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The Freepr Foxhole Profiles Clarence "Kelly" Johnson March 10, 2006
See Educational Sources

Posted on 03/09/2006 7:15:31 PM PST by alfa6



Lord,

Keep our Troops forever in Your care

Give them victory over the enemy...

Grant them a safe and swift return...

Bless those who mourn the lost.
.

FReepers from the Foxhole join in prayer
for all those serving their country at this time.



...................................................................................... ...........................................

U.S. Military History, Current Events and Veterans Issues

Where Duty, Honor and Country
are acknowledged, affirmed and commemorated.

Our Mission:

The FReeper Foxhole is dedicated to Veterans of our Nation's military forces and to others who are affected in their relationships with Veterans.

In the FReeper Foxhole, Veterans or their family members should feel free to address their specific circumstances or whatever issues concern them in an atmosphere of peace, understanding, brotherhood and support.

The FReeper Foxhole hopes to share with it's readers an open forum where we can learn about and discuss military history, military news and other topics of concern or interest to our readers be they Veteran's, Current Duty or anyone interested in what we have to offer.

If the Foxhole makes someone appreciate, even a little, what others have sacrificed for us, then it has accomplished one of it's missions.

We hope the Foxhole in some small way helps us to remember and honor those who came before us.

To read previous Foxhole threads or
to add the Foxhole to your sidebar,
click on the books below.

Clarence "Kelly" Johnson




"Be Quick, Be Quiet, And Be On Time"




I knew I wanted to design airplanes when I was 12 years old" says Johnson. "I read every Tom Swift novel I could get my hands on. I read "Tom Swift and his Airplane"; "Tom Swift and his Electric Car" ; "Tom Swift and his Submarine" and I said that's for me."

A native of Michigan, Johnson was born in the remote mining town of Ishpeming on November 27, 1910 to immigrant Swedish parents. Kelly was born seven years after the Wright Brothers made their first successful flight.

While attending grade school, Kelly was chided by some classmates for his name; Clarence. The other boys started calling me "Clara". One morning while waiting in line to get into a classroom, one boy named Cecil started with the normal routine of calling me "Clara". Kelly tripped the boy so hard it broke his leg. The boys then decided that I wasn't a "Clara" and looking for a new nickname started calling me "Kelly". The nickname came from the popular song at the time.."Kelly With the Green Neck Tie". From that time forward it would always be "Kelly Johnson".

After making his decision at the age of 12 to design aircraft, he went ahead to design his first airplane. Kelly called his first design "The Merlin 1, Battle Plane". Several weeks later he saw his first airplane; a World War I Jenny. His decision was confirmed.

He later moved to Flint where his father had a construction business. Kelly graduated from Flint High School, working summers with his father and in the motor test section of the Buick Motor Car Company. By graduation he had saved up $300. He tried to give it to an Instructor at the Flint Airport in exchange for flying lessons, but the Instructor shook his head and probably changed the entire course of Kelly's life. "I've always had the greatest respect for that man," Kelly said later. "He needed that money more than anything else in the world. But instead of taking it, he said, "Look kid..save that money and go to school."

Kelly graduated from Flint Junior College and completed his education at the University of Michigan, where he received His Bachelor of Science Degree in 1932. Kelly Johnson worked his way through school by picking up scholarships, washing dishes and helping a professor; Edward Stalker, as a Teaching Assistant. He went on to received his Master of Science Degree in Aeronautical Engineering in 1933. During this period he picked up small teaching fellowships and augmenting his income by renting the University's wind tunnel to run tests as a consultant on models of Indianapolis racing cars, trains and aircraft. "I made more more money that year than any of the first 10 years I worked for Lockheed." Kelly grins.

After graduating froom the University of Michigan in 1932 Kelly Johnson wenr out West to look for work in the aircraft industry. No work was to be found. Ther only encouragement Kelly recieved was from the Lockheed Company which had just come out of bankruptcy. No jobs were available at the time but engineering executive Richard von Hake suggested to Kelly. "Why don't you go back to school and come out again next year? I think we'll have something for you."

So back to the U of Michigan for a year to get a Masters in Aeronautical Engineering. Kelly's tuition was paid in part by a $500 fellowship grant and lots of hours at the wind tunnel. Among the projects that Kelly helped with in the wind tunnel was a model of the Lockheed Electra. The aircraft had some stability problems but the university professors and Lockheed execs thought that they were. Kelly Johnson thought otherwise.



He left college in 1933 with a master's of science degree, a used car, and plans to return to Lockheed and the promised job in California. Lockheed executive Cyril Chappellet and Chief Engineer Hall Hibbard hired the young Johnson as an $83 a month tool designer until there was an opening in engineering.

Kelly Johnson was asked his opinion of the Electra, the plane that the newly reorganized Lockheed Compamy was banking it's future on. Kelly never one to hide his light replied,"Practically the first thing I told Chappellet and Hibbard was that their plane was unstable and that I did not agree with the university's wind-tunnel report."

Back to Michigan U went Kelly Johnson to see if he could do better. It took 72 wind tunnel test but Kelly was able to improve the Electra. The result was the classic twin tail of the Electra line. Also in the design of the Electra was the introduction of "Fowler Flaps that enhanced low speed stability and braking and helped to improve the aircrafts speed in flight.

The design of the Fowler Flap earned Kelly Johnson the first of over fifty awards that he would gather over his carrer.In 1937 at the age of 27 Kelly Johnson was awarded by the Institute of Aeronautical Sciences the Lawrence Sperry Award for "important improvements of aeronautical design of high speed commercial aircraft". The Sperry award was given annually "for outstanding achievements in aeronautics by young men."



Also in 1937 Lockheed won the a design contract that would lead to the P-38 Lightning. It was Kelly Johnson's work in the wind tunnel that helped to solve the problems of compressibilty that threatened to end the Lighting program. Lockheed went on to build almost 10,000 P-38s whixh fought in all theaters of the war amd was flown by the two top aces of the United States.

