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The FReeper Foxhole Remembers The CSS Hunley - Mar. 2nd, 2003 ^

Posted on 03/02/2003 12:00:39 AM PST by SAMWolf

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The Confederate Submarine
CSS H.L. Hunley

In 1864, the CSS H.L. Hunley was the first submarine to sink an enemy ship in combat. The sub was lost that night as well; and has remained a mystery until now. The Hunley wreck was discovered in 1995 and was raised during the summer of 2000. The study and conservation of the submarine is ongoing.

The Hunley has been a local legend for 130 years. It has been incorporated into Charleston history, which has kept the memory of the submarine alive for the generations since the War Between the States. The Hunley even had a museum on Broad Street devoted to it for many years; until it closed in the late 1970s.

The History

A group of private citizens in New Orleans, including James McClintock, Baxter Watson, and Horace Hunley, got together to finance and design a submersible torpedo boat. Their first prototype, Pioneer, was completed, but had to be scuttled in Lake Pontchartrain soon after due to the fall of the city in 1862.

The engineers fled to Mobile where they built a second prototype, American Diver. Mclintock experimented with different motive methods, including steam and battery power. However, in the end they went with a hand cranked drive. On its first time out, it was swamped and lost while under tow outside of Mobile Bay. Its location remains a mystery..

Months later, with additional investors and $15,000 ($300,000 today), they built their third submarine, which would later become known as the Hunley. It was hand cranked by a crew of 8, and used hand pumped ballast tanks, fore and aft, to submerge and surface. Soon, the Hunley was tested and demonstrated a successful attack against a dummy target using a towed contact torpedo. The military approved its use and put the Hunley on a train to Charleston.

Hunley At Charleston

The Siege of Charleston doesn't often appear in the history books as a full fledge battle of the War between the States. However, for most of the war, Charleston was under siege by Federal forces both on land to the south and at sea near the mouth of the harbor. Charleston endured 587 days of constant shelling, the use of confederate prisoners as human shields (the immortal 600) and its fortifications withstood numerous ground attacks (the charge of the 54th Mass -see the movie Glory). It was into this environment that the Hunley was delivered.

Hunley arrived in Charleston on August 12, 1863. She was commanded by McClintock with Gus Whitney as the first officer and the civilian crew from Mobile. Base of operations was the cove, a small inlet behind Sullivan's Island. McClintock took Hunley out daily but had no luck engaging the enemy.

On the night of August 21, 1863, the "Swamp Angel", a secretly constructed federal battery built in the marshes behind Folly Island, began shelling downtown Charleston. The gunners used the steeple of St. Michael's church to target their weapon. Two days later the confederate military, frustrated by Hunley's lack of results, seized the sub and turned it over to Lt. John Payne and a crew from the ironclad CSS Chicora. The new crew trained for several days until August 29, when disaster struck.

Hunley was being towed away from Fort Johnson by the steamer/gunboat Ettawan with the full crew of 9 men on board. Lt. Payne, standing in the open forward hatch, was struggling with the tow line when he accidentally kicked the diving plane tiller into the down position. Due to the forward motion from the tow boat, Hunley dove fast, with both hatches open. Payne and 3 others got out, though one, Charles Hasker was caught in the forward hatch and carried to the bottom, 42 feet down.

The Second Crew

By September 1st, efforts to raise the boat were underway- the process would take 10 days. The sub's future was uncertain until Horace Hunley wrote the military on the 19th, requesting that he and the original civilian crew (who demonstrated the boat in Mobile) be given the project. The military agreed and put Lt. George Dixon in command. In the first days of October, the civilian crew was reassembled and training resumed. On October 5, the CSS David successfully attacked her Goliath, the federal gunboat New Ironsides. Soon after, Hunley resumed nightly sorties outside the mouth of the harbor.

On the 15th, Horace Hunley insists on commanding the sub for a morning demonstration dive under the CSS Indian Chief (records don't explain where Dixon was at the time). The sub dove and never surfaced.

Three days later, divers locate the sub in 56 feet of water. The sub was at a severe angle and had plowed into the bottom. She was raised in several days and after the salvage, it was deduced that:

The forward sea cock was open, allowing the forward ballast tank to fill and overflow. The rear tank was closed and full of air. The hatches were unbolted but remained shut through the sinking due to the pressure of the water. While trying to push open the hatches, Hunley and the first officer both asphyxiated standing in the conning towers where trapped air remained, the rest of the crew drowned. Horace Hunley, manning the forward position (included the forward tank) likely caused the sinking.

Winter Operations

In November 1863, the Hunley was refurbished on a wharf in Mt. Pleasant. Conrad Chapman's painting was executed during this period (Dec 2). A new military crew was put together with volunteers from the CSS Indian Chief. Training resumed and by mid December, Hunley was again running nighttime sorties outside of the harbor. Soon after, CSS David became a regular tow boat, getting Hunley as far out as possible to allow the crew to save their strength for their return voyage.

One day in January, 1864 (a month later ) Hunley's towed contact torpedo drifted into the CSS David, however a crewman went in the water and pushed the torpedo away. CSS David would no longer be used as a tow boat. Also, about this time, federal ironclads began the extensive use of chain nets and other passive obstacles to prevent torpedo attack (Hunley was no secret). Hunley would have to focus operations on the wooden blockade fleet farther out to sea (7 miles out). Her base was moved to Breach Inlet, between Sullivan's and Long Islands (now Isle of Palms). Attacks would now be carried out with a torpedo mounted on a seventeen foot iron pole fixed to the bow (similar to the CSS David).

February 5, 1864, William Alexander was transferred from Hunley's crew. He would later document much of what is known of the sub and it's operations.

