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Posted on 08/31/2008 3:54:08 AM PDT by Righting


In September three jetliners-- one American, one British and one Swiss-- were hijacked by Palestinian Arabs to Jordan. The passengers were held hostage. This action further undermined the sovereignty of King Hussein's government. The King decided to take action and fighting broke out between the Jordanian Army and the Palestine Liberation Organization. The Syrians attempted to intervene on the side of the P.L.O. but Israel warned that they, too, would then intervene. The Jordanian army defeated the P.L.O. whose forces fled to Lebanon.

Black September, The PLO's attempt to take over Jordan in 1970...remembers the events of Black September as the operation in which the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan decisively eliminated a Palestinian 'uprising'...

Jordan Expels the PLO in 1970 By 1970, Palestinians, both Jordanian citizens and refugees, ... attacks to push the PLO out of Jordan, attacks now called "Black September" by the PLO. ... _plo.php

BBC NEWS | World | Middle East | Black September plea to Israel, Palestinian guerrillas, orignally allowed into Jordan by King Hussein, ... For the full secret history of the UK's involvement in Black September...

Black September in August? - TIME In September 1970, Abu Iyad first launched the Black September terrorist group as a ... that year between Palestinian fedayeen and Jordan's King Hussein, ...,9171,949327,00.html

Jordan killed Palestinians between 10,000 to 25,000 that's more Palestinians in one month September 1970, than Israel has killed during the three years of heighten Palestinian suicide bombings that began in the fall of 2000. The brutality of the Jordanian Army toward Palestinian dissidents and terrorists was far more egregious than anything Israel has ever done.

This clash within Islamic countries between Islamist religious forces and modernizers like Kemal Atatuerk in Turkey, Habib Burgiba in Tunisia, Gemal Abdel Nasser, Anwar Sadat and Hosni Mubarek in Egypt, the deposed Reza Shah Pahlavi in Iran, and even Saddam Hussein in Iraq, and Islamist religious forces is long, deep and powerful. The modernizers in these countries have usually come from military rather than civilian backgrounds, and by transforming one of the few intact institutions of the old regime – namely the military bureaucracy – into an instrument of political power and hegemony, they have consolidated their authority, often with limited popular support and democratic institutions. All over the Islamic Arab world this military modernization paradigm, in which Syria and Iraq had participated through the Ba’ath regimes in the nineteen-seventies, has lost ground. The defeat of the Egyptian armies in the hands of Israel during the Six Day War, the Israeli occupation of the Golan Heights and the west Bank, are reminders to the military elite of these countries, less of the plight of the Palestinians, whom they have massacred and oppressed when it suited their interests (remember Black September in Jordan in 1970, in which Palestinians were killed by the thousands; or the persecution of the Palestinians by the Saudis because of their support for Saddam Hussein during the Gulf War), but of the failure of their own truncated projects of modernization. Israel is a thorn on the side of these regimes, whose very presence is a bleeding reminder of their own failure to modernize in military, technological and economic terms.

The guerrillas' power grew steadily in Jordan, to which 380,000 Palestinians had fled after Israel occupied the West Bank in 1967, joining others who had arrived in 1948 when Israel was founded. By 1970, thousands of guerrillas were there, many of them adherents of Al Fatah.
Spurred on by Palestinian radicals, Mr. Arafat committed what was to be the first of several blunders: He countenanced an attempt to wrest power from King Hussein, whose grandfather, a religious and tribal leader from Saudi Arabia, had been placed in charge of the country when Britain recognized its independence in 1923.
Palestinian guerrillas began interfering with highway traffic, controlling Palestinian refugee camps, clashing with the Jordanian Army and systematically defying the government. In September 1970 -- later known to Palestinians as Black September -- King Hussein sent troops and armor into Amman, his capital, to suppress the P.L.O. After days of shelling refugee camps where some 60,000 Palestinians lived, the army drove the would-be usurpers out of Jordan.
Conservative estimates put Palestinian losses at 2,000. Mr. Arafat, who made his way unharmed to Cairo, later claimed that Jordan's Army had killed 25,000.

Terror in Black September: The First Eyewitness Account of the Infamous 1970 Hijackings
Thirty-seven years ago on September 6, Palestinian revolutionaries hijacked four airliners bound for New York. Two of the planes were flown to the desert outside of Amman, Jordan, and held there just as the Jordanian civil war erupted. Raab, a health-care executive, was a 17-year-old hostage on one of those planes, and he recounts the ordeal, which resulted in his being separated from his family and dragged back and forth across Jordan for weeks in fear for his life. Raab also attempts to narrate the larger story, from the tense, fractious multinational negotiations over the hostages to the conflict between the Jordanian army and the Palestinian guerrillas. It is an ambitious undertaking, one that Raab lacks the craft to achieve.
While the book is painstakingly researched, the writing rarely comes alive, even in the most dramatic situations. The various sources—including Raab's account that he wrote soon after his release—seem to be stuck together rather than shaped. Still, much of the material is intrinsically fascinating and a sad reminder of how much and how little has changed. Four hijacking attempts in one day was a record that would stand alone for 31 years, until another September day in 2001. (Sept.)

Aaron Mannes on 9/11 on National Review Online, To avenge the expulsion from Jordan the PLO founded a secretive front group, Black September. Black September’s first victim was Jordanian Prime Minister ...
http :// q=ZmMwM2U5YzJmYjczNjUxYzUzNjBiY2VlZjcxODc5YWQ=

TOPICS: Politics; Religion
KEYWORDS: blackseptember; islam; islamofascism; israel; jordan; kinghussein; mohammedanism; palestinians; rop; wot

1 posted on 08/31/2008 3:54:08 AM PDT by Righting
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