In 1938 with Hitler threatning war in Europe the British sent a purchasing commission to the United States to lookk for aircraft to help re-arm England. Among the planes the comission was looking for was a coastal patrol bomber/antisubmarine aircraft. With only commercial aircraft in production Lockheed was not on the original schedule for the British comission. A change of plans however led the British to Lockheed with only five days notice to Lockheed.

With only five days to come up with something to present to the British Purchasing Commission Lockheed engineers and shop personell, using the Electra Model 14 as a starting point produced a full scale wooden mockup of a medium reconnaissance bomber. The British were so impressed by the enthusiasm of the Lockheed employees and their mockup that Lockheed was invited to send a group of people to England to confere with the Air Ministry on the proposed bomber. Of course Kelly Johnson was a member of this team.

At the meeting with the Air Ministry in England new specifications were requested that would require a major redesign of the proposed bomber. Working for three straight days over a holiday weekend, taking the occasional catnap Johnson redesigned the proposed bomber to meet the new specifications.

The British were astounded that the plane could be redesigned in such a short time, especially by such a young engineer. After a week of additional discussions the British called Courtland Goss of to the side to inquire as to wether or not Lockheed would stand behind their young engineer. Courtalnd Goss recalled the conversation thusly...

"Mr. Goss, we like your proposal very much, and we very much would like to deal with Lockheed. On the other hand, you must understand that we're very unused in this country to dealing--especially on transactions of such magnitude--on the technical say-so of a man as young as Mr. Johnson. And, therefore, I'll have to have your assurance . . . that if we do go forward, the aircraft resulting from the purchase will in every way live up to Mr. Johnson's specifications."

Of course Goss assured the British that Lockheed had every confidence in the capabilities of Kelly Johnson and that the Air Ministry would not be dissapointed with the new aircraft. On June 28, 1938 the British Air Ministry signed a contract worth $25,000,000 dollars for 200 of the proposed bomber plus as many more that could be built and delivered by December of 1939 up to a total of 250 aircraft. At the time it was the largest single order for aircraft that an American aircraft company hed seen. The proposed new bomber was the Hudson, the progenitor of the Venura and Harpoon that came later in WW-II.



In 1943 the "Skunk Works" was born. Lockheed had a contract with the Army Air Forces to develop a jet fighter built around British DeHavilland jet engine in only 180 days. The rush was in response to repoert that the Germans were flying a jet aircraft. Kelly Johnson with the approval of Lockheed President Robert E. Goss, Johnson formed a team of 23 engineers and 103 shop personnel that were mostly pirated from other projects. The team worked in a small assembly shed at the Lockheed plant in Burbank. Some reports indicat that an old circus tent was used owing to the lack of available secure space due to the need of wartime production demands.

In a 143 days, 37 days less than the contracted amount the P-80 Shooting Star made it first flight on January 8th, 1944. The Advanced Development Projects team had it's first succes. The nickname "Skunk Works" came from the Al Capp comic strip "L'il Abner" where the denizens of Dogpatch would throw in skunks, old shoes and who knew what else to make that fearsome brew "Kickapoo Joy Joice". The folks at Lockheed started to refer to the building where Kelly Johnson's crew was working as "The Skunk Works" because who knew what they where building.



Just a few of the military aircraft to come out of the Skunk Works ere the T-33 trainer variant of the F-80. The T-33 probanly traiined more pilots to fly jets than any other aircraft. The F-104 Starfighter, the "missle with a man in it" of the late 1950's. The P2V Neptune naval patrol bomber. It was a P2V, the Truculent Turtle, that etablished a non-stop distance record from Perth, Australia to Columbus,Ohio in 1946 of 11,235 miles.

Another Lockheed aircraft to benefit from Kelly Johnson's work was the Constellation. The Constellation was a civil airliner that was taken over by the military when WW-II broke out. After the war in became one of the premier piston engined airliners before the advent of the jet airliner. It also was used by the United States military in various forms as well.



It was the 1950s that saw the development what could arguably be two greatest designs of the Skunk Works, Driven by a need to conduct overflight reconnaissance of the Soviet Union in order to collect data on the Soviet military and misasle work the U.S. goverment turned to Kelly Johnson and the Advanced Development Project team. In 1955 the Skunk Works rolled out the long winged U-2. The U-2 could fly at over 70,000ft with a range of 4,000 miles. The U-2 was also a money saver. Johnson's team returned $2,000,000 of the $20,000,000 contract. Lockheed also built 26 of the U-2 aircraft instead of the 20 airctaft that was in the contract.



The other great aircraft to come out of the Skunk Works was of course the SR-71 Blackbird. in 1960 the U.S. Air Force gave the Skunk Works the go ahead to design and build what would become the SR-71. The idea of designing a plane that could fly at sustained speed in excess of Mach 3 was the most difficult challenge thast Kelly Johnson and the Skunk Works team would face. An aircraft that could fly at these speeds would take a whole host of inovations that at the time were basically unknown. Metals, fuel, plastic and wiring were just a few of the problems the the Skunk Works team had to overcome. It all came together however and in 1962 the first of the A-12s made it's maiden flight. The YF-12A flew in 1963 with the SR-71 making it's first flight on December 22, 1964.

The SR-71 in the 1970s went on to set records for speed (2,193 mph), altitude (85,069 feet). A New York to London flight of 3,470 miles was accomplished in one hour and fity four minutes. London to Los Angeles a distance of 5,463 miles only took three hours and forty seven minutes. In March of 1990 for it's retirement the SR-71 streaked across the United States in 68 minutes in a 2,400 mile coast to coast flight.





TOPICS: VetsCoR
KEYWORDS: freeperfoxhole; history; militaryhistory; veterans
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1 posted on 03/09/2006 7:15:37 PM PST by alfa6
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To: alfa6

bttt


2 posted on 03/09/2006 7:16:17 PM PST by stainlessbanner
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To: alfa6
Clarence "Kelly" Johnson retired from Lockheed in 1975 as a Senior Vice President. He stayed on at the Skunk Works as a senior adviser however where is influnce contiued to be felt.

