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Bubonic plague hits LA
Herald Sun ^ | 19 April 2006

Posted on 04/18/2006 4:34:55 PM PDT by Aussie Dasher

A CASE of bubonic plague has been reported in the second largest US city, Los Angeles, for the first time in 22 years, health officials said today.

An unidentified woman came down last week with symptoms of the disease, known as the Black Death, when it devastatingly swept across Europe in the 14th century. Health officials said they believed the infected woman, who remains in hospital, was exposed to fleas in the area around her house and stressed it was unlikely the rare disease would spread.

"Bubonic plague is not usually transmissible from person to person," Jonathan Fielding, head of Los Angeles County public health, said.

Mr Fielding explained the disease is not uncommon among animals such as squirrels but seldom spreads to humans.

"Fortunately, human plague infection is rare in urban environments, and this single case should not be a cause for alarm in the area where this occurred," he said.

Health officials investigating the source of the disease set traps to catch squirrels and other wild animals in the area near where the woman lives.

Blood tests will be performed on any animals caught to determine if they were exposed to the plague bacteria.

Plague symptoms include fever, muscle aches, nausea, headache, sore throat, fatigue and swollen, tender lymph nodes associated with the arm or leg that has flea bites.

The disease is treatable with antibiotics, medical experts said.


TOPICS: Culture/Society; Government; News/Current Events; US: California
KEYWORDS: allthankstoillegals; bubonicplague; la; rats
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Bubonic plague? Isn't that caused by too many 'Rats?
1 posted on 04/18/2006 4:34:56 PM PDT by Aussie Dasher
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To: Aussie Dasher

We're DOOMED!


2 posted on 04/18/2006 4:37:47 PM PDT by michigander (The Constitution only guarantees the right to pursue happiness. You have to catch it yourself.)
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To: Aussie Dasher

Fleas.


During the middle ages, they would keep things lke bear furs handy. It was cutomary to hold it near folks who came to your house, hoping that the fleas the person might have on them would jump into the fur!!
Then it would be shaken outside or washed.


3 posted on 04/18/2006 4:38:20 PM PDT by djf (Bedtime story: Once upon a time, they snuck on the boat and threw the tea over. In a land far away..)
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To: Aussie Dasher
Fleas on rats actually.

LA needs more viking kitties.

4 posted on 04/18/2006 4:39:04 PM PDT by Harmless Teddy Bear (Ditch the 1967 Outer Space Treaty! I want my own space bar and grill)
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To: Aussie Dasher
Bubonic plague? Isn't that caused by too many 'Rats?

LOL


5 posted on 04/18/2006 4:39:35 PM PDT by mewzilla (Property must be secured or liberty cannot exist. John Adams)
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To: Aussie Dasher; All

Anybody know what the antibiotic of choice is here?


6 posted on 04/18/2006 4:39:42 PM PDT by djf (Bedtime story: Once upon a time, they snuck on the boat and threw the tea over. In a land far away..)
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To: Aussie Dasher
Actually, we have too many squirrels for our own good. We send the squirreliest off to Washington DC, but it isn't enough in some years.
7 posted on 04/18/2006 4:42:36 PM PDT by Redcloak (Messing up perfectly good threads since 1998.)
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To: Harmless Teddy Bear; Aussie Dasher

According to the best recent research, the Black Death of the 14th century arrived in the human population through a Mongolian species of marmots, known as "tarabagan." In the United States today, the disease is sometimes found in wild populations of mice or prairie dogs. It's endemic in rodents, but it's unusual for it to be transmitted to humans in a dangerous form.


8 posted on 04/18/2006 4:43:09 PM PDT by Tax-chick ("Although You're invisible, I trust the Unseen.")
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To: djf
CDC Plague Home Page

Lots of info there :)

9 posted on 04/18/2006 4:43:10 PM PDT by mewzilla (Property must be secured or liberty cannot exist. John Adams)
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To: Aussie Dasher
stressed it was unlikely the rare disease would spread. "Bubonic plague is not usually transmissible from person to person,"

duh - but it does spread by fleas - and these fleas got it from somewhere - at least I'm assuming they didn't just spontaneously develop the plague carrying virus or that they are going to be good fleas and not leave home.

