Skip to comments.Hiroshima in Yaroslavl (Red Terror in Russia)
Posted on 07/28/2013 10:53:50 AM PDT by annalex
At the beginning the Yaroslavl uprising was daring, adventurous. Hundreds of officers, armed with a dozen revolvers seized a large provincial town early Saturday morning, July 6, 1918. Yaroslavl has held a dominant position on the transport routes to the North and Siberia. Given the promise of the French troops intervening, the opportunity existed to turn the city into the main center of anti-communist resistance in Russia.
The Yaroslavl Revolt was conceived by the "Union of defense of the Fatherland and freedom" led by a Socialist Revolutionary B.V. Savinkov. According to the plan, during the winter-spring of 1918, forces under control of the Union secretly accumulated in the cities of Central Russia, waiting for an hour "X", and then they were to rise up at the same time, rifle in hand. Savinkov also hoped to receive military aid from the Entente allies - through the northern ports.
Since March 1918 the headquarters of the military district was situated in Yaroslavl, tasked with forming the Red Army in the vast territory of the Northern Volga region. So it became possible to legally flood the city with loyal officers. The ease with which they captured the city, had an explanation, which the Soviet historians preferred to sidestep as soon as possible. Back in the days of November 1917 at the Yaroslavl city council there was a "self-defense" force. Yaroslavl residents as early as the Easter of 1918 began armed resistance against the Bolsheviks spreading their control across the country. By the time of the uprising many townspeople were willing to open an armed struggle against the Soviets.
A nationwide conspiracy
Immediately after the city was captured, the volunteer officers announced the creation of the city authority and issued a call to join the volunteer army. Yaroslavlians supported the actions of the new government, transforming the conspiratorial Savinkovs adventure into a popular movement. V.S. Lopatin again became the Mayor of Yaroslavl. The Social Democrat S.A. Suvorov, who held the position until November 1917, was also among the city's management. A member of the Committee for Salvation of Country and Revolution A.M. Kizner became Assistant to the Chief Commander of the Civil affairs. The Mensheviks, led by ITSavinov and HI Joffe, and Social Revolutionaries led by NA Mamyrin supported the uprising. Even the former provincial commissar of the Provisional Government of the Mensheviks B.V. Duchesne defected to the rebels.
The local police fully supported the uprising. Its provincial commissioner Falaleev soon fell in battle with the Reds. To the side of the people also came the Armored Division lead by lieutenant Suponin ( with 25 officers, 2 armored cannon cars "Putilov-Garford" and 5 heavy machine guns.)
The main slogans of the uprising were Constituent Assembly, restoration of the rule of law and property rights, "cancellation of obstacles to trade and movement," and " reinstatement of private commercial capital. " Communication between the rebel leaders and the population was mainly done with leaflets containing appeals to the citizens of the city. 28 of these had been released.
During the first days about six thousand volunteers signed up in the army (of whom 1,600-2,000 participated in the battles). The workers, intellectuals, students, peasants from the surrounding villages joined... Workers of the railway workshops, in addition to sending 140 people into the ranks of "Yaroslavl Squad of the North Volunteer Army", also built an armored train, repaired weapons and armored cars.
Joining the army was really on a strictly voluntary basis. Even with respect to the officers, "... deviating from honest performance of duty to the country and taking no active part in the fight," the only "punishment" was depriving them of an officer's rank.
Despite the excesses of the Black Hundred style, which took place on the first day of the uprising: the mob murder of the head of Yaroslavl Soviet D.S. Zakheim and of Yaroslavl Military District Commissioner S.M. Nachimson, further excesses in this direction were abruptly stopped by the rebel leader, Colonel A.P. Perkhurov. He dismissed the head of counter-intelligence of the insurgents. By the way, local Jewish residents were found involved in the uprising.