Also in early February, a lone federal sloop-of-war, USS Housatonic, began anchoring closer to the Sullivan's Island beach every night (about 3 miles out). Her intent was to be in a better position to intercept the blockade runners that would hug the shoreline and slip past the federal fleet.

Last Mission

On the calm night of the 17th, Hunley engaged Housatonic. She approached on the surface, coming in fast. Housatonic's night watch spotted her and opened fire with small arms, but could not stop the attack. Housatonic, slipped her anchor chain out and reversed her propeller to try to back out of Hunley's path, but this didn't help. Hunley rammed her torpedo into the federal ship, about 8 feet below the waterline. The sub immediately backed away, leaving the torpedo embedded in Housitonic's side. A several hundred foot cord spooled out from Hunley, still connected to the torpedo. At some point, the cord between the sub and the torpedo became taut, detonating the explosive, and quite possibly Housatonic's magazine. The warship went down in less than five minutes, settling upright in 30 feet of water with her rigging still high above the sea. Surprisingly, all but 5 of Housatonic's crew survived.

After the attack, Hunley gave a prearranged signal (with a blue lantern) to sentries on shore, who would build a large fire on the beach at Breach Inlet to help her find her way back, but she never was seen again.

KEYWORDS: civilwar; confederatenavy; csshunley; freeperfoxhole; veterans; warbetweenstates
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The Blockade

The primary Federal strategy during the American Civil War (War for Southern Independence, that is ;-) was a massive naval blockade of the entire southern coastline. The Southern states primarily produced raw materials for export to Northern and European industries. Luxury goods and many bare essentials were primarily imported to the South, therefore a blockade could destroy the south's economy (and starve a lot of people, too). It is during this period that many new techniques were developed for blockade running and attacking blockade ships. The Hunley was one of these new techniques.

The Hunley's Torpedo

Hunley's torpedo was a sealed canister with 90 to 130 lbs. (conflicting sources) of black powder with a lanyard detonated fuse; attached to an iron barb. Designed to be rammed into a blockade ship well below the water line; and detonated by lanyard after the sub has backed away. Apparently the sub was originally designed to tow a torpedo and drag it into its target; but this method wasn't very effective.

The torpedo was constructed out of a copper canister which contained the powder and fuse. The canister was attached to an iron "thimble" that slipped over the end of the sub's spar. This allowed the torpedo to slide off the spar as Hunley backed away. Sources vary as to the design; many describe it as a "can" stuck on the end of the spar, with the iron barb protruding out of its center. It would seem more likely that the iron barb would connect directly to the thimble with the canister hung below. This would transfer the impact from the ramming through the barb, directly to the spar and the sub itself, rather than through the sensitive canister.

Hunley's Engineering

Torpedo: A sealed canister with 90lb of black powder with a lanyard detonated fuse; attached to an iron barb. Designed to be rammed into a blockade ship well below the water line; and detonated by lanyard after the sub has backed away. Apparently the sub was designed to tow a torpedo and drag it into its target; but this method wasn't very effective.

Iron Spar: During the excavation of the sub, it was discovered that the spar was made out of iron and mounted to the bottom of the bow- not the top (which conflicts with Chapman's original painting).

Dive Planes: Just like a modern sub, these are used in addition to ballast tanks to determine the sub's depth.

Snorkels: Pipes that could be raised several feet to the surface to allow breathing. However, most sources say these never worked.

Deadlights: Small glass port holes spaced along the top of the hull to allow light in. Discovered during the excavation. Also, it has recently been proposed that Hunley's interior may have been painted white to make it as bright as possible. This is indicated in Chapman's painting- the inside of the open hatch appears to be white.

Keel Weights: Iron ballast to keep the sub upright and low in the water. Sources say that these were bolted up into the crew compartment and could be unbolted in and emergency, to give the sub more buoyancy and possibly get it off the bottom.

1 posted on 03/02/2003 12:00:39 AM PST by SAMWolf
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To: MistyCA; AntiJen; Victoria Delsoul; SassyMom; bentfeather; GatorGirl; radu; souris; SpookBrat; ...

Why was Hunley lost?

We still don't know yet- but archaeologists will probably come up with a solid theory as the conservation of the sub continues. The general consensus has always been that Hunley went down with the Housatonic; either damaged by small arms fire at the moment of the attack, or mortally wounded by the shock wave of Housatonic's explosion. However, anyone willing to do just a tiny bit of research will find out that Hunley gave a prearranged signal to solders on Sullivan's Island, after the attack.

Divers have found 3 breaches in Hunley's hull, which could have been caused by gun fire, accidental ramming by a federal ship, or they could be damage caused to the hulk years after the sinking- by dragged anchors, or by trapped air in the wreck that could cause small pieces of the hull to rust away.

Why weren't more "Hunleys" built?

Remember that Hunley, like many other southern weapons, were private ventures designed, funded, and built by individuals, not the government.

The Confederacy started with no navy in 1861. Commissions were offered the attract Privateers; thus offering business incentive to private vessels to take up commerce raiding. Also, the very nature of the blockade caused many business people to offer prize money for the destruction of key blockade vessels (fortunes were made running the blockade).

Are the hatches really as small as they are shown in the illustrations?

Yes, the hatch openings on Hunley are approx. 12" by 16" ellipses. That's a circumference of about 46"- is your waistline less that 46"?

Why is so much of our information about Hunley so distorted?