10 posted on 04/18/2006 4:43:16 PM PDT by maine-iac7 ("...but you can't fool all of the people all of the time," Lincoln)
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To: djf
Anybody know what the antibiotic of choice is here?

Whiskey.

Been self medicating, and no bubonic plague yet, so it must be working.

11 posted on 04/18/2006 4:43:43 PM PDT by Hoplite
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To: djf
Tetracycline and Cipro are usually the most common.
12 posted on 04/18/2006 4:45:07 PM PDT by COEXERJ145 (Real Leaders Base Their Decisions on Their Convictions. Wannabes Base Decisions on the Latest Poll.)
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To: djf
Several. Drug Category: Antibiotics -- Drugs that cover Y pestis should be empirically given to any patient with predisposing risk factors and signs and symptoms of the plague. Antibiotic treatment duration should be 10 d. In severe cases, a 2-drug regimen should be used. Antibiotic regiments for postexposure prophylaxis should be considered for close contacts of infected patients. Dosages and antibiotics are covered below. Drug Name Gentamicin (Garamycin, Jenamicin) -- Aminoglycoside antibiotic for gram-negative coverage. DOC with consideration of use as secondary agent. Adult Dose 5 mg/kg IV/IM qd or 2 mg/kg loading dose followed by 1.7 mg/kg IV/IM tid Pediatric Dose 2.5 mg/kg IV/IM tid (Neonates and premature infants require varying dosages.) Contraindications Documented hypersensitivity to aminoglycosides; non–dialysis-dependent renal insufficiency; use of concomitant live bacterial vaccines Interactions Coadministration with other aminoglycosides, cephalosporins, penicillins, and amphotericin B may increase nephrotoxicity; because aminoglycosides enhance effects of neuromuscular blocking agents, prolonged respiratory depression may occur; coadministration with loop diuretics may increase auditory toxicity of aminoglycosides; possible irreversible hearing loss of varying degrees may occur (monitor regularly) Pregnancy D - Unsafe in pregnancy Precautions Narrow therapeutic index (not intended for long-term therapy); caution in renal failure (not on dialysis), myasthenia gravis, hypocalcemia, and conditions that depress neuromuscular transmission; adjust dose in renal impairment; caution in neutropenic or ICU patients; may cause vestibular, renal, and auditory damage Drug Name Streptomycin sulfate -- Alternative DOC in combination with consideration of use with a secondary agent. Drug often not commercially available. Treatment usually limited to 5 d due to toxicity concerns. Continuation of secondary agent for full 10 d recommended. Adult Dose 30 mg/kg/d IM divided bid/qid; not to exceed 2 g/d Pediatric Dose 20-30 mg/kg/d IM divided bid/qid Newborn infants with transplacental infection by plague should receive gentamicin instead Contraindications Documented hypersensitivity; those with non–dialysis-dependent renal insufficiency Interactions Nephrotoxicity may be increased with aminoglycosides, cephalosporins, penicillins, amphotericin B, and loop diuretics Pregnancy D - Unsafe in pregnancy Precautions Because of narrow therapeutic index and toxic hazards associated with extended administration, not intended for long-term therapy; adjust dose in patients with renal impairment; caution in myasthenia gravis, renal failure (not on dialysis), hypocalcemia, and conditions that depress neuromuscular transmission Drug Name Chloramphenicol (Chloromycetin) -- DOC to be used as secondary agent in plague meningitis (better CNS penetration), profound hypotension, and pleural and/or pericardial involvement. May be considered as secondary agent. DOC for pregnant patients. Binds to 50S bacterial ribosomal subunits and inhibits bacterial growth. Effective against gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. Adult Dose 50-100 mg/kg/d IV divided q6h 30 mg/kg/d PO divided q6h may be substituted for IV in last 5 d of therapy Pediatric Dose 0-7 days: 25 mg/kg PO/IV qd >7 days: 50 mg/kg/d PO/IV divided q12h Contraindications Documented hypersensitivity