. The British had begun to build a fort there. The patriots responded by sending an impressive array of naval ships and a scraped together army, which included Lt. Col. Paul Revere, who was in charge of the artillery.

The patriots got into a dispute and never attacked. The army believed that the fort could not be taken without the help of the navy, and the navy commanders refused to bring their ships in close enough to do any good. Sound familiar? By the time the order to attack came from Massachusetts, the British had had time to get in reinforcements.

The navy grounded itself, destroyed its ships and ran. The militia was left to get home the best way it could.

Paul Revere lost track of his men and refused to skuttle the ship assigned to him. Instead he tried to look for his men.

Gen. Peleg Wadsworth, the patriot's second in command, demanded that Revere divert the ship to another purpose.

Revere refused, saying that as the expedition had failed, he was no longer required to obey orders.



He was the obvious scapegoat when an investigation was launched and was censured for misconduct, although he was neither condemned nor acquitted. Hoping to restore his reputation, he demanded a full court martial. Three years later, a court martial was convened, and Revere was acquitted. It did him little good. He was not looked upon kindly by his fellows.

How did he become a hero? In 1861, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow wrote the poem, portraying Paul Revere as the idea patriot answering the nation's call. His purpose was to stimulate enlistment in the Union Army.

It was fitting that he should do so. Gen. Peleg Wadsworth, who had caused Revere all that trouble, was Longfellow's grandfather.

If that ain't "poetic" justice, please tell me what is.

Linda Brown (exerpted from "A Case For Real Poetic Justice")

Additional Sources:

www.americanrevolution.org
www.mainepbs.org
www.sar.org
www.kingstreenews.com
members.tripod.com/ penobscot1779
www.nmm.ac.uk
www.history.navy.mil
www.ruf.rice.edu
www.scuttlebuttsmallchow.com
www.nmm.ac.uk

2 posted on 07/22/2004 12:01:07 AM PDT by SAMWolf (Why do I always have too much month at the end of my money?)
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To: All
Americans Commanded by Gen's Lovell & Wadsworth
Forces Killed Wounded Captured
1,000 474* - -
*Killed, Wounded or Captured
British Commanded by Col. Francis MacLean
Forces Killed Wounded Captured
600 13* - -
*Killed or Wounded
Conclusion: British Victory


3 posted on 07/22/2004 12:01:47 AM PDT by SAMWolf (Why do I always have too much month at the end of my money?)
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To: All


Veterans for Constitution Restoration is a non-profit, non-partisan educational and grassroots activist organization. The primary area of concern to all VetsCoR members is that our national and local educational systems fall short in teaching students and all American citizens the history and underlying principles on which our Constitutional republic-based system of self-government was founded. VetsCoR members are also very concerned that the Federal government long ago over-stepped its limited authority as clearly specified in the United States Constitution, as well as the Founding Fathers' supporting letters, essays, and other public documents.





Actively seeking volunteers to provide this valuable service to Veterans and their families.


UPDATED THROUGH APRIL 2004




The FReeper Foxhole. America's History. America's Soul

Click on Hagar for
"The FReeper Foxhole Compiled List of Daily Threads"

4 posted on 07/22/2004 12:02:04 AM PDT by SAMWolf (Why do I always have too much month at the end of my money?)
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To: Diva Betsy Ross; Americanwolf; CarolinaScout; Tax-chick; Don W; Poundstone; Wumpus Hunter; ...



FALL IN to the FReeper Foxhole!



Good Thursday Morning Everyone



If you would like to be added to our ping list, let us know.

5 posted on 07/22/2004 12:04:11 AM PDT by snippy_about_it (Fall in --> The FReeper Foxhole. America's History. America's Soul.)
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To: snippy_about_it

Good night Snippy.


6 posted on 07/22/2004 12:06:50 AM PDT by SAMWolf (Why do I always have too much month at the end of my money?)
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To: SAMWolf

Good night Sam.


