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What caused westward expansion in the United States?
University of Southern California ^ | February 28, 2008 | Unknown

Posted on 02/28/2008 3:21:48 PM PST by decimon

Study reveals that the price of land was less important than technological innovation

Western Expansion during the nineteenth century was an important determinant of geographic distribution and economic activity in the United States today. However, while explanations abound for why the migration occurred– from the low price of land to a pioneering spirit – little empirical work has been done to determine which specific market forces were the most important drivers.

Applying quantitative analysis to historical explanations, a new study by economist Guillaume Vandenbroucke of the University of Southern California finds that the price of land was significantly less important to Westward Expansion than population growth and technological innovation leading to a decrease in transportation costs.

From 1800 to 1900, the United States tripled in size, from less than one million square miles to more than three million square miles. The geographic distribution of population also shifted, from about seven percent living in the West to roughly 60 percent. To examine what forces were most directly responsible for the magnitude of this movement and land accumulation, Vandenbroucke takes into account such factors as the amount of land available in the Eastern United States, wage and productivity growth in the East, and improvements in technologies and transportation infrastructures.

To account for the range of variables and possible factors, Vandenbroucke determined a model in which each factor was held at a constant level while the others shifted at historical rates.

“The most important forces are population growth and the decrease in transportation costs,” Vandenbroucke said. “Population growth is mostly responsible for the investment in productive land – without it less than half of the land accumulated in 1900 would have been accumulated.”

Surprisingly, Vandenbroucke found that changes in productivity in the East had little effect on the Westward Expansion, relative to population growth and a decrease in transportation costs – as he explains, rising wages and productivity makes it easier to move, but it also makes it less pressing to move.

Instead, he finds that population growth and technological innovation worked in concert as the main driving factors of Western Expansion. Specifically, the decrease in transportation costs induced Western migration and the redistribution of the American population – without it only 30 percent of the population would have been in the West in 1900, compared to an actual historical figure of 60 percent. Land improvement technology, such as the use of barbed wire to cut down on the time needed to build a fence, had a small effect on the accumulation of land in the West.

Vandenbroucke’s findings, appearing in the current issue of International Economic Review, have important implications for how to understand current population patterns and international immigration to the United States.

###

About the University of Southern California: Established in 1880, the University of Southern California is one of the world’s leading private research universities and the oldest private research university in the western United States. USC enrolls more international students than any other U.S. university and offers extensive opportunities for internships and study abroad. With a strong tradition of integrating liberal and professional education, USC fosters a vibrant culture of public service and encourages students to cross academic as well as geographic boundaries in their pursuit of knowledge.


TOPICS: Business/Economy; Culture/Society; News/Current Events
KEYWORDS: americanhistory
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To: bert

You’re right, as many reasons as there were families. Some in my grandmother’s family just kept moving west, first to central PA, then some to Ohio, and then to Walla Walla, WA in 1860, for the cheap land, full of the old pioneering spirit. I think that we call them risk takers, now.


51 posted on 02/28/2008 4:21:32 PM PST by Eva (Benedict Arnold was a war hero, too.)
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To: decimon

And that life in major eastern cities simply, to borrow a word from the vernacular of today’s youth, megasucked.


52 posted on 02/28/2008 4:22:32 PM PST by MIchaelTArchangel
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To: decimon

The real reason is all the really hot women were willing to travel west and their mothers would stay put.


53 posted on 02/28/2008 4:23:15 PM PST by Raycpa
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To: decimon
About the University of Southern California: Established in 1880, the University of Southern California is one of the world’s leading private research universities and the oldest private research university in the western United States. Most recently it is best known for a football team that routinely kicks the butt of other renowned institutions, and almost surely will be ranked #1 in the intial polls coming out late this summer.

Fixed that.

Now what's this about a computer simulation about moving to California? It's probably because nobody wanted to stop in Nevada.

54 posted on 02/28/2008 4:23:54 PM PST by Dog Gone
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To: passionfruit
Civil war vets were offered land out West. That is how some of my people wound up in the Washington Territory.

That is part of the answer. Carpet baggers taxed southern land owners out of existence so they went west where taxes were cheaper than the land.

55 posted on 02/28/2008 4:24:17 PM PST by mountainlyons
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To: decimon

I think the cause if western expansion was that we started in the east.


56 posted on 02/28/2008 4:28:04 PM PST by A CA Guy ( God Bless America, God bless and keep safe our fighting men and women.)
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To: uglybiker

Y’all got it wrong!

The Indians sent out their invitations for the Grand Opening of their casinos just a tad bit early!


57 posted on 02/28/2008 4:29:32 PM PST by JDoutrider (No 2nd Amendment... Know Tyranny)
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To: Bender2

Having spent a four years living in Oklahoma all I can say is it had to happen sooner or later.

Huh, never thought about ghat..

58 posted on 02/28/2008 4:33:17 PM PST by big'ol_freeper (REAGAN: "..party..must represent certain fundamental beliefs [not] compromised..[for] expediency")
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To: SGCOS
New York, child labor, the tightly controlled social stratification of European and English society propelled thousands to risk life and limb rather than live as low caste peons.