Sketches made from Chapman's painting failed to account for the foreshortening of the image of the sub. Hunley therefore "lost" 25% of it's length. Diagrams showing the workings of the sub were figurative and explanatory, never meant as literal images of the sub. Throw in our own natural bias that people who lived before us were not as smart, err, knowledgeable as we are and there you have it.
2 posted on 03/02/2003 12:01:24 AM PST by SAMWolf (We do not bargain with terrorists, we stalk them, corner them , take aim and kill them)
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To: All

'One evening after alternating diving and rising many times, Dixon...and several crew members compared watches, noted the time and sank for the test...In twenty-five minutes...the candle would not burn...Each man had determined that he would not be the first to say 'up!' Not a word was said except the occasional 'How is it?' between Dixon and myself, until the word 'up' came from all nine. We started the pumps...but I realized that my pump was not throwing...I...took off the cap of the pump, lifted the valve and drew out some seaweed that had choked it...We soon had the boat to the surface...Fresh air!...We had been on the bottom for two hours and thirty-five minutes...'

-- Lt. W.A. Alexander

3 posted on 03/02/2003 12:02:28 AM PST by SAMWolf (We do not bargain with terrorists, we stalk them, corner them , take aim and kill them)
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To: All
The State of the Union is Strong!
Support the Commander in Chief

Click Here to Send a Message to the opposition!

4 posted on 03/02/2003 12:02:52 AM PST by SAMWolf (We do not bargain with terrorists, we stalk them, corner them , take aim and kill them)
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To: All

Thanks, Doughty!

5 posted on 03/02/2003 12:04:21 AM PST by SAMWolf (We do not bargain with terrorists, we stalk them, corner them , take aim and kill them)
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To: All
Good Morning Everybody.

Chow time!
NG's and ER's to the front of the line.
Standing Operating Procedures state:
Click the Pics

Click here to Contribute to FR: Do It Now! ;-) Since Mother in Law Season Popsicles

6 posted on 03/02/2003 12:04:51 AM PST by SAMWolf (We do not bargain with terrorists, we stalk them, corner them , take aim and kill them)
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To: SAMWolf
On This Day In History