7 posted on 07/22/2004 12:08:41 AM PDT by snippy_about_it (Fall in --> The FReeper Foxhole. America's History. America's Soul.)
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To: SAMWolf; snippy_about_it; bentfeather; Darksheare; Johnny Gage; Light Speed; Samwise; ...
Good morning everyone!

To all our military men and women, past and present, and to our allies who stand with us,
THANK YOU!


8 posted on 07/22/2004 1:41:40 AM PDT by radu (May God watch over our troops and keep them safe)
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To: snippy_about_it
Good morning Snippy.


9 posted on 07/22/2004 1:50:54 AM PDT by Aeronaut (There never was a bad man that had ability for good service. -- Edmund Burke)
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To: snippy_about_it

Good morning, Snippy and everyone at the Freeper Foxhole.


10 posted on 07/22/2004 3:03:09 AM PDT by E.G.C.
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To: snippy_about_it; SAMWolf; All

July 22, 2004

No Sale

Read: Acts 8:9-25

Peter said to him,“Your money perish with you, because you thought that the gift of God could be purchased with money!” —Acts 8:20

Bible In One Year: Psalms 31-32; Acts 23:16-35


Police officers in St. Louis have had at least one easy arrest. It occurred at the back door of the police station when a drunk driver pulled his car right up to the booking window, thinking he was at Burger King. After attempting to place his order at what he thought was a drive-up window, the surprised driver was arrested by the booking officer and charged with drunk driving.

A man named Simon also got the surprise of his life. According to Acts 8, he was a former sorcerer in Samaria before becoming a follower of Christ. His surprise came when he walked up to the apostles and offered them money. He wanted them to give him the power to lay hands on people and impart to them the Holy Spirit. The apostle Peter emphatically refused, and accused him of being under the influence of something worse than alcohol.

Peter wasn’t overreacting. It’s dangerous to think that the power of the Holy Spirit is like a product that can be bought and sold. The Spirit’s work is a gift of God that is freely given on the basis of faith, and faith alone. He has given us His Spirit to accomplish His purposes, not ours. The Spirit cannot be bought or bargained for.

Thank You, Lord, for the gift of Your Spirit. —Mart De Haan

Holy Spirit, all divine,
Dwell within this heart of mine;
Cast down every idol throne,
Reign supreme and reign alone. —Reed

We don’t need more of the Spirit; the Spirit needs more of us.

11 posted on 07/22/2004 3:23:15 AM PDT by The Mayor (By one Manís obedience many will be made righteous.)
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To: snippy_about_it
GM, snippy!

free dixie,sw

12 posted on 07/22/2004 3:25:25 AM PDT by stand watie (Resistance to tyrants is obedience to God. -T. Jefferson)
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Comment #13 Removed by Moderator

To: Matthew Paul
that's a GOOD THING!

HUZZAH for the freedomLOVING Poles.

free dixie,sw

14 posted on 07/22/2004 4:13:09 AM PDT by stand watie (Resistance to tyrants is obedience to God. -T. Jefferson)
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To: stand watie; SAMWolf; snippy_about_it

Donald Bump for the Foxhole

Hoping that Duckie keeps getting better on you, sw

I just had time for a quick skim but the Penobscot Excpidition reminded me of the Anzio Landing in WWII.

Regards

alfa6 ;>}


15 posted on 07/22/2004 4:47:25 AM PDT by alfa6 (Mrs. Murphy's Postulate on Murphy's Law: Murphy Was an Optimist)
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To: alfa6
THANKS!

free dixie,sw

16 posted on 07/22/2004 4:48:16 AM PDT by stand watie (Resistance to tyrants is obedience to God. -T. Jefferson)
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To: snippy_about_it
Good morning


17 posted on 07/22/2004 5:04:16 AM PDT by GailA ( hanoi john, I'm for the death penalty for terrorist, before I impose a moratorium on it.)
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To: SAMWolf