During the first week in euphoria reigned. Everyone waited any day for the announcement of the Allies landing in Arkhangelsk, for the news of the uprisings in other cities. No measures were taken to increase their control over the entire city. Under the power of the rebels were only central areas of the city and the district across the Volga, Tveritsy. Factory suburbs across the Kotorosl river where the 1st Soviet regiment, that declared its neutrality, was stationed have remained outside of the rebels control. And this regiment, after having waited for the approach of the Red, openly sided with the Soviet power. From there, from the Tugov mountain dominating the city, soon began unpunished bombardment of Yaroslavl by the Red artillery.
Already by mid-July, the grim outlook became clear to the experienced officers. The city was squeezed between the Red troops. Hopes for the arrival of the Allied troops melted away with each passing day. The way out was but a single one - to escape the city and raid the surrounding villages, raising the uprising there. In the night of 16 July, the Chief of Staff, Colonel A.P. Perhurov lead a detachment on board of a steamer and broke through to the Tolgsky monastery. After rousing the peasants against the Soviet regime, he was to attack from the arrears. General P.P. Karpov, whose family lived here in the city became the commander.
Revenge for Zakheim and Nachimson
Actions of the Reds were headed Military Revolutionary Committee led by YD Lenzman. On July 14 from Vologda a large red detachment of A. Hecker approached. At the forefront of executioners were internationalists - Magyar 1st Moscow International battalion and a combined force under the command of Filyanovich of the 1st Polish Revolutionary Red Warsaw Regiment.
The reprisals against the insurgent population used such methods and such means that have not been applied ever before in the history of the world.
For the first time, aircraft bombarded the city. Each day, bombs dropped on the city by the pood [*]. According to the "Emergency Headquarters for the elimination of the rebellion", only "... in two flights 12 pounds of dynamite bombs were dropped... Pilots observed badly damaged buildings and caused fires ... At present, due to persistence of the enemy, it was decided to reinforce the bombing, using for this purpose bombs of the most destructive power ... ".
For the first time a city was under artillery firing "by the district". Streets, entire neighborhoods were completely destroyed. In fact, for the first time in history "scorched earth" tactics were applied. In the parts of the city swept in the revolt up to 80% of all buildings were destroyed, including the famous Demidov Lyceum with its nationally-famous library, 15 factories, 9 elementary school buildings, City Hospital, shopping arcade... A unique collection from the Petrograd Artillery historical the museum that was evaquated to Yaroslavl due to the First World War perished. The most valuable materials of a Vilkitsky scientific expedition in the Arctic were destroyed, the surviving maps of which explorers used even in the 30s.
Yaroslavl now listed by UNESCO as a cultural monument of world importance. But 80% of the most valuable objects of architecture were destroyed by the Communists in July 1918!
A chemical attack against the city was prepared. On 16 July the Red commissar Yu. S. Guzarskiy by telegram demanded from Moscow a supply of chemical and incendiary ordnances, justifying this by saying that "... if we can not liquidate this thing we shall have to raze the city to the ground!" The cannibalistic requirement has been met, and chemical shells arrived. And only the strong wind and heavy rain that happened during the last days of the uprising prevented the reds from using the gas.
Otherwise, the symbol of the inhumane crime - mass murder of civilians with poisonous gases - would not have become Kurdish Halabja, but the ancient Russian Yaroslavl!
Telegrams from Moscow stated: "The prisoners to be shot: nothing should stop or slow down the use of harsh punishment ... Terror in relation to the local bourgeoisie and its lackeys ... should be iron-firm and not know mercy. "
German captivity, Red firing squad
After the 20th of July it was clear to the rebels - there was nothing to continue resistance with. Ammunition, as well as the strength of rebel forces, was at their end. The rebel leadership decided to cease resistance. But they decided not to surrender to the Red forces, but rather to the German commission led by Lieutenant K. Balk, interned at the start of the uprising in the city theater. The uprising began, among other demands also with the slogan of the resumption of hostilities with Germany. The surrender to the German side looked natural and logical. But it did not save the rebels.