Birthdates which occurred on March 02:
1316 Robert II the Steward, King of Scotland (1371-90)
1409 John II French duke of Alençon/co-fighter of Jeanne d'arc
1459 Adrian VI [Adriaan F Boeyens], Netherlands, Pope (1522-23)
1481 Franz von Sickingen German knight
1545 Sir Thomas Bodley England, diplomat/scholar
1555 Ludovico Spontoni composer
1609 Hadji Chalfa/Kâtib Tsjelebi Turkish literary (Djihannüma)
1755 Antoine-Frederic Gresnick composer
1759 Johann Christian Friedrich Haeffner composer
1760 Camille Desmoulins France, journalist/pamphleteer/revolution leader
1769 DeWitt Clinton (Governor/Senator-NY)
1793 Sam[uel] Houston 1st president of Texas (1836-38, 1841-44)
1810 Leo XIII [Vincenzo G Pecci], 256th pope (1878-1903)
1813 George Alexander Macfarren composer
1815 Antonio Buzzolla composer
1817 János Arany Hungary, epic poet (Toldi, Death of King Buda)
1820 Multatuli writer
1824 Bedrich Friedrich Smetana Bohemian composer (Bartered Bride, Moldau)
1824 Constantine D Uschinsky Russian theorist
1824 Henry Beebee Carrington Brigadier General (Union volunteers), died in 1912
1828 Jefferson Columbus Davis Bvt Major General (Union Army), died in 1879
1829 Carl Schurz Major General (Union volunteers) journalist/political reformer/Civil War general
1838 David Duffle Wood composer
1844 Hermanus J A M Schaepman clergyman/Dutch politician
1862 John Jay Chapman US advocate/poet/writer (Learning & Other Essays)
1875 Hans Lietzman German theologist/church historian
1876 Gösta Forsell Swedish radiologist
1876 Pius XII [Euhenio MGG Pacelli], 260th Pope (1939-58)
1878 Wander J de Haas Dutch physicist/son-in-law of Lorentz
1882 Wallis Clark Essex England, actress (Postal Inspector)
1884 Leon Jongen composer
1893 Maxime Dumoulin composer
1894 Renaat Veremans Flemish composer/conductor
1895 Felix Bressart Eydtkuhnen East Prussia Germany, actor (Ninotchka, Escape, Crossroads)
1899 Pattie Maie Menzies Australian dame
19-- Nelson Ned Brazil, Spanish singer (Mi Manera de Amor)
19-- Paul Mones Newark NJ, actor (Renegades)
1900 Kurt J Weill Dessau Germany, composer/Brecht collaborator (Mahogany)
1901 Willem Bruynzeel Dutch timber-merchant
1902 Edward Uhler Condon atomic scientist (Manhattan Project)
1904 Dr Seuss [Theodor Geisel] children's book author (Green Eggs and Ham, Horton Hears a Who!)
1905 Marc Blitzstein Philadelphia PA, composer (Cradle Will Rock)
1908 Jan Brasser Dutch resistance fighter (Witte Ko)/communist
1909 Hanoch Jacoby composer
1909 Jan Fabricius Dutch playwright
1909 Mel Ott 1st National League-er to hit 500 homeruns, hall of famer (New York Giants)
1910 Hope Clara Chenhalls food inspector
1911 William Hansen Washington DC, actor (Homebodies)
1912 Arthur Beaumont C Langton cricketer (South African pace bowler of 1930's)
1913 Godfried [Jan Arnold] Bomans Dutch humorist/writer (Pieter Bas)
1913 Marjorie Weaver Crossville TN, actress (Young Mr Lincoln)
1913 Mort Cooper baseball player (National League MVP 1942)
1915 Lona Andre actress (Case of Baby Sitter)
1916 Anne Vondeling Dutch politician (PvdA)
1916 Bernard George Stevens composer
1917 Desi Arnaz Santiago Cuba, singer/actor (Ricky Ricardo-I Love Lucy)
1917 Jim Konstanty baseball player (National League MVP 1950)
1917 John Gardner composer
1918 Peter O'Sullevan Ireland, horse racing commentator
1919 Eddie Lawrence comedian
1919 Jennifer Jones [Phyllis Isley] Tulsa OK, actress (Farewell to Arms)
1919 Tamara Toumanova dancer
1920 Enrique Franco composer
1921 Robert Wilfred Levick Simpson composer
1922 Eric Feldbush composer
1922 Mario Zafred composer
1923 "Doc" Watson bluegrass musician
1923 Don Taylor cricketer (New Zealand 3 Tests, Auckland stands w/Sutcliffe in Wisden)
1923 Robert H Michel (Representative-Republican-IL, 1957- )
1924 Albert Vogel Dutch elocutionist
1924 Rénos Apostolidis Greek author/poet (Katigoró)
1926 Murray Newton Rothbard economist/Libertarian Party founder
1927 Siegfried Kohler composer
1927 Witold Szalonec composer
1928 Philip K Dick writer
1929 Donald Gosling English parkeerplaatsenmagnaat/multi-millionaire
1930 Jan van Noor Dutch 2nd Chamber member (CDA)
1930 John Cullum Knoxville, actor (Hamlet, Hawaii, Northern Exposure)
1931 Duane F Graveline Newport VT, astronaut
1931 Mikhail S Gorbachev Privolnoye USSR, Soviet Secretary-General (1985-91)
1931 Tom Wolfe Richmond VA, journalist/author (Right Stuff)
1934 Bernard Rands Sheffield England, composer (Wildtrack)
1934 Howard "Hopalong" Cassady NFLer
1935 Al Waxman Toronto Canada, actor (Cagney & Lacey, Meatballs 3, Spasms)
1936 Henny Boskamp [Hoelscher], actor (Troeleke)
1938 Alan Lewis English textile factory/multi-millionaire
1938 Donald Schwall baseball player (1961 American League rookie of year)
1938 Simon Estes Centerville IA, bass/baritone (Wonton, Don Carlos)
1939 Barbara Luna New York NY, actress (5 Weeks in a Balloon, Gentle Savage)
1939 Gerard van Tongeren Dutch singer (Buffoons)
1940 Frederik van Zyl Slabbert chairman (South African Progressive Federal Party, 1979-86)
1942 John Irving Exeter NH, writer (World According to Garp)
1942 Lou Reed [Louis Firbank] Freeport NY, vocalist/guitarist (Walk on the Wild Side, Velvet Underground)
1942 Tony Meehan [Daniel Meehan] London England, rocker (Drifters, Vipers)
1943 George Benson jazz/blues guitarist (Breezin', This Masquerade)
1943 Gordon Black English industrialist
1943 Rosa DeLauro (Representative-Democrat-CT)
1943 Stephen Dickman composer
1944 Katherine Crawford actress (Captains & Kings, Gemini Man)
1944 Leif Segerstam composer
1944 Pam Barnett LPGA golfer
1945 Gordon Thomson Ottawa Canada, actor (Adam Carrington-Dynasty)
1945 Joy Garrett actress (Jo-Days of Our Lives)
1946 Brian J Donnelly (Representative-Democrat-MA, 1979- )
1948 Larry Carlton rock composer (Against All Odds, Who's the Boss)
1949 Eddie Money [Mahoney] Brooklyn NY, singer/guitarist (Take Me Home Tonight)
1949 Gates McFadden actress (Beverly Crusher-Star Trek Next Generation)
1949 Rory Gallagher Ballyshannon Ireland, rock guitarist (See Here)
195- Molly Cheek Bronxville NY, actress (Garry Shandling Show)
1950 Karen Carpenter New Haven CT, vocalist/drummer (We've Only Just Begun)
1950 Matthew Laurance Queens NY, actor/identical twin of Mitchell (Mel-Beverly Hills 90210, Ben-Duet)
1950 Mitchell Laurance Queens NY, actor/identical twin of Matthew (LA Law, Not Necessarily the News)
1951 Cassie Yates Macon GA, actress (Osterman Weekend, Dynasty)
1952 Laraine Newman Los Angeles CA, comedienne/actress (Saturday Night Live)
1953 William Simmons sax/keyboardist (Midnight Star-No Parking)
1954 Stone Phumelele Sizani South African treasurer (UDF)
1955 Dale Bosworth TV host (America's Most Wanted)
1955 Dale Bozzio Boston MA, rock vocalist (Missing Persons-Destination Unknown)
1955 Jay Osmond Ogden UT, singer (Osmond Brothers, Donny & Marie)
1955 Shoko Asahara [Chizuo Matsumoto], Japanese sect leader
1955 Steve Small cricketer (stalwart New South Wales opening batsman)
1956 John Cowsill Newport RI, rock drummer (Cowsills-We Can Fly)
1956 Mark Evans Melbourne Australia, rock bassist (AC/DC-Dirty Deeds Done Dirt Cheap, Warrior Soul-Last Decade of The Century)
1958 Ian Woosnam Welsh golfer
1958 Kevin Curren South Africa, tennis star
1959 Andrew Farriss Australia, rock keyboardist (Inxs-Kiss the Dirt)
1959 Larry Stewart Paducah KY, country singer (Restless Heart-Wheels)
1959 Laura Hurlbut LPGA golfer
1962 Al Del Greco NFL kicker (Houston/Tennessee Oilers)
1962 Jon Bon Jovi [Bongiovi] Perth Amboy NJ, rocker (Bon Jovi-You Give Love a Bad Name)
1962 Philip Jonas Johannesburg South Africa, Canadian Tour golfer (1993 Payless-2nd)
1962 Terry Steinbach New Ulm MN, catcher (Oakland A's)
1963 Suzette Charles Mays Landing NJ, replaced Vanessa Williams as Miss America (1984)
1965 Ron Gant Victoria TX, outfielder (St Louis Cardinals)
1966 Judith Wiesner Hallein Austria, tennis star (1994 Schenectady)
1966 Stevie Rachelle rock vocalist (Tuff-What Comes Around Goes Around)
1967 Allan Boyko CFL slot back/twin of Bruce (Winnipeg Blue Bombers)
1967 Bruce Boyko CFL fullback/twin of Allan (Winnipeg Blue Bombers)
1967 Leo Gomez Canovanas PR, infielder (Chicago Cubs)
1968 Penny "Stamper" Davis Carlisle England, Canadian 470 yachter (Olympics-96)
1970 Kevin Miniefield NFL defensive back (Chicago Bears)
1970 Steve Holman Indianapolis IN, miler
1971 Amber Smith Tampa FL, actress (Faithful, Funeral, Mirror Has 2 Faces)
1971 Donna Perry Glendale CA, playmate (November 1994)
1971 James Hammerstrand LaMesa CA, volleyball middle blocker (Olympics-96)
1971 Ray Hall NFL defensive tackle (Jacksonville Jaguars)
1971 Ruffin Hamilton NFL linebacker (Atlanta Falcons)
1973 John Elmore guard (Baltimore Ravens)
1973 Paul Popowich actor (Tommy Tricker & Stamp Traveler)
1974 Martine Dessureault Montréal Québec Canada, 50 meter swimmer (Olympics-96)
1975 Arleen McDonald Miss Mississippi-USA (1997)
1976 Lars Bruggemann hockey defenseman (Team Germany 1998)