On This Day In History


Birthdates which occurred on July 22:
1478 Philip I (the Handsome) 1st Habsburg king of Spain (1506)
1822 Gregor Mendel monk/geneticist, discoverer of the laws of heredity
1844 Rev William Archibald Spooner London, invented "spoonerisms"
1849 Emma Lazarus poet ("The New Colossus"-base of Statue of Liberty)
1784 Friedrich W Bessel, German astronomer (star parallax, Bessel Function)
1822 Hamilton Prioleau Bee, Brig General (Confederate Army) died in 1897
1822 John George Walker, Major General (Confederate Army), died in 1893
1834 Daniel McCook Jr, Brig General (Union volunteers), died in 1864
1887 Gustav Hertz German quantum physicist (Nobel 1925)
1888 Raymond Chandler Chic, mystery writer (The Long Goodbye)
1890 Rose Kennedy mom of JFK, RFK & Ted
1892 Arthur Seyss-Inquart Austrian chancellor (1930s)
1898 Alexander Calder sculptor (mobiles, stabiles)
1898 Stephen Vincent Benét US, writer (The Devil & Daniel Webster)
1908 Amy Vanderbilt authority on etiquette (Complete Book of Etiquette)
1921 William Roth (Sen-R-Del)
1923 Robert Dole (Sen-R-Ks Presidental candidate)
1924 Margaret Whiting Detroit, singer (Kreisler Bandstand, Strauss Family)
1928 Orson Bean actor/comedian (I've Got a Secret, To Tell the Truth)
1930 Yuri P Artyukhin cosmonaut (Soyuz 14)
1932 Oscar de la Renta Dom Rep, designer (Coty Hall of Fame-1973)
1939 Terence Stamp England, actor (The Collector, Alien Nations)
(Question, who was born on this day in 1940?)
Answer, Alex Trebek Sudbury Ontario, TV game host
1941 George Clinton rocker (Testify, Funkadelics)
1944 Estelle Bennett NYC, vocalist (Ronettes-Be My Baby)
1945 Bobby Sherman actor/singer (Seattle)
1947 Danny Glover, SF CA, actor (Lethal Weapon, Operation Dumbo Drop)
1947 Albert Brooks LA Calif, comedian (Broadcast News, Lost in America)
1947 Don Henley drummer (Eagles-Desparado)
1955 Willem Dafoe actor (Platoon, Roadhouse 66, Mississippi Burning)
1958 Sandra Elizabeth Greenberg Spokane Wash, playmate (June, 1987)
1965 Patrick Laborteaux LA Calif, actor (Albert-Little House on Prairie)
1978 Heather Noelle Jones, Miss Oregon Teen USA (1996)



Deaths which occurred on July 22:
1035 - Robert I, Duke of Normandy, dies
1461 Charles VII king of France (1422-61), dies at 58
1676 Clement X, [Emilio Altieri], Italian Pope (1670-76), dies at 86
1826 Giuseppe Piazzi, monk/mathematician (found 1st asteroid), dies at 80
1861 Barnard Elliot Bee, US Confederate brig-general, dies at 37
1864 James Birdseye Mcpherson, US Union gen-major, dies in battle at 35
1864 William Henry Talbot Walker, Confederate gen-mjr, dies in battle at 47
1934 John Dillinger shot dead at Biograph Theater in Chicago
1967 Carl Sandburg poet (Abraham Lincoln: The Prarie Years), dies at 89
1974 Wayne L Morse, (Sen-D-Oregon), dies at 73
1979 Tony "Two-Ton" Galento, boxer/actor (On the Waterfront), dies at 69
1992 Wayne McLaren, model (Marlboro Man), dies of lung cancer at 51


Reported: MISSING in ACTION
1966 WELLS ROBERT J.---PHILADELPHIA PA.
1972 PAIGE GORDON C.---LOS ALTOS CA.
[03/29/73 RELEASED BY DRV, ALIVE IN 98]

POW / MIA Data & Bios supplied by
the P.O.W. NETWORK. Skidmore, MO. USA.


