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Study examines association between urban living and psychotic disorders
JAMA and Archives Journals ^ | September 6, 2010 | Unknown

Posted on 09/06/2010 3:43:29 PM PDT by decimon

The association between psychotic disorders and living in urban areas appears to be a reflection of increased social fragmentation present within cities, according to a report in the September issue of Archives of General Psychiatry, one of the JAMA/Archives journals.

"There is a substantial worldwide variation in incidence rates of schizophrenia," the authors write as background in the article. "The clearest geographic pattern within this distribution of rates is that urban areas have a higher incidence of schizophrenia than rural areas." Characteristics of neighborhoods that have been associated with an increased risk of developing psychosis include population and ethnic density, deprivation and social fragmentation or reduced social capital and cohesion.

To examine whether individual, school or area characteristics are associated with psychosis and can explain the association with urbanicity (the quality of being urban), Stanley Zammit, Ph.D., of Cardiff University, Cardiff, Wales, and colleagues studied a total of 203,829 individuals living in Sweden, with data at the individual, school, municipality and county levels.

According to the findings, "the risk of nonaffective psychosis was higher in cities and towns than in rural areas." Of the 203,829 people in the study, 328 (0.16 percent) were ever admitted with a diagnosis of schizophrenia, 741 (0.36 percent) with other nonaffective psychoses, 355 (0.17 percent) with affective psychoses and 953 (0.47 percent) with other psychoses. Additionally, the authors found that almost all variance in the risk of nonaffective psychosis was explained at the individual-level rather than at a higher-level variation. "An association between urbanicity and nonaffective psychosis was explained by higher-level characteristics, primarily school-level social fragmentation." The authors "observed cross-level markers of ethnicity, social fragmentation and deprivation on risk of developing any psychotic disorder, all with qualitative patterns of interaction."

The authors comment that, "being raised in more urbanized areas was associated with an increased risk of developing any nonaffective psychotic disorder." Additionally, "this association was explained primarily by area characteristics rather than by characteristics of the individuals themselves. Social fragmentation was the most important area characteristic that explained the increased risk of psychosis in individuals brought up in cities." The authors also note that, "our findings highlight the concern that physical integration alone is not sufficient but that some of the positive characteristics traditionally conferred by segregation, such as a localized sense of safety, cohesion and community spirit, must also be maintained to enhance the mental health of individuals within the population."

###

(Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2010;67[9]:914-922. Available pre-embargo to the media at www.jamamedia.org.)

Editor's Note: This study was supported by the National Assembly for Wales and Swedish Research Council for Working Life and Social Research. Please see the article for additional information, including other authors, author contributions and affiliations, financial disclosures, funding and support, etc.


TOPICS: Health/Medicine; Society
KEYWORDS:
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I think it's the absence of farm animals.
1 posted on 09/06/2010 3:43:31 PM PDT by decimon
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To: neverdem; DvdMom; grey_whiskers

Urbane ping.


2 posted on 09/06/2010 3:44:22 PM PDT by decimon
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To: decimon
Rural folk are much saner.


3 posted on 09/06/2010 3:46:01 PM PDT by Larry Lucido
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To: decimon

4 posted on 09/06/2010 3:46:57 PM PDT by stormer
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To: decimon

Time to ban cities. They are not good for your health.


5 posted on 09/06/2010 3:47:34 PM PDT by Brilliant
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To: decimon

Having to rely on DemocRATS for your survival and having ACORN freaks showing up at your door, 24/7, to register you to vote would drive anyone crazy.


6 posted on 09/06/2010 3:48:18 PM PDT by FlingWingFlyer (Algore is a politician and a con artist. He is NOT a scientist.)
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To: Larry Lucido

7 posted on 09/06/2010 3:49:58 PM PDT by stormer
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To: decimon

City folks are nuts.