Deaths which occurred on March 02:
0986 Lotharius King of France (954-86), dies at 44
1122 Floris II the fat one, count of Holland, dies
1127 Charles the Good, Count of Vlanderen, murdered
1333 Wladyslaw IV the Short One/Great, duke/king of Poland, dies
1383 Amadeus VI count of Savoy, dies
1619 Anne of Denmark daughter of Danish king Frederik II, dies at 44
1758 Johann Baptist Zimmermann German stucco worker, buried at 78
1772 Robert J Pothier French lawyer, dies at 73
1787 Jean Allamand French theologist/natural philosopher, dies at 73
1797 Horace [Horatio] Walpole British horror writer, dies at 79
1800 Christian Friedrich Schale composer, dies at 86
1822 Christian Friedrich Hermann Uber composer, dies at 40
1840 Heinrich Olbers German astronomer (discoverer of comets & asteroids), dies at 81
1855 Nicholas I Pavlovitch tsar of Russia (1825-55), dies at 58
1862 Frederick West Lander US Union Brigadier-General/poet, dies at 40
1867 French A Durlet Belgian sculptor/architect, dies at 50
1868 Carl Eberwein composer, dies at 81
1882 Louis Kufferath composer, dies at 70
1887 August W Eichler German botanist, dies at 47
1887 Wilhelm Troszel composer, dies at 63
1895 Berthe MP Morisot French painter/aquarelliste, dies at 54
1895 Ismail Pasha kedive of Egypt (1863-79), dies at 64
1916 Elisabeth OL [Carmen Sylva], Queen of Romania, dies at 72
1930 David H Lawrence poet/writer (Lady Chatterley's Lover), dies at 44
1937 Gustav Wohlgemuth composer, dies at 73
1939 Howard Carter British archaeologist/Egyptologist (King Tut), dies at 65
1943 Alexandre Yersin Swiss bacteriologist (bacteria plague), dies at 79
1950 M Joseph V d'Arbaud French poet/author (Li cant palustre), dies at 76
1957 Harry E Soref inventor (padlock), dies at 70
1959 Eric Blore actor (Abie's Irish Rose, Love Happy), dies at 70
1959 Yrlö Henrik Kilpinen Finnish composer, dies at 67
1962 Charles-Jean baron de la Vallée-Poussin Belgian engineer, dies at 96
1967 Gordon Harker actor (Inspector Hornleigh), dies at 81
1971 Charles W Engelhard US silver multi-millionaire, dies at 54
1972 Bill Lawrence news anchor (ABC), dies at 56
1973 Cleo Noel US ambassador to Sudan is assassinated
1974 Barbara Ruick actress/singer (Jerry Colonna Show), dies at 41
1975 Jean Kurt Forest composer, dies at 65
1979 Edith Craig actress (Harmony Lane, Smashing Rackets), dies at 71
1979 Mollah Mustafa Barzani Kurdish leader, dies at 75
1979 Sir Richard Sykes British ambassador is assassinated in Holland
1981 Janear Hines actress (Roberta-Julia), dies at 30
1982 Philip K[indred] Dick author (Hugo-1963, Dr Futurity), dies at 53
1984 Louis Basile actor (Louie-The Super), dies at 48
1985 John B Kelly Jr chairman US Olympics Committee, dies at 57
1985 Sir Michael Redgrave actor/writer dies at 77 of Parkinson's disease
1986 Marcel Liebman Belgian historian, dies at 56
1986 Zafer Masri mayor of Nablus, murdered
1987 Randolph Scott actor (Fort Worth, Gung Ho, Jesse James), dies at 89
1991 Clark Mollenhoff US journalist (Pulitzer Prize), dies
1991 Freek Zoetmulder publisher (Austrian Encyclopedia)/neo-Nazi, dies
1991 James "Cool Papa" Bell Negro baseball league great, dies at 87
1991 Serge Gainsbourg composer/actor (Fury of Hercules), dies at 62
1992 Sandy Dennis actress (Up the Down Staircase), dies of cancer at 54
1993 Floortje Peneder Dutch poet (Diary), dies at 15
1993 Paul D Zimmerman US screenwriter (King of Comedy), dies at 54
1994 Donald McKenzie MacKinnon philosopher, dies at 80
1994 Tengiz Abuladze filmmaker, dies at 70
1995 Hugo Cole musician/critic, dies at 77
1995 Vladislav Listyev TV journalist, dies at 48
1996 Jacobo Majluta President of Dominican Republic (1982), dies at 61