On this day...
0260 St Dionysius begins his reign as Catholic Pope
1298 English defeat Scots at Battle of Falkirk
1306 King Phillip the Fair, orders expulsion of Jews out of France
1456 - Battle at Nandorfehervar (Belgrade): Hungarian army under Janos Hunyadi beats sultan Murad II
1515 Louis of Hungary (9) marries Maria of Bohemia and succession to Hungarian throne
1515 Congress of Vienna settles issues between Poland and Holy Roman Empire
1587 2nd English colony established on Roanoke Island off NC
1648 10,000 Jews of Polannoe murdered in Chmielnick massacre
1686 City of Albany, NY chartered

1775 George Washington takes command of the troops

1796 Cleveland, Ohio, founded by Gen Moses Cleaveland
1812 Duke of Wellington defeats French at Battle of Salamanca, Spain
1864 Battle of Atlanta-Hood attacks Sherman & suffers terrible losses
1893 Katharine Lee Bates writes "America the Beautiful," in Colorado
1898 Belgica crew see 1st sunrise in 1600 hrs-1st to endure Antarct winter
1908 W Lorenz discovers asteroid #665 Sabine
1916 A bomb went off during a Preparedness Day parade in SF killing 10
1917 Alexander Kerensky becomes Russian PM
1917 M Wolf discovers asteroids #879 Ricarda, #880 Herba & #881 Athene
1918 Lightning kills 504 sheep in Utah's Wasatch National Park
1923 Walter Johnson becomes the 1st to strikeout 3,000
1926 105ø F (41ø C), Waterbury, Connecticut (state record)
1926 108ø F (42ø C), Troy, New York (state record)
1930 G Neujmin discovers asteroid #1306 Scythia
1933 Caterina Jarboro sings "Aida," NYC-1st negro prima donna in US
1933 Wiley Post completes 1st round-the-world solo flight
1937 Irish premier Eamon de Valera wins elections
1937 Senate rejects FDR proposal to enlarge Supreme Court
1939 1st black woman judge (Jane Matilda Bolin-NYC)
1942 Gasoline rationing begins in US during WW II
1943 Allied forces captured Palermo, Sicily
1944 Soviets set up Polish Committee of National Liberation
1946 Menachen Begin's opposition group (Stern gang) surprise attack on King David hotel
1947 -8ø F (-13ø C), Charlotte Pass, NSW (Australian record)
1950 King Leopold, after 6 years in exile, returns to Belgium
1952 Polish constitution adopted (National Day)
1955 1st VP to preside over cabinet meeting-R Nixon
1955 Phillies longest win streak since 1892 hits 11
1960 Cuba nationalizes all US owned sugar factories
1962 1st US Venus probe, Mariner 1, fails at lift-off
1962 Chic White Sox Floyd Robinson goes 6 for 6 (all singles)
1963 Sonny Liston KOs Floyd Patterson to retain heavywieght championship
1963 The Beatles release "Introducing the Beatles"
1967 Jimi Hendrix quits as opening act of the Monkees' tour
1969 Aretha Franklin arrested for disturbing the peace in Detroit
1972 27.53 cm (10.84") of rainfall, Fort Ripley, Mn (state 24-hr record)
1972 Venera 8 makes soft landing on Venus
1975 House of Reps votes to restore citizenship to Gen Robert E Lee
1981 Turkish terrorist Mehmet Ali Agca sentenced in a Rome to life
1982 Biggest mass wedding, Rev Sun Myung Moon weds 2,200 couples in NYC
1983 -128ø F (-89ø C) recorded, Vostok, Antarctica (world record)
1983 Dick Smith makes 1st solo helicopter flight around the world
1983 Poland's PM Januzelski lifts martial law
1986 House of Reps impeaches Judge Harry E Claiborne on tax evasion
1987 US began escorting re-flagged Kuwaiti tankers in Persian Gulf
1988 500 US scientists pledge to boycott Pentagon germ-warfare research
1990 Greg Lemond of US wins bicycling's 3rd tour de France
1991 Jeffrey Dahmer confesses to killing 17 males in 1978
1994 A federal judge ordered The Citadel, to open its doors to women.
1999 China outlawed the Falun Gong, or Buddhist Law, and began detaining thousands of its members.