"Our aim," he said, "is to get results cheaper, sooner, and better through application of common sense to tough problems. If it works, don't fix it."
"Reduce reports and other paperwork to a minimum."
"Keep it simple, stupid--KISS--is our constant reminder."

As a man of high integrity himself, Johnson expected complete honesty from the people of the Skunk Works. Mistakes were allowed, but they were to be brought to his attention immediately. And Kelly also expected recommendations to correct mistakes.

He was firmly convinced of the importance of being honest with people, not just telling them what they wanted to hear. He emphasized the necessity of good communication, urging us always to ask a lot of questions.

One of Kelly's challenges to employees was a standing 25-cent bet against anyone who wanted to differ with him. It was not the quarter, of course, but the distinction of winning it from the boss, Kelly said. "It's another incentive. And I've lost a few quarters, too," he admitted. But not often, it must be noted.

Just A few of the awards that Kelly Johnson was awarded:

1966 The National Medal of Science


1974 The Avaiton Hall of Fame enshrined Kelly Johnson


1975 The Wright Brothers Award


1983 The National Security Medal




Kelly Johnson's 14 Rules of Management

1.The Skunk Works manager must be delegated practically complete control of his program in all aspects. He should report to a division president or higher.

2.Strong but small project offices must be provided both by the military and industry.

3.The number of people having any connection with the project must be restricted in an almost vicious manner. Use a small number of good people (10% to 25% compared to the so-called normal systems).

4.A very simple drawing and drawing release system with great flexibility for making changes must be provided.

5.There must be a minimum number of reports required, but important work must be recorded thoroughly.

6.There must be a monthly cost review covering not only what has been spent and committed but also projected costs to the conclusion of the program. Don't have the books ninety days late and don't surprise the customer with sudden overruns.

7.The contractor must be delegated and must assume more than normal responsibility to get good vendor bids for subcontract on the project. Commercial bid procedures are very often better than military ones.

8.The inspection system as currently used by the Skunk Works, which has been approved by both the Air Force and Navy, meets the intent of existing military requirements and should be used on new projects. Push more basic inspection responsibility back to subcontractors and vendors. Don't duplicate so much inspection.

9.The contractor must be delegated the authority to test his final product in flight. He can and must test it in the initial stages. If he doesn't, he rapidly loses his competency to design other vehicles.

10. The specifications applying to the hardware must be agreed to well in advance of contracting. The Skunk Works practice of having a specification section stating clearly which important military specification items will not knowingly be complied with and reasons therefore is highly recommended.

11. Funding a program must be timely so that the contractor doesn't have to keep running to the bank to support government projects.

12. There must be mutual trust between the military project organization and the contractor with very close cooperation and liaison on a day-to-day basis. This cuts down misunderstanding and correspondence to an absolute minimum.

13. Access by outsiders to the project and its personnel must be strictly controlled by appropriate security measures.

14. Because only a few people will be used in engineering and most other areas, ways must be provided to reward good performance by pay not based on the number of personnel supervised.

Educational Sources

Want to find out more about Kelly Johnson.

(http://www.nap.edu/readingroom/books/biomems/cjohnson.html)

(http://www.wvi.com/~sr71webmaster/kelly1.htm)

(National Aviation)

3 posted on 03/09/2006 7:18:38 PM PST by alfa6
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To: alfa6; Allen H; Colonial Warrior; texianyankee; vox_PL; Bigturbowski; ruoflaw; Bombardier; ...
FReeper Foxhole Armed Services Links





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NOW UPDATED THROUGH SEPTEMBER 30th, 2004




The FReeper Foxhole. America's History. America's Soul

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LINK TO FOXHOLE THREADS INDEXED by PAR35

4 posted on 03/09/2006 7:24:58 PM PST by alfa6
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To: stainlessbanner

You quick on the draw tonight :-)

Have a great day

Regards

alfa6 ;>}


5 posted on 03/09/2006 7:26:59 PM PST by alfa6
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To: alfa6

me me I am first!


6 posted on 03/09/2006 7:27:16 PM PST by Soaring Feather (Woman Poets Rock the Babies, Baby Rocks the poet.)
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To: alfa6

Ain't fair, I was beaten out of the #1 spot.
7 posted on 03/09/2006 7:30:34 PM PST by Soaring Feather (Woman Poets Rock the Babies, Baby Rocks the poet.)
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To: alfa6


BZ Alfa6.

The Bird flew.....and flew....and flew....

8 posted on 03/09/2006 7:30:53 PM PST by BIGLOOK (Order of Battle: Sink or capture as Prize, MS Media)
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To: BIGLOOK
It was either yourself or EPGWS that gave me the idea for tonights thread.

Another plane that kept on going and going and...

Regards

alfa6 ;>}

9 posted on 03/09/2006 7:34:49 PM PST by alfa6
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To: snippy_about_it; SAMWolf; bentfeather; Professional Engineer; Samwise; Peanut Gallery; Wneighbor; ..

March 10, 2006

A Great Coach

Read:
Philippians 2:12-24

I have no one like-minded, who will sincerely care for your state. —Philippians 2:20

Bible In One Year: Deuteronomy 11-13; Mark 12:1-27

cover Although Billy Connors was not a great athlete himself, many people consider him to be the best pitching coach in major league baseball today. New York Yankees manager Joe Torre said: "Sometimes the best players can't coach, because they were such naturals . . . whereas guys like Billy had to work at it, and pay attention to all the little things."

Connors also knows and cares about the men he coaches. All of them have been to his home for a meal. His genuine concern opens their ears to what he has to say.

This account of a caring and competent coach made me think of Timothy in the New Testament. Though at times he seemed timid and fearful (2 Timothy 1:6-8), Paul considered him proven and dependable in guiding others. The apostle wrote, "I trust in the Lord Jesus to send Timothy to you . . . . For I have no one like-minded, who will sincerely care for your state" (Philippians 2:19-20).

Spiritual coaching is not just telling people how to accomplish great things for God. It begins with caring for them and earning the right to be heard. Then, with a keen eye and a kind word, we can encourage others in the way of faith.

