Skip to comments.US Chemical and Biological Weapons Use In Vietnam
Posted on 12/13/2004 1:19:37 PM PST by Calpernia
US Chemical and Biological Weapons Use In Vietnam
Name: Afalon CLASS/LABEL [C/L]: HERB (CAUTION) CHEMICAL NAME [CN]: 50% N- (3,4 dichlorophenyl)-N-methoxy mentheusea. USED FOR [UF]: Selective weed control MANUFACTURER [MFG]: USED BETWEEN [UB]: 1967 Australian tests AMOUNT USED [AU]: Under 5 gals
Name: AGENT BLUE C/L: HERB (CAUTION) CN: Hydroxydimethylarsine Oxide (cacodylate acid) UF: Rice crop destruction and to kill grass and bamboo MFG: Ansul Company UB: 64-71 AU: 2,166,656 gals
Name: AGENT GREEN C/L: HERB (WARNING) CN: n-butyl ester of 2,4,5-T UF: Defoliation of jungle cover MFG: Bayer A G, Dow Chemical, Union Carbide UB: 62-64 AU: 8,2O8 gals
Name: Agent Orange C/L: HERBCIDE (Caution) CN: A 50/50 mixture of n-butyl ester of 2,4, -dichlorophenoxy acetic acid and 2,4,5, -Trichlorophenoxy Acetic acid UF: Defoliation of jungle cover MFG: Hercules Inc, Dow Chemical, Diamond Shamrock, TH Agriculture and Nutrition Co, Thompson Chemical Corp. Monsanto Co, Uniroyal Inc UB: 1964 and 4-70 ANT USED: 10,316,929 gals
Name: Agent Orange II C/L: Herb (Caution) CN: A 50/50 mixture of n-butyl esters of 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid and isocytl ester of 2,4,5-T UF: Defoliation of jungle cover MFG: Miller Chemical and Fertilizer, Union Carbide, Vertac, Dow Chemical, Diamond Shamrock, ICIANZ UB: 68-69 AU: 950,000 gals
Name: Agent Pink C/L: Herb (Caution) CN: 2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxy acetic acid UF: Defoliation of jungle cover MFG: Dow Chemical, Union Carbide UB: 62-64 AU: 122,800 gal
Name: Agent Purple C/L: Herb (Caution) CN: A 50/30/20 mixture of n-butyl ester of 2,4-D, n-butyl, N-butyl 2,4,5- T, and Iso-butyl 2,4,5-T UF: Forest defoliation UB: 1962-64 MFG: Union Carbide, Diamond Shamrock, Dow Chemical AU: 145,000 gal
Name: Agent White C/L: Herb (Caution) CN: a 20/80 mixture of Triisopropanolamine salts of Picloram and 2,4-D acid UF: Forest defoliation MFG: Dow Chemical, Union Carbide UB: 66-71 AU: 5,264,129 gal
Name: Agral C/L: Wetting agent (None) CN: Nonylophenolethylene oxide condensate UF: A wetting and spreading agent for herb's MFG: ICI Plant Protection Div UB: 67 AU: 12,500 gal
Name: Aldrin C/L: Insecticide (Warning) CN: 1,2,3,4,10,10-hexocholor-1, 4,4a, 5,8,8a, -hexahydroexo 1-4-endo-5, 8, -dimethanonaphthalene not less the 95% UF: primarily to control insects MFG: Shell Chemical UB: 72-73 AU: 15,400 pounds [lbs]
Name: Axodrin - 5 C/L: Insect (Danger, poison) CN: Dimethyl phosphate of 3-hydroxy-N-methyl-cis-croto-namide, or 0,0- dimethyl-0- (2 methylcarbamoyl-1-methyl-vinyl) phosphate, or Phosphoric acid, dimethyl 1-methyl-E- (methylamino)-3-oxo-1-propenyl ester UF: USAID farm program insecticide used on potatoes, cotton, rice, a very stable toxic material UF: control of flies, bollworms, and aphids MFG: Crystal Chemical Inter-America UB: 72-73 AU: 213,850 lbs
Name: Danex C/L: Herb (Caution) CN: 20% solution of 2-methoxy 3-6-dichlorobenzoic acid UF: Nonselective grass and weed killer MFG: ICIANZ UB: 67 Australian test AU: under 5 gal
Name: BHC C/L: Insect (Warning) CN: 1,2,3,4,5,6-Hexahlorcyclohexane; AKA benzene hexachloride UF: Control of pests in cereals and sugar beets. Production or use of BHC is prohibited in the US by the EPA MFG: Hooker Chemical; Woolfolk Chemical UB: 72-73 AU: 275,575 lbs