Holidays
Note: Some Holidays are only applicable on a given "day of the week"

Pakistan : Bank Holiday
Poland : Liberation Day (1944)
Swaziland : King's Birthday
Virgin Islands : Hurricane Supplication Day (Monday)
Summer Leisure Day
Ice Cream Month


Religious Observances
RC, Ang, Luth : Memorial of St Mary Magdalen, penitent


Religious History
1620 A small congregation of English Separatists, led by John Robinson, began their emigration to the New World. Today, this historic group of religious refugees has come tobe known as the 'Pilgrims.'
1836 Birth of Emily E. S. Elliott, Anglican missions supporter and hymnwriter. Nieceof Charlotte Elliott (who wrote the hymn 'Just As I Am'), Emily penned the words to the hymn'Thou Didst Leave Thy Throne.'
1847 The first large company of Mormon immigrants entered the Salt Lake Valley, in whatwas still Mexican territory. Soon after, Mormon leader Brigham Young founded Salt Lake City,Utah.
1865 Birth of Peter P. Bilhorn, sacred composer. He produced over 1,400 hymns in hislife, including 'I Will Sing the Wondrous Story' and 'Sweet Peace, The Gift of God's Love.'
1981 Turkish terrorist Mehmet Ali Agca, 23, was sentenced to life imprisonment for hisattempted assassination of Pope John Paul II in May of this year.

Source: William D. Blake. ALMANAC OF THE CHRISTIAN CHURCH. Minneapolis: Bethany House, 1987.


Thought for the day :
"The best way to cheer yourself is to try to cheer someone else up."


Things To Do If You Ever Became An Evil Overlord...
When you create a multimedia presentation of your plan designed so that your five-year-old advisor can easily understand the details, DO NOT label the disk "Project Overlord" and leave it lying on top of your desk.


PUNishment of the the day...
Herb gardeners who work extra get thyme and a half.


Dumb Laws...
Boston Massachusetts:
Duels to the death permitted on the common on Sundays provided that the Governor is present.


How To Annoy Osama bin Laden If You're Invited To A Dinner Party At His Secret Afghan Lair...
Leave business cards for the Israeli Mossad in his Rolodex.


18 posted on 07/22/2004 5:31:09 AM PDT by Valin (Everyone is entitled to their own opinion. It's just that yours is stupid.)
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To: snippy_about_it; bentfeather; Samwise
Good morning ladies. Flag-o-gram.


The American Soldier, 1862

With the outbreak of the Civil War in the United States, a number of ethnically-oriented militia groups responded to President Lincoln's call for volunteers to preserve the union. One such unit to volunteer was a predominantly German-American unit known as the Citizens Corps of Milwaukee. On 25 and 27 April 1861, the unit officers, William Lindwurm, Frederick Schumacher, and Werner Von Bachelle were commissioned captain, first lieutenant, and second lieutenant of the company, respectively. By 10 May 1861, the company was officially mustered into the evolving 6th Wisconsin Regiment as Company F, bringing the total of German-Americans in the Union Army to almost thirty-six thousand.

More here

19 posted on 07/22/2004 5:46:49 AM PDT by Professional Engineer (Why Indeed Not Destroy Our Work Stations)
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To: GailA

In my best Homer Simpson voice...ummmm Donuuts

I see cinnamon rolls, filled powdered ones and at least one glazed round....ummmm

In a previous life I ran a donut shop, hehehe

Between the donuts and The Mayor's coffee I should be good to go this AM.

Regards

alfa6 ;>}


20 posted on 07/22/2004 5:53:11 AM PDT by alfa6 (Mrs. Murphy's Postulate on Murphy's Law: Murphy Was an Optimist)
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To: SAMWolf

Interesting.
He went looking for his men instead.
That's dedication to one's troops.
Wonder if he found any of them.


21 posted on 07/22/2004 6:03:56 AM PDT by Darksheare (Show compassion, club a baby troll today!)
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To: radu

Good Morning Radu.