Why don't the intellectuals look at the social controls, the 'uptight' lifestyles of the rich and famous? The reality of the dominance of the blue bloods over the masses is forgotten history.

59 posted on 02/28/2008 4:38:53 PM PST by x_plus_one (Trust in God but keep your powder dry... --Oliver Cromwell)
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To: decimon
A liberal could never come up with; "mankind's innate curiosity, thirst for new and challenges and a desire to experience the unknown.”
60 posted on 02/28/2008 4:42:08 PM PST by HardStarboard (Take No Prisoners - We're Out Of Qurans)
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To: big'ol_freeper
Fort Sill?

An old cuz of mine was a Marine back during Nam and he went to artillery school at Sill. He was one the last, he says, to pop a cap (a 280mm non-nuke cap, that is!) on Atomic Annie. I shutter to think of what his military career would have really been had my old cuz had more than eight toes!

61 posted on 02/28/2008 5:07:37 PM PST by Bender2 ("I've got a twisted sense of humor, and everything amuses me." RAH Beyond this Horizon)
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To: american_ranger

That was my first thought as well... Yearning for true freedom...


62 posted on 02/28/2008 5:46:51 PM PST by LibertyRocks ("Islam - The Religion of Pieces" -- quote from LR's "Infidel & Proud" Daughter)
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To: decimon
Because the Americans didn't want to see this continent go the way of Europe with dozens of smaller sovereign states constantly at war with each other? Wasn't "Manifest Destiny" about ensuring that this continent was under one rule?

-PJ

63 posted on 02/28/2008 5:51:22 PM PST by Political Junkie Too (Repeal the 17th amendment -- it's the "Fairness Doctrine" for Congress!)
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To: decimon

I always thought it was Lewis and Clarke, the Mormon trail-making exodus and the Gold Rush that caused it, plus the lure of free land in Oregon etc.


64 posted on 02/28/2008 6:14:36 PM PST by Paulus Invictus
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To: Conspiracy Guy

My aunt in Birmingham was busting on me in a serious way at my Grandmothers funeral. Somwhere in our conversation she said “we still have grits down here”! Hell, I’m in TN.


65 posted on 02/28/2008 6:21:50 PM PST by eyedigress
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To: MamaB
I read a story on a genealogy site which said 2 brothers of my direct ancestor were leaders on the first wagon train to go through Donner Pass after that disaster. I only found it one place years ago and have not been able to find it since.

If you're interested, a good book to check into would be George R. Stewart's "The California Trail". From a quick skim of the text, the leader of the first wagon train after the Donner Party would seem to be Charles Hopper, though other groups arrived soon after on his tails.

66 posted on 02/28/2008 6:31:28 PM PST by SpringheelJack
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To: Ditter
My ancestors started their westward trek before the Revolutionary War

Same here. Started out in Wiltshire England way way way back. Made it as for west as Indiana, which was pretty far West when they made it here. Now it's just part of the Midwest.

Oh well. Not really missing Kalifornia.

67 posted on 02/28/2008 7:05:58 PM PST by AFreeBird
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To: decimon

“What caused westward expansion in the United States?”

That’s easy: the influx of liberals on the east coast.


68 posted on 02/28/2008 7:50:12 PM PST by JewishRighter (Why, oh Why can't it be Hunter???)
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To: decimon

Gold and blonds on the beach.


69 posted on 02/28/2008 10:37:36 PM PST by TruthWillWin
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To: decimon

Indian Casinos?


70 posted on 02/28/2008 11:06:42 PM PST by fish hawk (The religion of Darwinism = Monkey Intellect)
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To: decimon

Homestead Act. 640 acres of free land (if you were married) is a powerful inducment to get people to move and settle down somewhere.


71 posted on 02/28/2008 11:19:48 PM PST by Centurion2000 (su - | chown -740 us ./base | kill -9 | cd / | rm -r)
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To: Bender2

Yup. Spent my first four years in the Army at Mother Sill. Atomic Annie’ll give you as much fire power as you need...big gun. It sits right up there by post headquarters.


72 posted on 02/29/2008 3:12:34 AM PST by big'ol_freeper (REAGAN: "..party..must represent certain fundamental beliefs [not] compromised..[for] expediency")
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To: eyedigress

We Alabamians are a tough bunch.


73 posted on 02/29/2008 5:07:30 AM PST by Conspiracy Guy (I voted Republican because no Conservatives were running.)
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To: Ditter

Mine mostly came west in the mid- to late 1700s, too.

Of my four grandparents

.England to VA to MS to IT/OK
.England to VA to KY to IT/OK
.Scotland to VA to AL to OK

And much later (1800s):

.Germany to PA to OH to OK

First settlement in TX was in very late 1940s. First and only child born here in my direct lineage was *moi*! Haven’t stayed here the whole time, however - I am *bi-statual* - the *other state*? You guessed it - Boomer Sooner.