Name: Bidran C/L: Insect (Danger/Poison) CN: Phosphoric acid, di-methyl 1-methyl-n, n- (dimethyl-amion)-3-oxo-1 propenyl ester, (E)-isomer- (9CI); or dimethyl phosphate of 3-hydroxy-N-N- dimethyl-cis-crotonamide; or 2-dimethyl cis-2 dimethyl-carbamol-1 -methylvinyl phosphate UF: USAID farm program insecticide used for the control of pests on cotton and control of ticks MFG: Shell Chemical UB: 72-73 AU: 84,800 lbs
Name: Binoctal C/L: Medication (Prescription) CN: A headache medication containing 50 meg of Amytal (trade name for Amobarbital, a sedative and hypnotic) and 70mg of Seconal (trade name for Secobarbital, a short acting barbitrate) UF: A French headache medicine, available without prescription in Vietnam: when abused, it led to persistent neurological disorders, sudden aggression, personality changes, and disorientation MFG: A French product UB: 62 and 75 AU: unk
Name: Borate Chlorate C/L: Herb (Warning/Danger) CN: Sodium tetraborate dechydrate and Na Cl O2 UF: A non-selective herb and soil sterilant MFG: Kerr-McGee Chem Corp (Australian) UB: 67 AU: 4,500 lbs (estimated)
Name: Bromacil C/L: Herb (Caution/Warning) CN: 5-Bromo-3-sec-butyl-6-methyuracil UF: weed and brush killer MFG: Hopkins Agriculture UB: 68-69 AU: 16,500 lbs
Name: Butoxone 80 C/L: Herb (Caution) CN: 80% butyl ester of 2,3,5-trichlorophenoxy acetic acid UF: Defoliant MFG: ICIANZ UB: 67 Australian tests AU: 44,100 lbs Name: Cacodylic Acid (Phytar 138) C/L: Herb (Caution) CN: Hydroxydimethylarsine oxide or dimethylarsenic acid UF: grass, bamboo, and rice crop destruction MFG: Ansul Co UB: 62-64 AU: 10,000 lbs
Name: Carbaryl (Selvin) C/L: Insect (Caution/Poison) CN: 1-Naphthyl N-methylcarbamate UF: control of insect pests on field crops, trees, poultry and pets MFG: Union Carbide Agriculture Products Co, Inc UB: 72-73 AU: 72,750 lbs
Name: Chlorfurazole 8 C/L: Herb (Caution) CN: 20% sodium salt of 4,5-dichloro-2-trifluro-methyl benzimidazole UF: Herb MFG: Fisons UB: 67 Australian tests AU: under 50 gals
Name: Chlordane C/L: Insect (Warning) CN: 1,2,4,5,6,7,8,8-Octachlor-2, 3a, 4,7,7a-hexahydro-4, 6-methanoindane UF: sprayed for cockroach, termite, tick, and flea control, Banned by the EPA in 75 for all domestic use MFG: PPG Industries UB: 62-72 AU: 50,000 gals
Name: Creosote (Coal Tar) C/L: Wood preservative (Caution) Chem Properties: Relatively insoluble in H2O UF: wood preservative possessing a high toxicity to wood destroying organisms and a low rate of evaporation MFG: Crowley Tar Products Co; Koopers Co Inc Organic Materials; Los Angeles Chemical Co UB: 62-71 AU: Unk
Name: 2,4, D Acid C/L: Herb (Warning) CN: 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid UF: Defoliant; also used in Agents Orange, White, Purple, and as a separate defoliant MFG: Miller Chem and Fertilizer; Union Carbide; Vertac; Dow Chem; Diamond Shamrock UB: 72-73 AU: 815,000 lbs
Name: 2,4-D Ester C/L: Herb (Warning) CN: A compound formed by the union of an organic acid and an organic base (an alcohol). An example is 2,4-D and iso-ocytyl alcohol to form the iso-octyl ester of 2,4-D UF: Defoliation of forest canopy MFG: Miller Chem and Fertilizer; Union Carbide; Vertac; Dow Chem; Diamond Shamrock; ICIANZ UB: 62-70 in AO mixes; 72-73 as a separate herb; 67 Australian tests AU: 224,870 lbs (72-73)
Name: DDT C/L: Insect (Caution) CN: Dichloro, Diphenyl, Trichloroethane UF: Dusted to control rat fleas in quarters MFG: Montrose Chemical; Diamond Shamrock UB: 72-73 AU: 2,253,100 lbs
Name: DDVP C/L: Insect (Danger/Poison) CN: 2,2-Dichlorovinyl dimethyl phosphate UF: Dusted to control rat fleas in quarters and pests in stored grain MFG: Hopkins Agriculture UB: 72-73 AU: 674,600 lbs