Any Christian can become a great spiritual coach by the grace of God. —David McCasland

O Lord, You are faithful and always will be,
You never give up on working with me;
So as I am striving to serve You each day,
Help me show others Your will and Your way. —Fitzhugh

Genuine concern for others is the mark of a great spiritual coach.

FOR FURTHER STUDY
The Mind Of Christ

10 posted on 03/09/2006 7:38:31 PM PST by The Mayor ( Check out my site http://howifixthings.com/HomeImprovementandRemodelingTips.html)
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To: The Mayor

Howdy Mayor. Got snow??


11 posted on 03/09/2006 7:39:57 PM PST by Soaring Feather (Woman Poets Rock the Babies, Baby Rocks the poet.)
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To: alfa6

Hi alfa6 - Ben Rich's book is on my reading list. I hear it's great.


12 posted on 03/09/2006 7:40:00 PM PST by stainlessbanner
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To: alfa6
Ahh....the other problem with that was extended missions from 8 to 10 to 12 or more hours.

Glory days!
13 posted on 03/09/2006 7:41:18 PM PST by BIGLOOK (Order of Battle: Sink or capture as Prize, MS Media)
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To: alfa6

Supporting our Soldiers, Sailors, Marines, Airmen, and Coast Guardsmen at more than 1,000 places across the U. S. and around the world.

~Tribute to Our Troops~


14 posted on 03/09/2006 8:06:08 PM PST by AZamericonnie (~www.ProudPatriots.org~Operation Easter/Passover~Serving those who serve us!~)
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To: alfa6

Thank you for the ping Alfa....hope this post was ok....it's all I have! LOL Great post!


15 posted on 03/09/2006 8:07:29 PM PST by AZamericonnie (~www.ProudPatriots.org~Operation Easter/Passover~Serving those who serve us!~)
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To: bentfeather

No, it's all gone. Today it was 47, tommorrow 50 and Sat 55..
Snow is all melted... I hope spring is here.


16 posted on 03/09/2006 8:22:23 PM PST by The Mayor ( Check out my site http://howifixthings.com/HomeImprovementandRemodelingTips.html)
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To: alfa6

I've always been envious of people who knew what they wanted or were going to do or be when they were very young. I never knew and still don't.

Thanks for the interesting new thread.


17 posted on 03/09/2006 9:04:16 PM PST by snippy_about_it (Fall in --> The FReeper Foxhole. America's History. America's Soul.)
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To: alfa6
hiya alfa6

you'll need to fix your HTML to change www.vetscor.org to www.vetscor.net. some dirtbag stole our .org address ... I'm trying to get it back

elsewise ... thanks for the FOXHOLE thread ... I miss them

±

"The Era of Osama lasted about an hour, from the time the first plane hit the tower to the moment the General Militia of Flight 93 reported for duty."
Toward FREEDOM

18 posted on 03/09/2006 9:30:53 PM PST by Neil E. Wright (An oath is FOREVER)
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To: The Mayor

Just so's you feel better, it's snowing here in Victoria and Port Angeles. In March! What a travesty!

Half an inch on the ground, and fog rolling in to boot!


19 posted on 03/09/2006 11:59:17 PM PST by Don W (Stoneage man survived thousands of years of bitter-cold ice. Modern man WILLsurvive global warming.)
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To: alfa6
Great piece..thanks for posting...

For your enjoyment, two little known factoids...

1. The crew of the "Truculent Turtle," the P2V Neptune that set the world's distance record for an unrefueled flight in 1946 from Perth, Australia to Columbus, Ohio, consisted of 4 USN pilots and a young kangaroo...

2. The Blackbird was originally designated by the military as the RS-71...Reconnaissance being the keyword here..but LBJ, who who known for his vanity, hated to wear reading glasses, so during a speech announcing the plane, misread it as the SR-71...immediately afterwards the designation was changed...

20 posted on 03/10/2006 1:28:06 AM PST by ken5050 (Ann Coulter needs to have children ASAP to propagate her gene pool. Any volunteers?)
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To: alfa6; All
Makes one ruminate on "Duty, Honor, Country."

"The Pedant, and those of an entirely different sort, will say that these are but words. On the contrary."

Starting to see how to put the Joe Foss piece together. Unlike the brave Lieutenant Frank Luke Foss lived a long life with many good stories for me to tell about him.
I never met General Foss, sadly, but I hear he was a true master of the the Force of "colorful language." Army types would have got to hear the real thing, a Corps and Navy trained expert.

My regards to the Foxhole men and women.
21 posted on 03/10/2006 2:30:33 AM PST by Iris7 (Dare to be pigheaded! Stubborn! "Tolerance" is not a virtue!)
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To: alfa6

Good morning to everyone at the Freeper Foxhole.


22 posted on 03/10/2006 3:01:46 AM PST by E.G.C.
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To: Neil E. Wright

Thanks Neil, I will go into the template and get that changed. I was gettingf ready to ask snippyu if she new what was up with the VETSCOR image.

Have a great day

Regards

alfa6 ;>}


23 posted on 03/10/2006 4:57:58 AM PST by alfa6
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To: ken5050

I had not heard of the kangaroo on the "Turtle" but I do recall hearing about the RS vs SR flap.

Wings/Airpower magazine did a four part series on the A-12/YF-12A/SR-71 a few years ago. Very intersting stuff.

Regards

alfa6 ;>}


24 posted on 03/10/2006 5:03:47 AM PST by alfa6
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To: snippy_about_it

Your welcome, it only took me a month or so to get my act together on this.

Regards

alfa6 ;>}


25 posted on 03/10/2006 5:06:19 AM PST by alfa6
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To: alfa6; snippy_about_it; bentfeather; Samwise; Peanut Gallery; Wneighbor; Valin; Iris7; SAMWolf; ...
Good morning ladies and gents. Flag-o-Gram.


26 posted on 03/10/2006 5:52:40 AM PST by Professional Engineer (Algebra? It's a piece of pi.)
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To: Professional Engineer

Good evening PE.