Interactions Concurrently with barbiturates, chloramphenicol serum levels may decrease while barbiturate levels may increase, causing toxicity; manifestations of hypoglycemia may occur with sulfonylureas; rifampin may reduce serum chloramphenicol levels, presumably through hepatic enzyme induction; may increase effects of anticoagulants; may increase serum hydantoin levels, possibly resulting in toxicity; chloramphenicol levels may be increased or decreased Pregnancy C - Safety for use during pregnancy has not been established. Precautions Use only for indicated infections or as prophylaxis for bacterial infections; serious and fatal blood dyscrasias (aplastic anemia, hypoplastic anemia, thrombocytopenia, granulocytopenia) can occur; evaluate baseline and perform periodic blood studies approximately every 2 d while in therapy; discontinue upon appearance of reticulocytopenia, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, anemia, or findings attributable to chloramphenicol; adjust dose in liver or kidney dysfunction; caution in pregnancy at term or during labor because of potential toxic effects on fetus (gray syndrome) Drug Name Doxycycline (Doryx, Vibramycin, Bio-Tab) -- Inhibits protein synthesis and thus bacterial growth by binding to 30S and possibly 50S ribosomal subunits of susceptible bacteria. May be considered as secondary agent or for postexposure prophylaxis. Adult Dose Loading dose 200 mg IV; thereafter, 100 mg IV bid for 10 d Pediatric Dose <45 kg: 2.2 mg/kg IV bid (maximum daily dose of 200 mg) >45 kg: Administer as in adults Contraindications Documented hypersensitivity; severe hepatic dysfunction; breastfeeding; children <8 y; live bacterial vaccines Interactions Bioavailability decreases with antacids containing aluminum, calcium, magnesium, iron, or bismuth subsalicylate; tetracyclines can increase hypoprothrombinemic effects of anticoagulants; tetracyclines can decrease effects of oral contraceptives, causing breakthrough bleeding and increased risk of pregnancy Pregnancy D - Unsafe in pregnancy Precautions Photosensitivity may occur with prolonged exposure to sunlight or tanning equipment; reduce dose in renal impairment; consider drug serum level determinations in prolonged therapy; tetracycline use during tooth development (last one half of pregnancy through age 8 y) can cause permanent discoloration of teeth; Fanconilike syndrome may occur with outdated tetracyclines Drug Name Ciprofloxacin (Cipro) -- Fluoroquinolone that inhibits bacterial DNA synthesis and, consequently, growth, by inhibiting DNA gyrase and topoisomerases, which are required for replication, transcription, and translation of genetic material. Quinolones have broad activity against gram-positive and gram-negative aerobic organisms. Has no activity against anaerobes. Animal studies have shown effectiveness against the plague. Can be considered as a secondary agent or as an agent for postexposure prophylaxis. Adult Dose 400 mg IV bid or 500 mg PO bid Pediatric Dose 15 mg/kg IV bid or 20 mg/kg PO bid Contraindications Documented hypersensitivity; use of live vaccines Interactions Antacids, iron salts, and zinc salts may reduce serum levels; administer antacids 2-4 h before or after taking fluoroquinolones; cimetidine may interfere with metabolism of fluoroquinolones; ciprofloxacin reduces therapeutic effects of phenytoin; probenecid may increase ciprofloxacin serum concentrations; may increase toxicity of theophylline, caffeine, cyclosporine, and digoxin (monitor digoxin levels); may increase effects of anticoagulants (monitor PT) Pregnancy C - Safety for use during pregnancy has not been established. Precautions Dosage adjustments (adult adjustments) CrCl (mL/min) <10: 50% of PO or IV dose q12h HD: 0.25-0.5 g PO or 0.2-0.4 g IV q12h During peritoneal dialysis: 0.25-0.5 g PO or 0.2-0.4 g IV q8h In prolonged therapy, perform periodic evaluations of organ system functions (eg, renal, hepatic, hematopoietic); adjust dose in renal function impairment; superinfections may occur with prolonged or repeated antibiotic therapy Not