22 posted on 07/22/2004 6:18:35 AM PDT by SAMWolf (Why do I always have too much month at the end of my money?)
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To: Aeronaut

Morning Aeronaut.


23 posted on 07/22/2004 6:18:57 AM PDT by SAMWolf (Why do I always have too much month at the end of my money?)
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To: SAMWolf

Hi Sam.


24 posted on 07/22/2004 6:19:20 AM PDT by Aeronaut (There never was a bad man that had ability for good service. -- Edmund Burke)
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To: E.G.C.

Morning E.G.C. We're supposed to hit 100 this weekend. Looks like a good time to find an air conditioned theatre.


25 posted on 07/22/2004 6:19:41 AM PDT by SAMWolf (Why do I always have too much month at the end of my money?)
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To: The Mayor
It occurred at the back door of the police station when a drunk driver pulled his car right up to the booking window, thinking he was at Burger King.

LOL!

26 posted on 07/22/2004 6:20:41 AM PDT by SAMWolf (Why do I always have too much month at the end of my money?)
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To: stand watie

Morning stand watie. How are you and Sandra doing?

Free Dixie!


27 posted on 07/22/2004 6:21:25 AM PDT by SAMWolf (Why do I always have too much month at the end of my money?)
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To: Matthew Paul

Morning Matt.

That poll proves that Poland still has a backbone and isn't like france, Germany, Spain or the Philippines.

:-)


28 posted on 07/22/2004 6:22:51 AM PDT by SAMWolf (Why do I always have too much month at the end of my money?)
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To: alfa6

Morning alfa6.

Anzio or Gallipoli do come to mind don't they?


29 posted on 07/22/2004 6:24:43 AM PDT by SAMWolf (Why do I always have too much month at the end of my money?)
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To: GailA

Morning GailA.

Thanks for providing the donuts again this morning.


30 posted on 07/22/2004 6:25:20 AM PDT by SAMWolf (Why do I always have too much month at the end of my money?)
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To: Valin
1775 George Washington takes command of the troops

George Washington takes command of the continental army, c. 1775. From a drawing by Paul Hawthorne, 1941.

31 posted on 07/22/2004 6:31:26 AM PDT by SAMWolf (Why do I always have too much month at the end of my money?)
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To: SAMWolf; snippy_about_it; Professional Engineer; radu; PhilDragoo; Matthew Paul; Samwise; All

Good morning everyone!

32 posted on 07/22/2004 6:33:53 AM PDT by Soaring Feather
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To: Professional Engineer

Morning PE.

Nice painting. I sure wouldn't want to have been in that uphill assault.


33 posted on 07/22/2004 6:34:13 AM PDT by SAMWolf (Why do I always have too much month at the end of my money?)
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To: alfa6
In a previous life I ran a donut shop, hehehe

Dunkin or Winchell's. ;-)

34 posted on 07/22/2004 6:35:18 AM PDT by SAMWolf (Why do I always have too much month at the end of my money?)
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To: Darksheare

Morning Darksheare.


35 posted on 07/22/2004 6:37:09 AM PDT by SAMWolf (Why do I always have too much month at the end of my money?)
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To: bentfeather

Good Morning Feather.


36 posted on 07/22/2004 6:37:32 AM PDT by SAMWolf (Why do I always have too much month at the end of my money?)
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To: Professional Engineer

Good morning to you and Thank You for the neat Flag-o-gram.


37 posted on 07/22/2004 6:39:50 AM PDT by Soaring Feather
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To: SAMWolf

It seems to me that of all the founding fathers George Washington is yhe only one who's myth lines up with the reality. That's not to say these guys weren't great men, but John Adams who's favorite form of conversation was tha argument(He would of made a great Freeper, if he could keep from being banned), Ben Franklin who how shall I put this....liked the ladies A LOT, Jefferson, cold two faced, REALLY ambitious, Hamilton had...issues with his bastardy.

And thank God we had them!