27 posted on 03/10/2006 6:14:05 PM PST by snippy_about_it (Fall in --> The FReeper Foxhole. America's History. America's Soul.)
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To: Iris7

Good evening Iris7.


28 posted on 03/10/2006 6:14:53 PM PST by snippy_about_it (Fall in --> The FReeper Foxhole. America's History. America's Soul.)
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To: alfa6

I like your post. I read through it last night but couldn't take time to add to your thread at the time.

Where I live there is a Kelly Johnson Parkway. They say that when he was immersed in the F-104 project he was approached with Air Force specs for a new plane and the company's corresponding proposal.

Johnson hated the whole thing but signed off on the design because Lockheed had promised the Air Force it would bid on the project and the design was up to Lockheed standards. He just objected to the company getting into the trucking business.

Ironically, Lockheed was awarded the project and the prototype first flew in August, 1954 with Kelly Johnson flying chase in a P-2.

Since then, the C-130 has been in longer continuous production than any other military aircraft, more than fifty years now.

Back to local roads, there are three streets intersecting Kelly Johnson Parkway; they are Constellation Road, Hercules Street, and Aurora Drive.

Carl Kotchian, President of Lockheed at the time, noted in a memo as Johnson's retirement approached, "...It is Kelly as a person I think we will miss most...His absolute honesty, his dedicated patriotism, he may be the most honored engineer in history, but many of the things he has done for his country will never be told, and his unswerving support for people who worked for him. It is not probable that we will see Kelly's like again..."

29 posted on 03/10/2006 7:19:47 PM PST by concentric circles
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To: snippy_about_it; SAMWolf; Iris7; Valin; PAR35; alfa6; U S Army EOD; Peanut Gallery; USMCBOMBGUY; ...
Evening Grace Folks~

New River Bridge, West Virginia

West Virginia Facts and Trivia

1. West Virginia is the only state in the Union to have acquired its sovereignty by proclamation of the President of the United States.

2. West Virginia is considered the southern most northern state and the northern most southern state.

3. Mother’s Day was first observed at Andrews Church in Grafton on May 10, 1908.

4. West Virginia has the oldest population of any state. The median age is 40.

5. Jackson's Mill is the site of the first 4-H Camp in the United States.

6. The world's largest sycamore tree is located on the Back Fork of the Elk River in Webster Springs.

7. The first state sales tax in the United States went into effect in West Virginia on July 1, 1921.

8. On January 26, 1960 Danny Heater, a student from Burnsville, scored 135 points in a high school basketball game earning him a place in the Guinness Book of World Records.

9. The first federal prison exclusively for women in the United States was opened in 1926 in West Virginia.

10. Cecil Underwood is the nation's oldest governor. He turned 77 on November 5, 1999.

11. The New River Gorge Bridge near Fayetteville is the second highest steel arch bridge in the United States. The bridge is also the longest steel arch bridge (1,700 feet) in the world. Every October on Bridge Day, the road is closed and individuals parachute and bungee cord jump 876 feet off the bridge. Its West Virginia's largest single day event and attracts about 100,000 people each year.

12. The first major land battle fought between Union and Confederate soldiers in the Civil War was the Battle of Philippi on June 3, 1861.

13. One of the nation's oldest and largest Indian burial grounds is located in Moundsville. Its 69 feet high, 900 feet in circumference, and 50 feet high. An inscribed stone was removed from the vault and is on display at the Smithsonian Institute in Washington, D.C.

14. West Virginia's nickname is the Mountain State and its motto is "Mountaineers Are Always Free."

15. Some famous individuals from West Virginia include: Pearl Buck (author), Peter Marshall (television host), Chuck Yeager (test pilot /Air Force General), Don Knotts (actor), Mary Lou Retton (Olympic gold medallist for gymnastics), and Kathy Mattea (country music singer).

16. Nearly 75% of West Virginia is covered by forests.

17. West Virginia covers about 24,000 square miles and has a population of about 1.8 million.

18. 15% of the nation's total coal production comes from West Virginia.

19. According to the crime index for 1997, West Virginia had the lowest crime rate in the country.

20. West Virginia’s Memorial Tunnel was the first in the nation to be monitored by television. It opened November 8, 1954.

21. The first rural free mail delivery was started in Charles Town on October 6, 1896, and then spread throughout the United States.

22. West Virginia was the first state to have a sales tax. It became effective July 1, 1921.

23. The first steamboat was launched by James Rumsey in the Potomac River at New Mecklensburg (Shepherdstown) on December 3, 1787.

24. A naval battle was fought in West Virginia waters during the Civil War. United States Navy armored steamers were actively engaged in the Battle of Buffington Island near Ravenswood on July 19, 1863.

25. On February 14, 1824, at Harpers Ferry, John S. Gallaher published the "Ladies Garland," one of the first papers in the nation devoted mainly to the interests of women.

26. Organ Cave, near Ronceverte, is the third largest cave in the United States and the largest in the state.

27. A variety of the yellow apple, the Golden Delicious, originated in Clay County. The original Grimes Golden Apple Tree was discovered in 1775 near Wellsburg.

28. West Virginia has an mean altitude of 1,500 feet, giving it the highest average altitude east of the Mississippi.

29. The first iron furnace west of the Alleghenies was built by Peter Tarr on Kings Creek in 1794.

30. One of the first suspension bridges in the world was completed in Wheeling in November 1849.

31. Outdoor advertising had its origin in Wheeling about 1908 when the Block Brothers Tobacco Company painted bridges and barns with the wording: "Treat Yourself to the Best, Chew Mail Pouch."

32. Moundsville is the site of the continent’s largest cone-shaped prehistoric burial mound. It is 69 feet high and 900 feet in circumference at the base and was opened on March 19, 1838.

33. The first electric railroad in the world, built as a commercial enterprise, was constructed between Huntington and Guyandotte.

34. On September 10, 1938, the Mingo Oak, largest and oldest white oak tree in the United States, was declared dead and felled with ceremony.