8 posted on 09/06/2010 3:50:46 PM PDT by cripplecreek (Remember the River Raisin! (look it up))
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To: decimon

There is a commendable lack of psychiatrists in rural areas, so if you are crazy you’ll never get diagnosed. You may even get elected to Congress.


9 posted on 09/06/2010 3:51:00 PM PDT by devere
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To: decimon

[I think it’s the absence of farm animals.]

The exotic marvels of the city become mundane when compared to the joys of animal husbandry.


10 posted on 09/06/2010 3:52:25 PM PDT by Brad from Tennessee (A politician can't give you anything he hasn't first stolen from you.)
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To: stormer

11 posted on 09/06/2010 3:53:05 PM PDT by SERKIT ("Blazing Saddles" explains it all.....)
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To: devere

Crazy in the country is OK because nobody bothers you.


12 posted on 09/06/2010 3:53:19 PM PDT by cripplecreek (Remember the River Raisin! (look it up))
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To: decimon

The incidence of psychosis escalates in a mathematically linear fashion as one approaches the center of large urban areas.

In other words, City Center = Miserable CrazyTown and Distant Suburbs = Happiness Village.

The same geographical mathematics applies to voting for Obama/democrats/socialists.


13 posted on 09/06/2010 3:53:47 PM PDT by FormerACLUmember (Character is defined by how we treat those who society says have no value.)
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To: decimon

Or the greater rate and variety of infections in urban areas.


14 posted on 09/06/2010 3:54:53 PM PDT by Rockingham
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To: decimon

Maybe this is because the mentally ill find services in cities and go there?? Duh.


15 posted on 09/06/2010 3:55:38 PM PDT by CodeToad (Islam needs to be banned in the US and treated as a criminal enterprise.)
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To: decimon
Two key subjects for the study:

16 posted on 09/06/2010 3:55:46 PM PDT by SERKIT ("Blazing Saddles" explains it all.....)
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To: decimon

It’s so much easier to dispose of bodies out here in the
boonies.


17 posted on 09/06/2010 3:56:30 PM PDT by CrazyIvan (What's "My Struggle" in Kenyan?)
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To: CodeToad

P.S. And because social services drop off the mentall ill once on their med to shelters located within cities.


18 posted on 09/06/2010 3:57:00 PM PDT by CodeToad (Islam needs to be banned in the US and treated as a criminal enterprise.)
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To: SJackson

Ping


19 posted on 09/06/2010 3:57:18 PM PDT by Jet Jaguar (*)
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To: decimon
Nothing drives people crazy like the constant presence of people. You get more relief from people and their shenanigans in the country.
20 posted on 09/06/2010 3:57:25 PM PDT by Julia H. (This tagline for rent--Only $999.99/month!)
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To: CrazyIvan
Bodies? What bodies?

Image Hosted by ImageShack.us
21 posted on 09/06/2010 4:00:55 PM PDT by cripplecreek (Remember the River Raisin! (look it up))
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To: stormer

How much wood could a wood...


22 posted on 09/06/2010 4:02:19 PM PDT by decimon
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To: Julia H.

Yep. I’m about as dangerous as a butterfly out here in the country but if you force me to live in the city I’ll be a killin spree waiting to happen.


23 posted on 09/06/2010 4:02:55 PM PDT by cripplecreek (Remember the River Raisin! (look it up))
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To: CrazyIvan
It’s so much easier to dispose of bodies out here in the boonies.

I've often wondered about those farm accidents that conveniently dispose of Farmer or Mrs. Farmer Jones.

24 posted on 09/06/2010 4:04:27 PM PDT by decimon
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To: decimon

I lived in the city for 42 years, and moved to the country 9 years ago. Country living is far superior.


25 posted on 09/06/2010 4:05:17 PM PDT by RingerSIX
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To: cripplecreek
We just need a little of Dueling Banjos for background music.
26 posted on 09/06/2010 4:06:18 PM PDT by decimon
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To: CrazyIvan

I needed that laugh.