Name: Dalapon C/L: Herb (Caution) CN: 2,2-Dichlorpropionic acid UF: effective against annual grasses and brushes MFG: Dow Chem; Crystal Chem; Bayer UB: 72-73; 67 Australian tests AU: 121,250 lbs
Name: Dapsone C/L: Medication CN: 4-4' Diraminodiphenylsufone UF: An experimental anti-malaria drug used in combat areas in 67-69. Dapsone is the drug of choice for treatment of Hansen's disease (Leprosy) MFG: UB: 67-69 AU: Unk
Name: DEET C/L: Insect Repellant (Caution) CN: N, N-Diethyl-m-Toluamide UF: Insect repellant, personal and clothing MFG: Chemical Formulators; Hercules UB: 62-73 AU: Unk
Name: Del Defoliant 21 C/L: Herb CN: UF: A defoliant preparation intended for causing leaves to drop from crop plants such as cotton, soybeans or tomatoes, usually to facilitate harvest. Used as a fire base defoliant MFG: Australian UB: 67-69 AU: over 44,100 lbs
Name: Diazinon C/L: Insect (Caution) CN: O, O-Diethyl O (2-isopropyl-4-methyl-6-pyrimidinyl) phosphorothiote UF: Principality used for control of soil insects, also in rice pesticide control MFG: Ciba-Geigy Corp Agricultural Div UB: 72-73 AU: 1,016,320 lbs
Name: Dibrom C/L: Insect (Danger) CN: 1,2-Dibromo-2, 2-Dichloroethyl dimethyl phosphate UF: Araricide insect used on numerous crops, flies, and in food processing plants MFG: Chevron Chem Co; Ortho Agricultural UB: 72-73 AU: 520,285
Name: Dieldrin C/L: Insect (Warning) CN: Hexachloro-epoxy-octahydroendo, exo-dimethanonaphthalene (principal constituent, known as HEOD), with not over 15% related compounds UF: Insect control around quarters MFG: Shell International UB: 64-71 AU: 11,025 lbs
Name: Diquat C/L: Herb (Warning) CN: 1,1'-2-2'-Bipyridylium ion: or 6, 7-dihydrodipyridol (1,2-a: 2,'1'-c) pyrazdiiumion present in formulation as the dibromide monohydrate salt UF: Defoliant - aquatic weed control MFG: ICI Plant Protection Div UB: 67-70; 67 Australian tests AU: 40,000 lbs
Name: Diuron C/L: Herb (Caution) CN: 3-(3-4-Dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea UF: selective broadleaf herb and soil sterilant MFG: Hopkins Agriculture UB: 64 AU: under 5 gals
Name: EPN C/L: Insect (Danger) CN: O-Ethyl O (4-nitrophenyl) phenylohoshonolhioate on ethyl p-nitrophenyl theonobenzenephosphonate UF: insect control such as rice stem borer and boll weevil MFG: EI DuPont de Nemours and Co Inc UB: 72-73 AU: 26,450 lbs
Name: Endrin C/L: Insect (Danger) CN: Hexachloroepoxyactahydro-endo, endodimethanona-phthalene (principal constituent) UF: Insect control on cotton and small grains MFG: Velsicol Chem Corp UB: 72-73 AU: 451,940 lbs
Name: Furadan C/L: Insect (Warning/Danger) CN: 2,3-Dihydro-2, 2-dimethyl-7-benzofuranyl methylcarbamate UF: insect control in living quarters MFG: Pillar International; FMC agricultural Chem Group UB: 73 AU: 103,620 lbs
Name: Gardona C/L: Insect (Caution) CN: (Z) isomer of the compound 2-chloro-1- (2,4,5 trichloropheny) vinyl dimethyl phosphate UF: major pests on cotton, corn, and stored grain MFG: Shell International Chem Co UB: 72-73 AU: 26,450 lbs
Name: Lindane C/L: Insect (Warning) CN: Gamma isomer of 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexachlorocy-clohexane UF: a powder used in living quarters for roaches and around rat burrows for fleas MFG: Celamerck Gmbh and Co KG UB: 72-73 AU: 46,300 lbs
Name: Malathion C/L: Insect (Caution) CN: O, O-dimethyl phosphorodithoate of diethylmercapto succinate or diethylmercaptosuccinate, S-ester with O, O-dimethyl phosphorodithioate UF: roach and pest control in living quarters MFG: American Cyanamid Co UB: 72-73 AU: 1,380,080 lbs