On this day...
0871 Battle at Marton: Ethelred van Wessex beats Danish invasion army
1121 Dirk VI becomes count of Holland
1458 Hussite George van Podiebrad chosen king of Bohemia
1498 Vasco da Gama's fleet visits Mozambique Island
1629 English King Charles I leaces house of commons
1675 Prince William III installed as Governor of Overijssel
1725 Georg F Händels opera "Giulio Cesare in Egitto" premieres in London
1776 Americans begin shelling British troops in Boston
1789 Pennsylvania ends prohibition of theatrical performances
1799 Congress standardizes US weights & measures
1807 Congress bans slave trade effective January 1, 1808
1817 1st Evangelical church building dedicated, New Berlin PA
1819 Territory of Arkansas organized
1819 US passed its 1st immigration law
1824 Interstate commerce comes under federal control
1825 1st grand opera in US sung in English, New York NY
1829 New England Asylum for the Blind, 1st in US, incorporated, Boston
1831 John Frazee becomes 1st US sculptor to receive a federal commission
1836 Republic of Texas declares independence from Mexico
1853 Territory of Washington organized after separating from Oregon Territory
1855 Aleksandr Romanov becomes tsar of Russia
1858 Frederick Cook, New Orleans, patents a cotton-bale metallic tie
1861 Government Printing Office purchases 1st printing plant, Washington DC
1861 US Congress creates Dakota & Nevada Territories out of the Nebraska & Utah territories
1863 Congress authorizes track width of 4'8½" for Union Pacific RR
1865 British newspaper "Morning Chronicle" begins publishing
1865 Freedman's Bureau founded for Black Education, 1865
1865 General Early's army is defeated at Waynesborough
1866 1st US company to make sewing needles by machine incorporated, Connecticut
1867 Congress abolishes peonage in New Mexico
1867 Howard University established
1867 Jesse James-gang robs bank in Savannah MO, 1 dead
1867 US Congress creates the Department of Education
1867 US Congress passed the 1st Reconstruction Act
1868 University of Illinois opens
1874 Baseball batter's box is officially adopted
1876 Rutherford B Hayes elected President
1877 Rutherford B Hayes (R) declared President despite Samuel J Tilden (D) winning the popular vote, but is 1 electoral vote shy of victory
1887 American Trotting Association organized in Detroit MI
1889 Kansas passes 1st US antitrust
1890 Oscar Fredriksen skates world record 5 km (9:19)
1893 1st federal railroad legislation passed; required safety features
1896 Battle of Aduwa, Abyssinia (Ethiopia) defeats invading Italians
1896 George Lohmann takes 9-28 vs South Africa at Johannesburg
1898 Australia complete a 4-1 series annihilation of England
1899 President McKinley signs bill creating Mount Rainier National Park (5th in US)
1901 Hawaii's 1st telegraph company opens
1902 Jimmy Collins, leaves Boston Beaneaters (National League) club to manage American League's new Boston Somersets
1903 Martha Washington Hotel, catering to women only, opens in New York NY
1904 "Official Playing Rules of Professional Base Ball Clubs" adopted
1904 Gabriele d'Annunzio's "La figlia di Iorio" premieres in Milan
1907 General Louis Botha named premier of Transvaal
1907 Georges Feydeaus' "La Puce à l'Oreille" premieres in Paris France
1909 Great Britain, France, Germany & Italy ask Serbia to set no territorial demands
1910 2 trains crash in snow storm in Wellington WA, 118 die
1915 British Vice Admiral Carden begins bombing of Dardanelles forts
1915 Vladmir Jabotinsky forms a Jewish military force to fight in Palestine
1917 Jones Act: Puerto Rico territory created, US citizenship granted
1918 New York Yankees purchase 1st baseman George Burns from Detroit Tigers & immediately trades him to Philadelphia A's
1919 1st congress of Communist International opens at the Kremlin
1920 Karel Capék's "Loupeznik" premieres in Prague
1922 WBAP-AM, Fort Worth TX, begins broadcasting
1922 WLW-AM in Cincinnati OH begins radio transmissions
1923 Time magazine debuts
1925 Japan's House of Representatives recognizes male suffrage
1925 Nationwide road numbering system & US shield marker adopted
1925 SDAP-Second-Faction (Dutch Socialists) of parliament demands drastic disarmament
1927 Babe Ruth becomes highest paid baseball player ($70,000 per year)
1929 Chicago Black Hawks shut-out for NHL record 8th straight game
1929 Congress creates Court of Customs & Patent Appeals
1930 1st US indoor glider flight, St Louis Terminal Building
1933 "King Kong" premieres at Radio City Music Hall & RKO Roxy NYC
1933 Most powerful earthquake in 180 years hit Japan
1934 Union Pacific tests light-weight high-speed passenger train, Omaha
1936 Bradman scores 369 in 253 minutes, SA vs Tasmania, 46 fours 4 sixes
1937 Mexico nationalizes oil
1938 Landslides & floods cause over 200 deaths (Los Angeles CA)
1938 Trials of Soviet leaders begins in the Soviet Union
1939 Eugenio Pacelli chosen as Pope Pius XII
1939 Mass Legislature votea to ratify the Bill of Rights; 147 years late
1940 1st intercollegiate track meet telecast, Madison Square Garden, NYC
1940 Soviet armies conquer Tuppura Island Finland
1942 14th Academy Awards: "How Green was My Valley", Gary Cooper & Joan Fontaine win
1942 Admiral Helfrich departs Java for Ceylon
1943 1st transport from Westerbork Netherlands to Sobibor concentration camp
1943 Sea battle in Bismarck Sea finishes, US & Australia win
1944 16th Academy Awards: "Casablanca", Jennifer Jones & Paul Lukas win
1944 Fumes from locomotive stalled in a tunnel suffocates 521 in Italy
1945 8th Air Force bombs Dresden
1945 King Michael of Romania gives in to Communist government
1946 Dutch troops land on East Bali
1946 Ho Chi Minh elected President of North Vietnam
1946 Kingman Douglass, becomes deputy director of CIA
1949 1st automatic street light (New Milford CT)
1949 Lucky Lady II (USAF B-50 Superfortress), completes 1st nonstop round-the-world flight at Fort Worth TX, covering 23,452-mis in 94 hours