drug of first choice in pediatrics because of increased incidence of adverse events compared to controls, including arthropathy; no data exist for dose for pediatric patients with renal impairment (ie, CrCl <50 mL/min) Drug Name Tetracycline (Sumycin, Tetracyn IV) -- Treats susceptible bacterial infections of both gram-positive and gram-negative organisms as well as mycoplasmal, chlamydial, and rickettsial infections; inhibits bacterial protein synthesis by binding with 30S and possibly 50S ribosomal subunits of susceptible bacteria; use with either streptomycin or gentamicin. Consider as a secondary agent or for postexposure prophylaxis. Adult Dose Loading dose: 15 mg/kg PO; not to exceed 1 g Day 1: 40-50 mg/kg PO q4h Thereafter: 30 mg/kg PO q6h for 10-14 d Loading dose: 5 mg/kg IV Day 1: 15 mg/kg IV q4h Thereafter: 5 mg/kg IV q6h; may switch to PO at any time if patient can tolerate Prophylactic dosing: 25-50 mg/kg/d PO divided qid Pediatric Dose If suspicion of plague is high, some authors recommend similar dosages and regimens for all pediatric patients, even children <8 y Prophylactic dosing >8 years: 25-50 mg/kg/d PO divided qid Contraindications Documented hypersensitivity; those diagnosed with severe hepatic dysfunction Interactions Bioavailability decreases with antacids containing aluminum, calcium, magnesium, iron, or bismuth subsalicylate; can decrease effects of oral contraceptives, causing breakthrough bleeding and increased risk of pregnancy; can increase hypoprothrombinemic effects of anticoagulants Pregnancy D - Unsafe in pregnancy Precautions Photosensitivity may occur with prolonged exposure to sunlight or tanning equipment; reduce dose in renal impairment; consider drug serum level determinations in prolonged therapy; use during tooth development (last one half of pregnancy through age 8 y) can cause permanent discoloration of teeth; Fanconilike syndrome may occur with outdated tetracyclines Drug Name Co-trimoxazole (Bactrim, Septra) -- DOC for prophylaxis of pregnant women and children <8 y; inhibits bacterial synthesis of dihydrofolic acid by competing with PABA, inhibiting folic acid synthesis and resulting in the inhibition of bacterial growth. Adult Dose 1 DS tab PO bid for 5-10 d Pediatric Dose <2 months: Do not administer >2 months: 8 mg/kg/d trimethoprim and 40 mg/kg/d sulfamethoxazole PO divided bid for 5-10 d Contraindications Documented hypersensitivity; those diagnosed with megaloblastic anemia due to folate deficiency Interactions May increase PT when used with warfarin (perform coagulation tests and adjust dose accordingly); coadministration with dapsone may increase blood levels of both drugs; coadministration of diuretics increases incidence of thrombocytopenia purpura in elderly patients; phenytoin levels may increase with coadministration; may potentiate effects of methotrexate in bone marrow depression; hypoglycemic response to sulfonylureas may increase with coadministration; may increase levels of zidovudine Pregnancy C - Safety for use during pregnancy has not been established. Precautions Discontinue at first appearance of rash or sign of adverse reaction; obtain CBCs frequently; discontinue therapy if significant hematologic changes occur; goiter, diuresis, and hypoglycemia may occur with sulfonamides; prolonged IV infusions or high doses may cause bone marrow depression (if signs occur, give 5-15 mg/d leucovorin); caution in folate deficiency (eg, chronic alcoholics, elderly patients, those receiving anticonvulsant therapy, or those with malabsorption syndrome); hemolysis may occur in individuals with G-6-PD deficiency; patients with AIDS may not tolerate or respond to TMP-SMZ; caution in renal or hepatic impairment (perform urinalyses and renal function tests during therapy); give fluids to prevent crystalluria and stone formation
13 posted on 04/18/2006 4:45:59 PM PDT by 4U2OUI (Iran,YOU are the target.)
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To: Aussie Dasher
Orange County was trying to decide how to get rid of their rat infestation just a couple of weeks ago.