35. Coal House, the only residence in the world built entirely of coal, is located in White Sulphur Springs. The house was occupied on June 1, 1961.

36. The world’s largest shipment of matches (20 carloads or 210,000,000 matches) was shipped from Wheeling to Memphis, Tennessee, on August 26, 1933.

37. Daniel Boone made his last survey of Charleston on September 8, 1798. He left the state in 1799.

38. William Tompkins used natural gas to evaporate salt brine in 1841, thus becoming the first person in the United States to use natural gas for industrial purposes.

39. The last public hanging in West Virginia was held in Jackson County in December 1897.

40. The first glass plant in West Virginia was at Wellsburg in 1815. The first pottery plant was in Morgantown in 1785.

41. In May 1860, the first well in the state for producing crude oil was drilled at Burning Springs.

42. Stone that was quarried near Hinton was contributed by West Virginia for the Washington Monument and arrived in Washington in February 1885.

43. West Virginia University was established on February 7, 1867 under the name of "Agricultural College of West Virginia."

44. Bailey Brown, the first Union solider killed in the Civil War, died on May 22, 1861, at Fetterman, Taylor County.

45. On May 31, 1910, the Supreme Court held that the Maryland-West Virginia boundary was the low-water mark of the south bank of the Potomac River.

46. The first spa open to the public was at Berkeley Springs, West Virginia, in 1756 (then, Bath, Virginia).

47. The Christian Church was begun in West Virginia by Alexander Campbell in Bethany.

48. Mrs. Minnie Buckingham Harper, a member of the House of Delegates by appointment in 1928, was the first African American woman to become a member of a legislative body in the United States.

49. Chester Merriman of Romney was the youngest soldier of World War I, having enlisted at the age of 14.

50. The first brick street in the world was laid in Charleston, West Virginia, on October 23, 1870, on Summers Street, between Kanawha and Virginia Streets.

30 posted on 03/10/2006 8:23:58 PM PST by w_over_w (The more things change the more they stay the same. ~Bentfeather~)
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To: PAR35
Somehow I get the impression there's an abundance of inaccuracies for WV(I could be wrong). Anyway, this one was a real eye opener.

47. The Christian Church was begun in West Virginia by Alexander Campbell in Bethany.

According to the apostle Luke when he was given revelation to write the book of Acts, the Christian Church was begun in Jerusalem on the day of Pentecost by the promise of God through the sacrifice of His Son.

No internet sources needed, I have The Word sitting in my lap. \o/

31 posted on 03/10/2006 8:35:02 PM PST by w_over_w (The more things change the more they stay the same. ~Bentfeather~)
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To: w_over_w
12. The first major land battle fought between Union and Confederate soldiers in the Civil War was the Battle of Philippi on June 3, 1861.

Never heard of it.

7. The first state sales tax in the United States went into effect in West Virginia on July 1, 1921.

22. West Virginia was the first state to have a sales tax. It became effective July 1, 1921.

You can say that again.

26. Organ Cave, near Ronceverte, is the third largest cave in the United States and the largest in the state.

According to http://www.organcave.com/ it is the second largest cave in the US.

13. One of the nation's oldest and largest Indian burial grounds is located in Moundsville. Its 69 feet high, 900 feet in circumference, and 50 feet high. An inscribed stone was removed from the vault and is on display at the Smithsonian Institute in Washington, D.C.

Bears repeating, I suppose.

32. Moundsville is the site of the continent’s largest cone-shaped prehistoric burial mound. It is 69 feet high and 900 feet in circumference at the base and was opened on March 19, 1838.

47. The Christian Church was begun in West Virginia by Alexander Campbell in Bethany.

I'm not gonna touch this one.

32 posted on 03/10/2006 9:58:02 PM PST by Peanut Gallery
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To: w_over_w

"47. The Christian Church was begun in West Virginia by Alexander Campbell in Bethany."

They are talking about the denomination now better known as the Disciples of Christ.

Click here. http://www.disciples.org/discover/history.htm

I believe that the Church of Christ is also Campbellite.

Campbellites tend to believe that they are the only Christians and may believe that you have to be baptised in oune of their churches to be saved. So they have no compunction about calling themselves the Christian Church.


33 posted on 03/10/2006 10:24:57 PM PST by PAR35
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To: w_over_w; snippy_about_it

Good thing I started early tonight.

" 6. The world's largest sycamore tree is located on the Back Fork of the Elk River in Webster Springs."

Let's take a quick look.

Platanus occidentalis
Back Fork of Elk River, Webster Co.
112 Feet tall.
http://www.gasp.athens.oh.us/wvbigtrees.shtml

Tennessee lists one at 120 feet, http://members.aol.com/hdoka/trees/champtre.htm

And here's a reference to 168 feet in Indiana. http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/tree/plaocc/botanical_and_ecological_characteristics.html



" 10. Cecil Underwood is the nation's oldest governor. He turned 77 on November 5, 1999"

The site doesn't appear to be Y2K compliant.

________

" 13. One of the nation's oldest and largest Indian burial grounds is located in Moundsville. Its 69 feet high, 900 feet in circumference, and 50 feet high. "

Read carefully. If that doeesn't work, draw a quick sketch and mark how high it is.

___________

"1. West Virginia is the only state in the Union to have acquired its sovereignty by proclamation of the President of the United States."

Just one of the many ways that Abe stomped on the Constitution.

___________

"7. The first state sales tax ..."

" 22. West Virginia was the first state to have a sales tax. "

At least they put down the same date for both entries.
__________

" 26. Organ Cave, near Ronceverte, is the third largest cave in the United States and the largest in the state."

According to this list, it isn't even the longest in West Virginia, and ranks 9th in the country.
http://www.pipeline.com/~caverbob/usalong.htm
(warning - list is over 800 caves long, so you might want to hit the stop button at some point.

Maybe they meant deep instead of long? No, it's #116 on that list. http://www.pipeline.com/~caverbob/usadeep.htm

_________

"30. One of the first suspension bridges in the world was completed in Wheeling in November 1849"

Since I used this in my attack on the Waco bridge, I'm estopped from being too aggressive, but recall the cable vs chain discussion from the Texas list.