Name: Maneb C/L: Fungicide (Caution) CN: Manganese ethylenebisdithiocarbamate UF: Blight on tomatoes and potatoes MFG: Crystal Chem Inter-American; Cumberland International Co UB: 72-73 AU: 485,000 lbs
Name: Methyl Parathion C/L: Insect (Danger) CN: O, O-dimethyl-O-p-nitrophenyl phosphorothioate UF: broad use insect control MFG: Kerr McGee Chem UB: 72-73 AU: 343,920 lbs
Name: Mirex C/L: Insect (Warning) CN: Dodecachlorooctahydro-1, 3,4-metheno-2 N-cyclobuta (cd) pentalene UF: General purpose insect MFG: Allied Chem Corp UB: AU:
Name: Nonuron C/L: Herb (Caution) CN: 3-(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea UF: Soil Sterilant MFG: Hopkins Agricultural chem. Co UB: AU:
Name: Paraquat C/L: Herb (Danger/Poison) CN: 1,1-dimethyl-4-4'-bipyridinium ion; present as the dichloride salt (ICI/Chevron) or dimethyl sulfate salt UF: Contract herb and desiccant (Extremely toxic) MFG: Ortho UB: 67 AU: 330 lbs
Name: Phosphamidon C/L: Insect (Poison) CN: O, O-dimethyl O- (2-chloro-2-diethylcarbamoyl-1-methyl-vinyl) phosphate UF: Insect control in quarters, stores, etc MFG: Chevron Chem Co; Ortho Agricultural Chems Div UB: 72-73 AU: 41,900 lbs
Name: Phosvel C/L: Insect (Warning) CN: O- (4-Bromo-2, 5-dichlorophenyl) O-methylphenylphosphonothioate UF: Insect control in grain storage and warehouses MFG: Velsicol Chem Corp UB: 72-73 AU: 41,900 lbs Name: Picloram C/L: Herb (Caution/Warning) CN: 4-amino-3, 5,6-trichloropicolinic acid UF: Herb against a wide variety of deep rooted herbaceous weeds and woody plants, also used in Agent White MFG: Dow Chem Co UB: 66-71 AU: 5,274,129 gals (2,650 lbs in 68)
Name: Polybor Chlorate C/L: Herb (Caution) CN: 73% di-sodium octaborate tetrahydrate and 25% sodium chlorate UF: Non-selective weed and grass killer MFG: US Borax UB: 66-67 AU: 68,500 lbs
Name: Primatol A C/L: Herb (Caution) CN: 2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6 isopropye-amino-1: 3:5-trazine UF: Selective herb MFG: Geigy UB: 67 Australian tests AU: under 5 gals
Name: Pyrethrins C/L: Insect (Caution) CN: a botanical insect with active principles of pyrethrins, cinerins, and jasmolins I and II UF: Stock, sprays, pet sprays, and food warehouses MFG: Fairfield American Corp, McLaughlin Gormley King Co; Prentiss Drug and Chem Co UB: AU:
Name: Tandex C/L: Herb (Caution) CN: m- (3,3-dimethylureido) phenyl-tert-butylcarbamate UF: Broad spectrum defoliant for weeds and brush MFG: FMC Corp UB: AU:
Name: Trinoxol C/L: Herb (Caution) CN: 2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxy acetic acid, and 49% butoxy ethanol ester of 2,4,5-T UF: Selective herb for brush control MFG: Union Carbide UB: AU:
Name: Urox 22 C/L: Herb (Caution/Warning) CN: 3-(p-chlorophenyl)-1-1dimethylureatrichloroacetate UF: soil sterilant - long lasting MFG: Hopkins Agricultural Chem Co UB: AU:
Name: Weedazole C/L: Herb (Caution) CN: 3-Amino-1, 2,4-traizole UF: control of annual grasses and broadleaf leaves MFG: Geigy UB: 67 Australian tests AU: under 5 gals
Name: Zinc Phosphide C/L: Rodenticide (Danger/Warning) CN: Zn3 P2 UF: Mice, rat, rodent control MFG: Hopkins; Bell Laboratories Inc UB: 72-73 AU: 99,200
Name: Zineb C/L: Fungicide (Caution) CN: Zinc ethylenebisdithiocarbamate UF: control of mites on citrus MFG: Bayer AG; Farmoplant SPA; FMC Corp Agricultural Chem Group UB: 72-73 AU: 257,940 lbs
General Interest FYI ping
Generally the term chemical weapons or bio weapons are just applied to "human-cides" not those that kill our friends the monochots and dichots. ;-)
The chemicals listed here are mostly "herbi-cides" and defoliants.
Ingested over a long time or in large quantities they are undoubtedly harmful.