Rats Overrun Neighborhood in Orange County

14 posted on 04/18/2006 4:46:52 PM PDT by I'm ALL Right!
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To: djf
From the CDC

Antibiotic treatment should begin as soon as possible after laboratory specimens are taken. Streptomycin is the antibiotic of choice. Gentamicin is used when streptomycin is not available. Tetracyclines and chloramphenicol are also effective.

15 posted on 04/18/2006 4:47:05 PM PDT by mewzilla (Property must be secured or liberty cannot exist. John Adams)
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To: 4U2OUI

Yuck. Sorry 'bout the formatting.


16 posted on 04/18/2006 4:47:06 PM PDT by 4U2OUI (Iran,YOU are the target.)
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To: Aussie Dasher
Bubonic plague is not usually transmissible from person to person.

Except when it converts to Pneumonic Plague , which spreads quickly and fatally.

Inhaling droplets expelled by the coughing of a plague-infected person or animal (especially house cats) can result in plague of the lungs (plague pneumonia). Transmission of plague pneumonia from person to person is uncommon but sometimes results in dangerous epidemics that can quickly spread.

17 posted on 04/18/2006 4:50:08 PM PDT by Plutarch
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To: Hoplite
Whiskey.

I heard that works for SARS and bird flu too.

However, it's not very effective against AIDS or adverse consequences related to illegal aliens or minority strippers.

18 posted on 04/18/2006 4:51:12 PM PDT by michigander (The Constitution only guarantees the right to pursue happiness. You have to catch it yourself.)
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To: djf
Used to be tetracyclines. Dunno know. Yersinia pestis is a gram-negative critter that has an endotoxin associated with its cell wall to which the human body hardly reacts until the cell dies and lyses. Then massive doses of the endotoxin hit you all at once. That's why a sudden high dose of antibiotics can actually cause more harm than good. So you hit it with a measured dosage and provide supportive therapy for fever and dehydration and usually the patient does fine. Unless they die.
19 posted on 04/18/2006 4:51:29 PM PDT by Billthedrill
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To: djf; mewzilla

.......Anybody know what the antibiotic of choice is here?.....

Back in 1994 we learned that a cure for Rats was Tongue of Newt.

Ahhh but we can only wish he he had a stronger influence today.


20 posted on 04/18/2006 4:52:43 PM PDT by bert (K.E. N.P. Slay Pinch)
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To: 4U2OUI
Sorry 'bout the formatting.

Looks perfect to me...

21 posted on 04/18/2006 4:52:45 PM PDT by michigander (The Constitution only guarantees the right to pursue happiness. You have to catch it yourself.)
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To: bert
LOL


22 posted on 04/18/2006 4:54:24 PM PDT by mewzilla (Property must be secured or liberty cannot exist. John Adams)
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To: Redcloak

it'd be the 1st time many pubbies have seen something with nuts there


23 posted on 04/18/2006 4:54:27 PM PDT by Rakkasan1 (they love you in Mexico until you pay in pesos.)
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To: djf
Anybody know what the antibiotic of choice is here?

colloidal silver
24 posted on 04/18/2006 4:54:33 PM PDT by Jaysun (If anything is possible, then it's possible that nothing is possible.)
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To: Hoplite

What do you use to ward off bird flu? :)


25 posted on 04/18/2006 4:55:06 PM PDT by Politicalmom (Must I use a sarcasm tag?)
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To: michigander
We're DOOMED!

No bird flue for me.

26 posted on 04/18/2006 4:57:12 PM PDT by Cobra64
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To: Aussie Dasher
"Bubonic plague is not usually transmissible from person to person," Jonathan Fielding, head of Los Angeles County public health, said.

Wrong! 25 million people didn't die in Europe from fleas.

Fleas spread it from rodents to humans and then humans spread it like wildfire.

27 posted on 04/18/2006 4:57:16 PM PDT by TheLion
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To: Aussie Dasher
Bubonic plague? Isn't that caused by too many 'Rats?

Or too many illegals.
Whether they are from Mexico (most likely) or Asia, it is certain to be an illegal.

28 posted on 04/18/2006 4:57:42 PM PDT by Publius6961 (Multiculturalism is the white flag of a dying country)
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To: blam

Ping!


29 posted on 04/18/2006 4:59:06 PM PDT by TheLion
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To: 4U2OUI

What's the antidote to that prescription? LOL


30 posted on 04/18/2006 5:00:27 PM PDT by Cobra64
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To: Tax-chick

Actually, there are theories that the Black Death may not have been just bubonic plaque, because some of the symptoms do not fit, and there are few rats in some of the areas where the pandemic struck, such as Iceland. Other candidates are pulmonary anthrax and some Ebola like virus.


31 posted on 04/18/2006 5:08:02 PM PDT by SoCal Pubbie
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To: TheLion

People had fleas, too.


32 posted on 04/18/2006 5:10:02 PM PDT by Tax-chick ("Although You're invisible, I trust the Unseen.")
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To: Publius6961
Spanish Flea, Herb Alpert and Tijuana Brass. (midi)
33 posted on 04/18/2006 5:10:54 PM PDT by michigander (The Constitution only guarantees the right to pursue happiness. You have to catch it yourself.)
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To: Politicalmom
"What do you use to ward off bird flu? :)"

Isolation.