One of my KY relatives introduced the bill to the US House to ratify TX’s annexation as a state in 1845. I figure that counts! (Except on the 2nd weekend in October.)


74 posted on 02/29/2008 7:45:46 AM PST by Rte66
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To: Rte66
Sounds like our families were very similar. As near as I can tell, the families moved west every other generation. People like that didn’t leave very big tracks and it hard to know exactly. I do know that the earliest branch to arrive in Texas were listed in the
1st census of Texas taken in 1835. They came with John Bevil into east Texas several years before that. Wish I knew more.
75 posted on 02/29/2008 8:48:20 AM PST by Ditter
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To: Ditter

Oh, I know a lot about mine. Both grandmothers were in DAR, and one was in Colonial Dames and the other in Daughters of the Confederacy, so both had to have lots of documentation.

I know the most about my paternal-paternal lineage, as my dad got interested in it before he died and I did quite a bit of research on it and got BIA cards for both of us, after a man gave us a report he wrote on my great-grandfather.

Indian Territory was pretty small in 1858 when my g-g-gf first moved from Miss., so there was a lot written about the family and in-laws in the Chronicles of Oklahoma.

Unfortunately, I don’t have the grandmothers’ papers in my possession and whatever I’ve had otherwise was lost two computers ago. Some of it is still online, so I should probably gather it again after I switch to a newer non-virused one (this one is bad and will be gone soon).


76 posted on 02/29/2008 9:57:53 AM PST by Rte66
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To: Rte66
Our children were all 3 adopted so when they were young (and the older generation was still alive) I didn’t make a big deal about heritage. If they had decided they wanted to search for their heritage on their own, it would have been OK but if my search had kicked off their search and what they found had disrupted their lives, I would have felt terrible. As it turned out they didn’t care about their heritage.
77 posted on 02/29/2008 10:51:31 AM PST by Ditter
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To: yefragetuwrabrumuy
The economy of the South was pretty much wiped out by 1865. In digging through old newspapers from the mining camps of the desert, 1870 onwards, one will often find a comment "so and so took his new bride to meet his family in (insert various southern states here).

I suppose somewhere on the net, there are statistics showing economic output from the losers of the CW dropping to ?

78 posted on 02/29/2008 11:09:50 AM PST by investigateworld ( Abortion stops a beating heart.)
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To: SpringheelJack
I have come to a great conclusion. This was not a true story so someone who knew more about this family had it taken off the Internet. One was said to be the wagonmaster and the other was the blacksmith. That may be the reason I can not find the story anymore. Will just have to wait and see.
79 posted on 02/29/2008 11:11:24 AM PST by MamaB
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To: Raycpa

Which, of course, gave rise to telling these westbound nomads to “get thy kicks on Rte66!”


80 posted on 02/29/2008 11:48:33 AM PST by Rte66
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To: decimon

Population Growth from Europe and Cities in the Northeast?

Second and Third Sons from both Europe and the American South’s plantocracy and yeoman class.

Railroads?

man....that was a tough one....(wiping sweat)


81 posted on 02/29/2008 11:51:38 AM PST by wardaddy (Obama: The candidate for those who think Deliverance was a documentary.)
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To: investigateworld

The post-Civil War demographic changes are pretty startling. For example, most of the adult males in Arkansas were about wiped out. But dramatic demographic changes happened for other reasons as well.

1) Just before the turn of the century, the boll weevil wiped out the cotton crop, and forced adaptation to a different form of agriculture. Perfect timing, as well, as it would have soon been wiped out by foreign competition.

2) The Dust Bowl caused its reversal of the frontier by forcing large numbers of farmers to the coasts. This was heightened by the Great Depression.

3) The Green Revolution after WWII continued where they had left off, and stripped most of the remaining private farmers out of rural America, to move to the cities.


82 posted on 02/29/2008 12:15:21 PM PST by yefragetuwrabrumuy
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To: big'ol_freeper
Re: Atomic Annie’ll give you as much fire power as you need...

Yeah, "280mm" is about 11 inches... and that was once my nickname! Now it is "300 Plus mm!" after my last refit.

83 posted on 02/29/2008 3:00:52 PM PST by Bender2 ("I've got a twisted sense of humor, and everything amuses me." RAH Beyond this Horizon)
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To: decimon

For my family, it was the UP railroad.

Left Germany and ended up in Nebraska. Why they didn’t go somewhere warmer we will never know.


84 posted on 02/29/2008 3:03:44 PM PST by redgolum ("God is dead" -- Nietzsche. "Nietzsche is dead" -- God.)
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To: decimon

Any individual thirsting for more freedom would have instinctively headed west.


85 posted on 02/29/2008 3:06:33 PM PST by gorush (Exterminate the Moops!)
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To: redgolum
Left Germany and ended up in Nebraska. Why they didn’t go somewhere warmer we will never know.

Some Europeans paid to get here with the "streets paved with gold" sort of bs. There were probably many who went west on the same sort of false promises.

86 posted on 02/29/2008 3:08:18 PM PST by decimon
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