38 posted on 07/22/2004 6:52:04 AM PDT by Valin (Everyone is entitled to their own opinion. It's just that yours is stupid.)
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To: alfa6

The Japanese wanted aircraft with superior manuervability and long range. The Japanese knew that range would be important in Pacific operations. They also believed that a VERY highly trained pilot corps with the warrior spirit would vanquish any enemy.

The Americans went in for a plane that might not be as manuevable and have the range but had armor and self-sealing fuel tanks to protect the highly trained pilot. The American aircraft typically had a heavier armament the the Japanese planes as well.

It could be said that the Japanese went for quality over quantity, while the Americans went for quantity over quality in pilots. Not a perfect analogy as the Americans after the training programs got up to speed produced a very competent pilot.

For a good discussion of what the training that the Japanese Navy put there pilots thru see,IIRC< Saburo Saki's book Zero Pilot. The pilot trainig in the IJN was nothing short of brutal as I recall.

have to call it a night I will check on the book title in the AM.


Regards

alfa6 ;>}


Thanks. Now I'm going to have to find this book. I just hope you can live with yourself!
I'm Valin and I'm a bookaholic.


39 posted on 07/22/2004 6:56:51 AM PDT by Valin (Everyone is entitled to their own opinion. It's just that yours is stupid.)
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Comment #40 Removed by Moderator

To: SAMWolf
When the American fleet started north in July of 1779, the British 74th Regiment Afoot (sic) under Brigadier Francis MacLean had been settled in Fort George for a little over a month.

Originally known as the Argylshire Highlanders, this regiment was raised in 1777 in Argylshire and Glasgow to fight in the Americas. Now part of the Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders. (Princess Louise's)


41 posted on 07/22/2004 7:34:01 AM PDT by CholeraJoe (Roger Ailes said it. I believe it. That settles it.)
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To: Valin

Yep, all the right people in the right place and the right time to create a new nation.


42 posted on 07/22/2004 8:37:41 AM PDT by SAMWolf (Why do I always have too much month at the end of my money?)
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To: Matthew Paul
"They say Poland will be flooded by blood. Ben Laden makes a mistake: It's impossible to frighten Poles" There were many terrorists in the past, who tried to frighten Poland: Ulrich von Jungingen - the Grand Master of the Teutonic Order, Charles X Gustaw - the King of Sweden, Adolf Hitler, Joseph Stalin, Leonid Brezhnev. Although they all posed the mortal threat to the nation and we paid a high price for putting up resistance, they all finally lost and Poland still stands and thrives.


43 posted on 07/22/2004 8:40:51 AM PDT by SAMWolf (Why do I always have too much month at the end of my money?)
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To: CholeraJoe
Morning CholeraJoe.

Thanks for the background on the 74th Regiment Afoot.

44 posted on 07/22/2004 8:42:06 AM PDT by SAMWolf (Why do I always have too much month at the end of my money?)
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To: SAMWolf

Morning.


45 posted on 07/22/2004 8:45:10 AM PDT by Darksheare (Show compassion, club a baby troll today!)
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To: SAMWolf

FINE.


46 posted on 07/22/2004 9:06:40 AM PDT by stand watie (Resistance to tyrants is obedience to God. -T. Jefferson)
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To: radu

Hey radu. Good to see you.


47 posted on 07/22/2004 9:09:44 AM PDT by snippy_about_it (Fall in --> The FReeper Foxhole. America's History. America's Soul.)
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To: Aeronaut

Hi Aeronaut.


48 posted on 07/22/2004 9:10:32 AM PDT by snippy_about_it (Fall in --> The FReeper Foxhole. America's History. America's Soul.)
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To: E.G.C.

Good morning EGC.


49 posted on 07/22/2004 9:10:48 AM PDT by snippy_about_it (Fall in --> The FReeper Foxhole. America's History. America's Soul.)
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To: The Mayor

Good morning Mayor.


50 posted on 07/22/2004 9:11:35 AM PDT by snippy_about_it (Fall in --> The FReeper Foxhole. America's History. America's Soul.)
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