1950 Silly Putty invented
1951 1st NBA All-Star Game: East beats West 111-94 at Boston
1952 Marlene Hagge wins LPGA Sarasota Golf Open
1955 King Norodom Sihanukh of Cambodia succeeded by his father
1955 William Inge's "Bus Stop" premieres in New York NY
1956 Morocco tears up the Treaty of Féz, declares independence from France
1958 1st surface crossing of Antarctic continent is completed in 99 days
1958 Marilynn Smith wins LPGA Jacksonville Golf Open
1958 Yemen announces it will join the United Arab Republic
1961 "13 Daughters" opens at 54th St Theater NYC for 28 performances
1962 JFK announces US will resume above ground nuclear testing
1962 Wilt Chamberlain scores incredible 100 points in an NBA game
1964 Beatles begin filming "A Hard Day's Night", George Harrison meets Patti Boyd
1965 "Sound Of Music" opens
1965 Montcalm Community College in Sidney MI, founded
1966 215,000 US soldiers in Vietnam
1967 9th Grammy Awards: Strangers in Night & Michele win
1967 US performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site
1968 USAF displays Lockheed C-5A Galaxy, biggest plane in the world
1968 USSR launches space probe Zond 4; fails to leave Earth orbit
1968 World Ice Dance Championship in Geneva won by Diane Towler & Bernard Ford (Great Britain)
1968 World Ice Pairs Figure Skating Championship in Geneva won by Lyudmila Belousova & Oleg Protopopov (USSR)
1968 World Ladies Figure Skating Championship in Geneva won by Peggy Fleming (USA)
1968 World Men's Figure Skating Championship in Geneva won by Emmerich Danzer (Austria)
1969 1st test flight of the supersonic Concorde
1969 Chinese-Russian borders fight (approximately 70 die)
1969 Dmitri Shostakovich completes his 14th Symphony
1969 Phil Esposito becomes 1st NHL Player to score 100 points in a season
1969 Pirate Radio Station 295 (England/France) begins transmitting
1970 American Airlines' 1st flight of a Boeing 747
1970 Rhodesia becomes independent republic
1970 Supreme Court ruled draft evaders can not be penalized after 5 years
1972 Jean-Bédel Bokassa appoints himself President for life of Central African Republic
1972 Pioneer 10 launched for Jupiter flyby
1973 "Black September" terrorists occupy Saudi Embassy in Khartoum
1974 16th Grammy Awards: Killing Me Softly & Bette Midler win
1974 1st class postage raised from 8¢ to 10¢
1974 Grand jury concludes President Nixon is involved in Watergate cover-up
1974 Greg Chappell makes 247 vs New Zealand, 410 minutes, 29 fours 1 six
1976 "Bubbling Brown Sugar" opens at ANTA Theater NYC for 766 performances
1976 Bob Lurie becomes CEO of San Francisco Giants
1976 Holgate, Kemp & Lopez' musical premieres in New York NY
1976 Walt Disney World logged its 50 millionth guest
1977 Bette Davis is 1st woman to receive Life Achievement Award
1977 Future Tonight Show host Jay Leno debuts with host Johnny Carson
1977 Libya amends constitution
1978 1st broadcast of "Dallas" on CBS TV
1978 Soyuz 28 carries 2 cosmonauts (1 Czechoslovakian) to Salyut 6
1980 3rd Islander scoreless tie-Penguins in Pittsburgh
1980 Jan Stephenson wins LPGA Sun City Golf Classic
1980 Mike Bratz (Phoenix) ends NBA free throw streak of 57 games
1981 Aircraft hijacked by 3 Pakistani terrorists
1981 Howard Stern begins broadcasting on WWDC in Washington DC
1982 60th hat trick in Islander history-Bryan Trottier
1982 Terror group "The Illuminated Path" frees 260 prisoners in Peru
1983 Compact Disc recordings developed by Phillips & Sony introduced
1983 Final episode of MASH; 125,000,000 viewers
1983 USSR performs underground nuclear test
1984 Iran offensive against Iraq fails
1984 John Long (Detroit MI) begins NBA free throw streak of 51 games
1985 US approves screening test for AIDS
1986 1st million-dollar purse for a handicap race won at Santa Anita
1986 Mary Beth Zimmerman wins Uniden LPGA Golf Invitational
1986 Protesters try to stop Land Rover motor company being sold to US
1988 30th Grammy Awards: Graceland, Joshua Tree, Jody Watley win
1988 Dutch Liberal Party merged with SDP
1989 12 European nations agree to ban chlorofluorocarbon production by 2000
1989 Exxon Houston runs aground in Hawaii, spills 117,000 gallons of oil
1989 Madonna's "Like a Prayer" premieres on worldwide Pepsi commercial
1989 NBA's Cleveland Cavaliers win 22nd straight home game
1989 New York Met Darryl Strawberry swings at teammate Keith Hernandez
1990 Greyhound Bus goes on strike
1990 Mark Tewsksbury swims world record 50 meter backstroke (25.06 seconds)
1991 "Aspects of Love" closes at Broadhurst Theater NYC after 377 performances
1991 "La Bete" closes at Eugene O'Neill Theater NYC after 24 performances
1991 Deb Richard wins LPGA Women's Kemper Golf Open
1991 Del Ballard Jr throws most famous gutter ball in PBA Tour history
1991 North Carolina State Chris Corchiani becomes 1st NCAAer to get 1,000 assists
1991 UN votes in favor of US resolutions for cease fire with Iraq
1992 Anita Hall swims female world record 200 meter freestyle (2 :5.35)
1993 Claudette Colbert, suffers a stroke at 89
1993 Salman Rushdie divorces Marianne Wiggins
1994 Branch Davidian cult leader David Koresh promises to surrender if taped statement is broadcast; it is, but he doesn't
1994 Miami begins a latin walk of fame, 1st star for Gloria Estefan
1994 William Natcher, (Representative-Democrat-KY), casts his 18,401 & last consecutive vote
1995 "Smokey Joe's Cafe" opens at Virginia Theater NYC
1995 British trader Nick Leeson arrested for collapse of Barings Bank PLC
1995 Ferry boat sinks off Sumbe Angola, 42+ killed
1995 Space shuttle STS-67 (Endeavour 8), launches
1996 Copeland swimming pool re-opened by Gladiator
1996 Tendulkar scores 137 for India vs SL in Cricket World Cup, but still lose
1997 Gail Graham wins LPGA Alpine Australian Ladies Masters
1997 Nick Faldo wins Nissan Golf Open
1997 Saudi Arab billionaire Prince al-Waleed bin Talal aquires 5% of Apple
1997 Soyuz TM-24 returns to Earth (Russia)