Indeed, Balk accepted the surrender in his Order number 4 on July 21, 1918 and announced to the civilian population of Yaroslavl that the detachment of the North Volunteer Army surrendered to the German commission. But as soon as the warlord of the Red punitive force Yu. Guzarskiy directed foul swears at the lieutenant, he hurried to convey all the prisoners of war in the hands of the German empire to their red executioners.
What happened immediately, on the same day, can only be described in one word only - a massacre. The actions of Guzarskiy followed orders from Moscow: "Do not send prisoners to Moscow, as it clutters up the railroad, shoot all in place, without considering who they are. Take prisoners only in order to learn about their strengths and organizations ... ". On the first day after the end of the rebellion Magyars shot 428 people sent by Balk, mostly officers, students, cadets, students of the Lyceum. Tha number included all the headquarters staff of the rebels - 57 people. The total number of only "officially" shot by the Reds in the period from 6 to 22 July goes up to 870 people. Apart from these, several hundred people were killed in the first hours after the surrender of the city, when all over the city they launched lynchings. It also does not include several hundred peasants that were shot in the area who took up weapons to help the citizens.
Overall, according to the card catalog of the same lieutenant Balk, he traded over to the Communists through his commander's office from March to November 1918 50,247 people. Fifty and a quarter thousand people were executed by the Communists in the Yaroslavl province during the period from March to November 1918.
For initially peaceful refusal by the population of a major regional center of communist rule a severe retribution followed. The Bolsheviks could not get over the fact that events in Yaroslavl became the only case of a successful uprising against Soviet rule in one of the Russian regional centers.
The methods and tools applied on the rebels of Yaroslavl are so inhumane that they deserve their own "Nuremberg". Scorched earth policy, destroying the city whole, plans to use chemical weapons, indiscriminate massacre. And many executions of more and more segments of the population falling under the sweep of the KGB "rake". Week after week, month after month, year after year, they were constantly scouring the Yaroslavl region to search for enemies of Soviet power. Even decades later, the continued to arrest citizens "for participation in rebellion."
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[*] Pood (пуд), old Russian weight measure, approximately 36 pounds.
It was also the first to show the rabid predator face of the Soviet government.
95 years later, we should note one thing additionally. A characterization of the Russian nation as inherently meek, obedient, incapable of governing itself has been built on the sad evidence of the 20th century. However, it was not such nation in the beginning: the history of the Civil War is filled with active and heroic resistance, when common people would rather die fighting than live in shame of the Soviet system. The evil empire of the Soviet Union was the enemy of the Russian people since its first days, and the Russian nation was its first victim. While it is difficult to recognize the same nation today, let us hope that leaders comparable in caliber to the heroes of the Civil War will be found and lead Russia to complete de-sovietization, soon.
If you want to be on this right wing, monarchy, paleolibertarianism and nationalism ping list, but are not, please let me know. If you are on it and want to be off, also let me know.
A worthy article. Thank you.
Count me in, Thanks, Bat
Obastard dreams of sending such a telegram one day.
He’ll “tweet” it.
Indeed, from Lenin to Obama, left-wing schemes require iron-fist implementation, or else they fall. It was noted by the Whites — I don’t recall the specific source but the thought is commonplace, — that the Reds set out to exterminate the Russian nation in three ways:
1. Physical extermination by the Red Army and the Cheka, as the article describes.
2. Artificial famine that resulted in rich agricultural regions of Ukraine and southern and central Russia to literally starve, to the point that cannibalism became frequent. That was done by taking away all the crops so that the army and the cities could live without producing anything useful.
3. Psychological war created an atmosphere of suspicion and terror, where anyone could be taken to the Cheka to fulfill a quota, or as a hostage for a relative who escaped to the Whites or abroad, tortured and shot. Religion was banned, clergy killed and the churches desecrated, so that nothing remained to feed a human soul.
The result was annihilation of a healthy nation and replacing it with a mass of obedient, cowardly, faithless slaves.
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