_____

" 32. Moundsville is the site of the continent’s largest cone-shaped prehistoric burial mound. It is 69 feet high and 900 feet in circumference"

That's two votes for 69' and only one (so far) for 50'. (See entry 13).

__________

" 33. The first electric railroad in the world, built as a commercial enterprise, was constructed between Huntington and Guyandotte."

No year. Here's a picture of a train from that area in the 1880s. No wires. http://www.cityofhuntington.com/Visiting/history/history9.asp

But here are a couple of claims from Baltimore:

AUGUST 04 1885
Electric locomotives introduced on the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad to carry trains through the 3.6 mile Baltimore Tunnel.

AUGUST 10 1885
The Baltimore & Hampden Line becomes the first commercial electric railroad.

http://avenue.org/nrhs/histaug.htm


34 posted on 03/10/2006 11:18:27 PM PST by PAR35
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To: PAR35; snippy_about_it; bentfeather; Samwise; Peanut Gallery; Wneighbor; Valin; alfa6; Iris7; ...
Good morning ladies and gents. Flag-o-Gram.

Pinecrest Academy student Nicole Madda received a flag that flew over the U.S. Embassy in Baghdad, Iraq after writing to a Marine; she presented it to the school on Presidents Day.

35 posted on 03/11/2006 7:37:40 AM PST by Professional Engineer (Algebra? It's a piece of pi.)
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To: Professional Engineer; SAMWolf; snippy_about_it; Peanut Gallery; w_over_w; alfa6; All

Morning everyone.
Thought I'd hang around here for a while.

36 posted on 03/11/2006 7:52:26 AM PST by Soaring Feather (Woman Poets Rock the Babies, Baby Rocks the poet.)
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To: snippy_about_it; SAMWolf; bentfeather; Professional Engineer; Samwise; Peanut Gallery; Wneighbor; ..

March 11, 2006

How To Face Another Day

Read:
James 4:13-17

This is the day the Lord has made; we will rejoice and be glad in it. —Psalm 118:24

Bible In One Year: Deuteronomy 14-16; Mark 12:28-44

cover World-famous cellist Pablo Casals once gave this challenging testimony: "For the past 80 years I have started each day in the same manner. . . . I go to the piano and I play two preludes and fugues of Bach. I cannot think of doing otherwise. It is a benediction on the house. But that is not its only meaning for me. It is a rediscovery of the world of which I have the joy of being a part."

If that is how a dedicated musician daily started his waking hours, we Christians—by the enabling grace of the Holy Spirit—can surely dedicate each new day to our Lord. No matter where we are or what our situation may be, each day we can resolve to dedicate the hours before us to God's praise. As David wrote, "This is the day the Lord has made; we will rejoice and be glad in it" (Psalm 118:24).

If you are facing loneliness or pain as once again you pick up your burden, you can draw on the Lord's resources and be a living testimony of His all-sufficiency. If you're filled with thanksgiving and praise, you can tell others of God's goodness.

James reminded us that we "do not know what will happen tomorrow" (4:14). All the more reason, then, to dedicate each day to rejoicing in the Lord. —Vernon Grounds

This is the day the Lord hath made,
He calls the hours His own;
Let heaven rejoice, let earth be glad,
And praise surround the throne. —Watts

If you know Jesus, you always have a reason to rejoice.

FOR FURTHER STUDY
Surviving The Storms Of Stress

37 posted on 03/11/2006 7:57:34 AM PST by The Mayor ( Check out my site http://howifixthings.com/HomeImprovementandRemodelingTips.html)
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To: The Mayor
This is the day the Lord has made; we will rejoice and be glad in it. —Psalm 118:24
Morning, Mayor. Thanks for today's word.

38 posted on 03/11/2006 8:00:21 AM PST by Soaring Feather (Woman Poets Rock the Babies, Baby Rocks the poet.)
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To: bentfeather

Hi Feather.. Amen.

What a cute pic you posted.. : )


39 posted on 03/11/2006 8:01:51 AM PST by The Mayor ( Check out my site http://howifixthings.com/HomeImprovementandRemodelingTips.html)
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To: PAR35
Thanks for the link . . . good read. They have an interesting motto:

"Where the scriptures speak, we speak; where the Scriptures are silent, we are silent."

Best leave it at that . . .

40 posted on 03/11/2006 8:46:27 AM PST by w_over_w (The more things change the more they stay the same. ~Bentfeather~)
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To: Peanut Gallery; PAR35; snippy_about_it; SAMWolf; alfa6
Never heard of it.

"When Confederate troops threatened the B&O at Grafton the federal government quickly moved troops into the area. On the night of June 3, 1861, the first land battle of the Civil War involving organized troops took place at Philippi, about 15 miles south of Grafton. Some 3,000 federal troops under the general command of Major General George B. McClellan and the immediate command of Colonels Benjamin F. Kelley and Ebenezar Dumont drove about 800 Confederates under Colonel George A. Porterfield from the town. While no one was killed in the battle, the Confederates suffered several severe wounds necessitating the first amputations of the Civil War, one each by Union and Confederate surgeons.

Source: WV Encyclopedia

The siege of Ft. Sumpter (April 12, 1861) was a harbor bombardment from Ft. Moultrie, Castle Pinckney and Morris Island. It would seem that Sumpter was not a true "land battle" but I'd defer to the more scholarly. What say you?

41 posted on 03/11/2006 9:22:57 AM PST by w_over_w (The more things change the more they stay the same. ~Bentfeather~)
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To: concentric circles

Great Story

Thanks for sharing it here on the Foxhole

Regards

alfa6 ;>}


42 posted on 03/11/2006 9:23:56 AM PST by alfa6
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To: PAR35

LOL! I guess it's because they're the "the southern most northern state and the northern most southern state." ;^)


43 posted on 03/11/2006 9:29:18 AM PST by w_over_w (The more things change the more they stay the same. ~Bentfeather~)
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To: Professional Engineer; Peanut Gallery; Wneighbor; All
ROFLOL

Good thing I drive one of these!