27 posted on 09/06/2010 4:06:26 PM PDT by Winstons Julia (The liberal mantra: Never enough.)
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To: decimon

It’s so much easier to dispose of bodies out here in the boonies.

I’ve often wondered about those farm accidents that conveniently dispose of Farmer or Mrs. Farmer Jones.

Hogs will eat anything. Especially if you don’t feed them
for a couple of days.


28 posted on 09/06/2010 4:06:48 PM PDT by CrazyIvan (What's "My Struggle" in Kenyan?)
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To: RingerSIX

I lived in the city for 42 years, and moved to the country 9 years ago. Country living is far superior.

Did you ever notice that city people will have a place in
the country to get away to, but country people never have a
place in the city to get away to?


29 posted on 09/06/2010 4:08:22 PM PDT by CrazyIvan (What's "My Struggle" in Kenyan?)
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To: cripplecreek

I’ve been in Pontiac MI, for the past two almost three years and being forced to live here has been driving me crazy. I had depression, parents got hysterical, and now my Dad has a death grip on my funds and wonders why I’m not being more ‘social.’


30 posted on 09/06/2010 4:09:10 PM PDT by Niuhuru (The Internet is the digital AIDS; adapting and successfully destroying the MSM host.)
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To: CrazyIvan
It’s so much easier to dispose of bodies out here in the boonies.

We make great friends out here in the country.

A good friend will help you move. A great friend will help you move a body.

31 posted on 09/06/2010 4:09:36 PM PDT by RingerSIX
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To: cripplecreek
Yep. I’m about as dangerous as a butterfly out here in the country but if you force me to live in the city I’ll be a killin spree waiting to happen.

Ah, the Butterfly Effect!

:^)

32 posted on 09/06/2010 4:11:43 PM PDT by James C. Bennett
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To: Niuhuru

Sounds like you need to get out of town more often. Fortunately that’s fairly easy to do in Michigan.


33 posted on 09/06/2010 4:12:51 PM PDT by cripplecreek (Remember the River Raisin! (look it up))
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To: decimon

Look at the 2008 presidential electoral map, all the major cities and megalopolises went for the most liberal candidates. There is a reason. The majority of the people who live there have lost touch with the earth that sustains them. How many have seen a hog butchered or calf born or a hawk catch a squirrel? How many drink milk and never give a thought on how that gallon of milk got to their local store. We are butting heads against a large group of people who has lost touch with God the Creator, with the soil that feeds us and with fellow humans, all the time thinking that it will be humans (man/government) who can fix all the problems of our society. Just one man can, Jesus Christ.
Believe (Romans 10:9,10) then see.


34 posted on 09/06/2010 4:13:14 PM PDT by Doulos1 (Bitter Clinger Forever)
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To: CrazyIvan
Did you ever notice that city people will have a place in the country to get away to, but country people never have a place in the city to get away to?

My wife occasionally drives down to Los Angeles to visit her family. I used to allow her to drag me along, but I rarely will submit these days. It's just not worth the aggravation.

Moving here was a quaint culture shock. Visiting Los Angeles is a disgusting and ugly culture shock, but you just don't realize it when you live there. Once you escape, your entire frame of reference shifts to normal.

35 posted on 09/06/2010 4:14:18 PM PDT by RingerSIX
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To: cripplecreek

I plan on crucifying my Dad in court. I would be leaving town if not for dolt Dad. I would be living in Waterford and living quietly and safely. He thinks I’m having a ‘hip’ urban experience. He’s enthusiastic for me to try public transportation.


36 posted on 09/06/2010 4:14:19 PM PDT by Niuhuru (The Internet is the digital AIDS; adapting and successfully destroying the MSM host.)
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To: decimon

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1tqxzWdKKu8


37 posted on 09/06/2010 4:14:51 PM PDT by cripplecreek (Remember the River Raisin! (look it up))
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To: decimon

"The DSM V says I'm a prodigy. By the way, you got a purty mouth..."