34 posted on 04/18/2006 5:15:08 PM PDT by blam
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To: Aussie Dasher
Bubonic plague? Isn't that caused by too many 'Rats?

Nope. It's caused by too many illegal aliens illegally aliening from places with too many rats.
35 posted on 04/18/2006 5:16:54 PM PDT by Old_Mil (http://www.constitutionparty.org - Forging a Rebirth of Freedom.)
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To: SoCal Pubbie
"Actually, there are theories that the Black Death may not have been just bubonic plaque, because some of the symptoms do not fit, and there are few rats in some of the areas where the pandemic struck, such as Iceland. Other candidates are pulmonary anthrax and some Ebola like virus."

I've seen some 'experts' say recently that they believe at least two agents were at work during the Black Death.

36 posted on 04/18/2006 5:17:27 PM PDT by blam
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To: Tax-chick

Heh, they call prairie dogs "plague bunnies".


37 posted on 04/18/2006 5:20:18 PM PDT by coydog (Cowardice does not make you safe. It makes you a safe target. - - Dale Amon)
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To: Aussie Dasher; TheLion
Historical Review: Megadrought And Megadeath In 16th Century Mexico (Hemorragic Fever)
38 posted on 04/18/2006 5:21:43 PM PDT by blam
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To: Tax-chick

"Once a human is infected, a progressive illness generally results unless specific antibiotic therapy is given. Progression leads to blood infection and, finally, to lung infection. The infection of the lung is termed plague pneumonia, and it can be transmitted to others through the expulsion of droplets by coughing."

The high death rates were human to human.

Btw, the rat flea was the carrier, not the human flea.

http://www.nps.gov/public_health/inter/info/factsheets/fs_plague.htm


39 posted on 04/18/2006 5:23:09 PM PDT by TheLion
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To: Jaysun

I make a couple gallons a day and keep all my friends supplied.


40 posted on 04/18/2006 5:26:23 PM PDT by DocRock
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To: Aussie Dasher

Yet another way America is celebrating diversity.
We need more guest workers.


41 posted on 04/18/2006 5:43:50 PM PDT by putupjob
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To: 4U2OUI

I heard refusing to use paragraphs is one of the first symptoms..


42 posted on 04/18/2006 5:49:38 PM PDT by joesnuffy
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To: Aussie Dasher
"Bubonic plague? Isn't that caused by too many 'Rats?"

No, that's 'Bluebonic plague.' (Blue states).

43 posted on 04/18/2006 5:55:00 PM PDT by Eastbound
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To: Eastbound

LOL! It probably is!


44 posted on 04/18/2006 5:56:05 PM PDT by Aussie Dasher (The Great Ronald Reagan & John Paul II - Heaven's Dream Team!)
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To: I'm ALL Right!

The Orange County referenced in your link is in Florida, not the Orange County located next to Los Angeles County.


45 posted on 04/18/2006 6:01:21 PM PDT by ER_in_OC,CA
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To: Aussie Dasher
Well....what the heck....nobody has placed the blame so far, so I guess I have to....

It's Bush's fault...

46 posted on 04/18/2006 6:02:23 PM PDT by B.O. Plenty (Islam, liberalism and abortions are terminal..)
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To: djf

Anybody know what the antibiotic of choice is here?


Tetracycline as I recall. Not sure of the spelling but you get the idea.


47 posted on 04/18/2006 6:05:10 PM PDT by Nuc1 (NUC1 Sub pusher SSN 668 (Liberals Aren't Patriots))
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To: ER_in_OC,CA

Ha. My bad.


48 posted on 04/18/2006 6:06:49 PM PDT by I'm ALL Right! (Soul Patrol)
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To: DocRock
I make a couple gallons a day and keep all my friends supplied.

That's a lot! I've made one jar by using 3 9v batteries. Do you make it the same way?
49 posted on 04/18/2006 6:10:06 PM PDT by Jaysun (If anything is possible, then it's possible that nothing is possible.)
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To: Old_Mil
Correct, just another benefit from uncontrolled Chinese and south American illegals. This is why in the old days the sceened everyone. Why are we slipping back in time.
50 posted on 04/18/2006 6:12:05 PM PDT by Roverman2K
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