I would not call these "chemical weapons used in Viet Nam". I did not see any blister, nerve, or bio-toxin agents on the list.
Let's not resort to hyperbole.
By the way -- a list of chemicals commonly found in French households would be just as scary. Probably even worse if you looked in the maids' closet in one of JF Kerry's mansions.
Not my words. I was just passing info on from Vietnam Vets.
Tonk, I don't understand half the stuff my Vet friends forward. You see I try to look up everything I don't know.
Apparently this list was pertinent information due to the latest probe disparity in reference to the benefits entitled to the Veterans.
I can't speak on any of this. I posted it in assumption that you guys would know what you need from it.
I can ask the mod to take it down.
Leave it up.
It's important info.
No question about their toxicity in the human physiology. No intent to diminsh that concern. Viet Nan vets were were repeatedly exposed to this crap. Not good for anyone.
It's just that the headline implies something other than exposure to herbicides, wetting agents, preservatives, solvents and defoliants. ( all bad I agree)
Proper application of these chemicals benefits all of us, protecting food supplies and stores from insects and fungi, protecting our hides from blood sucking, disease carrying critters and protecting our arable land from noxious weeds.
I don't condone the aerial spraying of defoliants in VN but only on the point of poor coordination with troop movement or location. Defoliants were used not to "burn" off leaves of trees but to cause them to abcise and fall, denying the enemy cover. This too worked to our benefit.
The only chem agent I know of that was used in VN was Phosgene (tear gas). Other stuff used in munitions was "willie peter" and napalm. Both nasty stuff.
Should I have the Admin Mod change the Title? What title do you think it should have?
Note that the article provided numbers for the amounts of gallons/pounds used in VN. Nothing said of how it was used, over what time period, over what area (size of area). E.g. I have a pest problem and need to spray 10 acres of crops to control it. I'll apply a pesticide diluted in 100 gal of water/acre or 1000 gallons of finished solution for the 10 acres. The recommended rate is 1 pound of pesticide/100 gal H2O/acre. Each pound of pesticide contains 10% active ingredient. I need 10 pounds of pesticide, 1000 gallons of water and good weather to apply it on 10 acres. I'll have to follow up this procedure in 7-10 days for control. I buy concentrate, dilute and mix to do this cause I sure as hell am not going to buy a container load of Raid to do it.
BTW, the stuff breaks down in 12-24 hours after application.
Do more math and your into ppm; good exercise.
All the stuff on the list are commonly used pesticides, fungicides and herbicides (though some have been discontinued)>
I don't understand any of that. I didn't write this nor did I title it.
I just know this went out to the vets in reference to monies due to them in befenits from disabilities that were caused by this stuff.
I will email Terry and ask him. But it may be titled what it is because this 'stuff' falls under the category for Vet Benefits????
As per the stated concerns on this forum and in private freep mail as to the title and intention of this post, I emailed the questions about the classification of these listed items as Chemical and Biological Weapons.
This is the response I received:
"Yes dear...pretty much the same thing....weapons that destroy not only trees, bushes, etc., to deny cover and concealment, but also to destroy food stocks is a weapon. Most of these things demonstrably also hurt people if you drop it on them or they ingest or breathe them. True, most of them don't act too fast as a weapon in the sense that nerve gas, mustard gas etc., do-but still do lots of damage-and long term damage-not just to the ones exposed-but also affects their families and causes birth defects/cancers, etc., for their offspring......."
Fair enough. But you damage your cause by calling these [harmful] chemicals 'bio-weapons or chemical weapons'. Sticking to the real issue keeps the discussion on the correct track -- helping the vets harmed by their exposure.
Back then we used leaded gasoline -- put that on the list too.
>>>>But you damage your cause by calling these [harmful] chemicals 'bio-weapons or chemical weapons'.
My cause? What is MY CAUSE? I only copied and pasted an email that the Vets wanted out here to VetsCorner. I didn't write it. I stated that in my response to you.
I am not a Vet. I am not MIL. I do research for a chapter.
Jim, please review this post. I only intended to share info. But from the posts and my mail, this seems to be a problem.
Please remove it if you see it is an issue.
These chemicals have been linked to the increased incidence of diabetes in Vietnam vets, I am one who is affected. As a helicoter pilot I flew several missions dispersing this stuff. Any Vietnam Vets who have diabetes should contact the VA to see what can be done for them. I haven't done that myself yet but will soon, as I was just diagnosed not too long ago.
Calpernia -- I fear you infer what I did not mean to imply. Your post is fine. The information from the email is useful and accurate.
My only issue was the headline.
We only seek the truth without hyperbole. ;-)