Note: Some Holidays are only applicable on a given "day of the week"

Burma : Peasant's Day
Ethiopia : Battle of Aduwa Day (1896)
Texas 1836, Morocco 1956 : Independence Day

Religious Observances
Bahá'í : Beginning of month of 'Alá (19 days of fasting)
Anglican : Commemoration of Chad, Bishop of Lichfield
Lutheran : Commemoration of Charles Wesley
Lutheran : Commemoration of John Wesley

Religious History
1930 American missionary Gustav Schmidt, 39, opened the Danzig Instytut Biblijny in the Free City of Danzig (Gdansk), Poland. It was the first Pentecostal Bible institute established in Eastern Europe.
1934 Birthday of Dottie Rambo, contemporary gospel singer and songwriter. She has authored such country gospel favorites as "In the Valley He Restoreth My Soul," "Build My Mansion Next Door to Jesus" and "I Just Came to Talk With You, Lord."
1948 U.S. Senate Chaplain Peter Marshall prayed: 'O God, forgive the poverty and the pettiness of our prayers. Listen not to our words but to the yearnings of our hearts. Hear beneath our petitions the crying of our need.'
1959 American Presbyterian apologist Francis Schaeffer wrote in a letter: 'Christianity is the greatest intellectual system the mind of man has ever touched.'
1979 Over 1,100 Christian organizations combined to form the Evangelical Council for Financial Accountability (ECFA). This oversight agency was created to demonstrate to the public that religious groups wanted to make themselves accountable for the funds they raise and spend.

Thought for the day :
"Dying is a very dull, dreary affair. And my advice to you is to have nothing whatever to do with it."
7 posted on 03/02/2003 5:25:19 AM PST by Valin (Age and deceit beat youth and skill)
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To: SAMWolf
Lt. Payne, standing in the open forward hatch, was struggling with the tow line when he accidentally kicked the diving plane tiller into the down position.

This is what is techincally known as an OH SH*T!! situation.
8 posted on 03/02/2003 5:29:58 AM PST by Valin (Age and deceit beat youth and skill)
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To: SAMWolf
Good Morning
9 posted on 03/02/2003 6:13:41 AM PST by Soaring Feather
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Comment #10 Removed by Moderator

Comment #11 Removed by Moderator

To: Valin
1867 US Congress creates the Department of Education

And look at the mess it is today.

12 posted on 03/02/2003 7:33:27 AM PST by SAMWolf (We do not bargain with terrorists, we stalk them, corner them , take aim and kill them)
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To: bentfeather
Good Morning Feather.
13 posted on 03/02/2003 7:34:04 AM PST by SAMWolf (We do not bargain with terrorists, we stalk them, corner them , take aim and kill them)
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To: Valin
This is what is techincally known as an OH SH*T!! situation.

LOL! Yep, and one of those wipes out 100 "Atta Boys"

14 posted on 03/02/2003 7:35:06 AM PST by SAMWolf (We do not bargain with terrorists, we stalk them, corner them , take aim and kill them)
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To: coteblanche
Good Morning Cote. Good poems again today.
15 posted on 03/02/2003 7:37:23 AM PST by SAMWolf (We do not bargain with terrorists, we stalk them, corner them , take aim and kill them)
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To: SAMWolf
The Hunley
16 posted on 03/02/2003 7:38:34 AM PST by top of the world ma
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To: top of the world ma
I saw that on TV. I thought it was pretty good except for Donald Sutherland. Somehow he just doesn't pull off a Confederate General well.
17 posted on 03/02/2003 7:55:08 AM PST by SAMWolf (We do not bargain with terrorists, we stalk them, corner them , take aim and kill them)
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To: SAMWolf
I saw it and bought it. I don't know where those men found the courage to go down in that iron tomb. Stories like that kind of bravery always leave me with a deep impression.

OT: On this day in 1836, Texas declared it's independence from Mexico. The Alamo will fall four days later...

18 posted on 03/02/2003 8:20:03 AM PST by top of the world ma
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Comment #19 Removed by Moderator

To: top of the world ma
Thursday's Thread is about the Alamo
20 posted on 03/02/2003 8:45:41 AM PST by SAMWolf (We do not bargain with terrorists, we stalk them, corner them , take aim and kill them)
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