44 posted on 03/11/2006 9:35:31 AM PST by Professional Engineer (Algebra? It's a piece of pi.)
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To: w_over_w; All

Bridge of Relief

You are my bridge
spanning onto new plateaus
over patches of rough water
open chasms of peril and fear
with you near me...
I have no dread of tomorrow
or of cold black nights
or of holding ceremonies
from dusk til dawn
you are my dusk, my dawn
my past and my future...
you are the ceremony...

by bentfeather (c) 2003

This poem was written here at FR in the Old Belvedere Lounge, The Poetry Branch of Free Republic.
I wrote it in twenty minutes.

45 posted on 03/11/2006 9:40:05 AM PST by Soaring Feather (Women Poets Rock the Babies, Baby Rocks the poet.)
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To: w_over_w
Best leave it at that . . .

I'll just say that I have some serious theological differences with them, which I have articulated on the Religion board. But other than that, I'll heed your advice.

46 posted on 03/11/2006 9:46:46 AM PST by PAR35
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To: w_over_w
It would seem that Sumpter was not a true "land battle" but I'd defer to the more scholarly. What say you?

There is some merit to that. It was more of a bombardment.

47 posted on 03/11/2006 9:56:36 AM PST by PAR35
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To: w_over_w; Peanut Gallery; PAR35; snippy_about_it; SAMWolf

From the book "The Longest Night" A Military History of the Civil War" by Favid J. Eicher Copyright 2001 by Touchstone Press.

"At Fairfax Court House, Virginia on June 1, (1961)50 cavalry troopers and 25 dragoons led by Lt. Charles H. Thompson of the U.S. 2nd Cavalry, a regular army veteran, cut through the town on their way to Germantown. In what was ostensibly the first land battle of the war, Confederates of the Prince William Cavalry and the Warrenton Rifles put up a short fight, opening fire at first from windows in the town. Capt. John Q. Marr of the Warrenton Rifles was killed and Col. Richard S. Ewell, whose fame and influence would rise greatly after he recovered, was wounded in the shoulder. The Confederates in Fairfax Court House greatly outnumbered the U.S. troopers and Tompkins retreated to safety after the brief skirmish.

Also form the same source just a few paragraphs later.

"Yankees and Rebels met agian on June 3, at Philippi, Virginia. Maj. Gen. George B McClellan, in command of the Department of Ohio, had overall authority in the area. His strategy called for Union forces to march from Grafton throught the dark mountain roads during a night rainfall and strike the Confederates under Col. Geaorge A. Porterfield at daylight. Union militia Brig. Gen Thomas A. Morris ordered the attack. The force would be led by Col. Benjamin F. Kelley and would consist of about 2,000 men. At dawn the Union forces fiorewd a shell into the midst of the Confederate encampment, stunning and scattering Porterfield's 1,500 troops. Early in the action Kelley was struck in the chest by a pistol shot and severely wounded, although he subsequently recovered. Thereafter, Col. Ebenezer Dumont of the 7th Indian Infantry took command. As the seccesionist fled, the Yankees pursued until all were exhausted. Althought this minor skirmish was glorified in the press, which dubbed it the "Phillippi Races" it had little significance. The casualtires were slight: 15 Confederates were killed and, aside from Kelley, 2 Yankees wounded."

Depending on your definition of "battle" there could be a bit of disagrrement. I don't think the skirmish at Fairfax Court House has the numbers or pehaps the amount of fighting , at least from this account, to count as a "battle"

YMMV

Regards

alfa6 ;>}


48 posted on 03/11/2006 10:11:56 AM PST by alfa6
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To: w_over_w; PAR35; Peanut Gallery; alfa6
I haven't read through the thread here yet but I'll offer this for now:

1861 Battles

  1. April 12-14 Fort Sumter SC
  2. May 18-19 Sewell's Point VA
  3. May 29-June 1 Aquia Creek VA
  4. June 1 Fairfax Court House VA
  5. June 3 Philippi / Philippi Races WV
  6. June 10 Big Bethel/ Bethel Church/ Great Bethel VA
  7. June 13 Romney WV
  8. June 17 Boonville MO
  9. June 17 Vienna VA
  10. June 18-19 Camp Cole/Cole Camp MO
  11. June 19 New Creek WV
  12. June 26 Patterson Creek/Kelly's Island, VA
  13. June 27 Matthia's Point VA
  14. July 2 Hoke's Run / Falling Waters / Hainesville VA
  15. July 5 Newport News VA
  16. July 5 Carthage MO
  17. July 6 Middle Creek Fork/Buckhannon WV
  18. July 8 Laurel Hill/Bealington WV
  19. July 9-11 Monroe Station MO
  20. July 11 Rich Mountain/Laurel Hill VA
  21. July 12 Beverly WV
  22. July 14 Carrick's Ford WV
  23. July 15-17 Millsville/Wentzville MO
  24. July 17 Fulton MO
  25. July 18 Bull Run/Blackburn's Ford VA
  26. July 18-19 Harrisonville/Parkersville MO
  27. July 21 First Manassas/First Bull Run VA

49 posted on 03/11/2006 10:17:14 AM PST by snippy_about_it (Fall in --> The FReeper Foxhole. America's History. America's Soul.)
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To: snippy_about_it; w_over_w; PAR35; Peanut Gallery
June 10 Big Bethel/ Bethel Church/ Great Bethel VA

FWIW Mr Eicher rated the June 10th engagement as the first major battle of the Civil War. As I mentioned earlier it all depends on what "is" is.

Opps wrong analogy, thought it might be good for a cheap laugh :-)

I will have to look through Mr. Eicher's book some more tonight.

E-book version of "The Long Night" is here.

(http://cyberread.com/Shop/Details.php?product_id=7458)

Regards

alfa6 ;>}

50 posted on 03/11/2006 10:34:42 AM PST by alfa6
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