38 posted on 09/06/2010 4:18:08 PM PDT by Tijeras_Slim (Live jubtabulously!)
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To: decimon

Seems like Sweden conducted a study to better understand their ethnic minorities, possible ‘Asian yutes’. Physical integration or assimilation isn’t enough? That does’nt sound like they are looking at ethnic Swedes but at, perhaps, Muslims or other minorities. Minorities in any culture tend to form conclaves where they can share their culture (I think of China Town in San Francisco) but here the Swedes are saying it ‘wasn’t enough’. They do mention social fragmentation - that sounds more like our fatherless urban minorities but I don’t know what is going on in Sweden. But I wonder. And apparently so do the Swedes.


39 posted on 09/06/2010 4:18:49 PM PDT by ransomnote
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To: cripplecreek

There ya go. Now I feel so normal.


40 posted on 09/06/2010 4:22:34 PM PDT by decimon
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To: decimon

nonaffective psychotic disorder = victimhood as is taught by community organizers


41 posted on 09/06/2010 4:25:12 PM PDT by Eva
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To: Niuhuru

I live in a little town between Napoleon and Manchester. Really more of a village where I can see into the country from right here at the computer. My neighbor behind me is the only one who lives there year round and we don’t bother each other and we help each other out when we can.

My neighbor on the west is better than 200 yards away and lives in Florida for most of the year. The house on the other side is closer but he only stays a few days every so often. In front is the lake.

I get off and wander the state land all around here a couple times per month.


42 posted on 09/06/2010 4:25:18 PM PDT by cripplecreek (Remember the River Raisin! (look it up))
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To: ransomnote; blam
Seems like Sweden conducted a study to better understand their ethnic minorities...

Saami and others close to their indigenous beasts.

43 posted on 09/06/2010 4:26:01 PM PDT by decimon
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To: cripplecreek

Lucky lucky you. Before he moved, a friend of mine had a lovely house in the country. I loved the drive over there and enjoyed the drive back. Fantastic route and I savored every minute of it.


44 posted on 09/06/2010 4:27:24 PM PDT by Niuhuru (The Internet is the digital AIDS; adapting and successfully destroying the MSM host.)
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To: devere
There is a commendable lack of psychiatrists in rural areas, so if you are crazy you’ll never get diagnosed. You may even get elected to Congress.

LOL!!

STE=Q

45 posted on 09/06/2010 4:35:43 PM PDT by STE=Q ("It is the duty of the patriot to protect his country from its government" ... Thomas Paine)
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To: CrazyIvan

Oh, that’s true.

We’ve had neighbors who had a condos in the big city, mainly because the wives and kids would get stupid bored in the hinterlands. Something about ‘no malls out here’.

I say they weren’t imaginative enough.


46 posted on 09/06/2010 4:38:00 PM PDT by SatinDoll (NO FOREIGN NATIONALS AS OUR PRESIDENT!)
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To: Doulos1

It may sound hippie-ish but there is a stark beauty in silence. Step outside at 3 AM in a heavy snowfall and its so quiet you can literally hear the snow fallin on the ground.

I wonder how many city slickers have stood on a lake under the moonlight of a bitterly cold night and listened to the booming and singing of the ice. Pure awesomeness.


47 posted on 09/06/2010 4:46:30 PM PDT by cripplecreek (Remember the River Raisin! (look it up))
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To: cripplecreek

Amen brother.


48 posted on 09/06/2010 4:50:36 PM PDT by Doulos1 (Bitter Clinger Forever)
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To: Doulos1
I love the foggy autumn mornings without a soul around.

Image Hosted by ImageShack.us
49 posted on 09/06/2010 4:55:37 PM PDT by cripplecreek (Remember the River Raisin! (look it up))
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To: cripplecreek

That my friend is beautiful.


50 posted on 09/06/2010 5:04:06 PM PDT by Doulos1 (Bitter Clinger Forever)
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