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Explaining Jews, Part V: Why Are Jews Liberal? (Dennis Prager Alert)
Townhall.com ^ | 04/25/06 | Dennis Prager

Posted on 04/24/2006 9:48:36 PM PDT by goldstategop

The most frequently asked question I receive from non-Jews about Jews is, why are Jews so liberal?

The question is entirely legitimate since Jews (outside of Israel) are indeed overwhelmingly liberal and disproportionately left of liberal as well. For example, other than blacks, no American group votes so lopsidedly for the Democratic Party. And the question is further sharpened given that traditional Jewish values are not leftist. That is why the more religiously involved the Jew, the less likely he is to be on the Left. The old saw, "There are two types of Jews -- those who believe Judaism is social justice and those who know Hebrew," contains more than a kernel of truth.

In no order of importance, here are six reasons:

1. Judaism is indeed preoccupied with social justice (as well as with holiness and personal morality), and many Jews believe that the only way to achieve a just society is through leftist policies.

2. More than any other major religion, Judaism has always been preoccupied with this world. The (secular) Encyclopedia Judaica begins its entry on "Afterlife" by noting that "Judaism has always affirmed belief in an afterlife." But the preoccupation of Judaism has been making this world a better place. That is why the Torah (the Five Books of Moses) is largely silent about the afterlife; and it is preoccupied with rejecting ancient Egyptian values. That value system was centered on the afterlife -- its bible was the Book of the Dead, and its greatest monuments, the pyramids, were tombs.

3. Most Jews are frightened by anything that connotes right wing -- such as the words "right-wing" and "conservative." Especially since the Holocaust, they think that threats to their security emanate from the Right only. (It is pointless to argue that Nazism stood for National Socialism and therefore was really a leftist ideology. Whether that is theoretically accurate doesn't matter; nearly everyone regards the Nazis as far Right, and, therefore, Jews fear the Right.) The fact that the Jews' best friends today are conservatives and the fact that the Left is the home of most of the Jews' enemies outside of the Muslim world have made little impact on Jews' psyches.

4. Liberal Jews fear most religion. They identify religion -- especially fundamentalist religion and especially Christianity -- with anti-Semitism. Jews are taught from birth about the horrors of the Holocaust, and of nearly 2,000 years of European, meaning Christian, anti-Semitism. They therefore tend to fear Christianity and believe that secularism guarantees their physical security. That is what animates the ACLU and its disproportionately Jewish membership, under the guise of concern with the Constitution and "separation of church and state" (words that do not appear in the Constitution), to fight all public expressions of Christianity in America.

5. Despite their secularism, Jews may be the most religious ethnic group in the world. The problem is that their religion is rarely Judaism; rather it is every "ism" of the Left. These include liberalism, socialism, feminism, Marxism and environmentalism. Jews involved in these movements believe in them with the same ideological fervor and same suspension of critical reason with which many religious people believe in their religion. It is therefore usually as hard to shake a liberal Jew's belief in the Left and in the Democratic Party as it is to shake an evangelical Christian's belief in Christianity. The big difference, however, is that the Christian believer acknowledges his Christianity is a belief, whereas the believer in liberalism views his belief as entirely the product of rational inquiry.

The Jews' religious fervor emanates from the origins of the Jewish people as a religious people elected by God to help guide humanity to a better future. Of course, the original intent was to bring humanity to ethical monotheism, God-based universal moral standards, not to secular liberalism or to feminism or to socialism. Leftist Jews have simply secularized their religious calling.

6. Liberal Jews fear nationalism. The birth of nationalism in Europe planted the secular seeds of the Holocaust (religious seeds had been planted by some early and medieval Church teachings and reinforced by Martin Luther). European nationalists welcomed all national identities except the Jews'. That is a major reason so many Jews identify primarily as "world citizens"; they have contempt for nationalism and believe that strong national identities, even in America, will exclude them.

Just as liberal Jews fear a resurgent Christianity despite the fact that contemporary Christians are the Jews' best friends, leftist Jews fear American nationalism despite the fact that Americans who believe in American exceptionalism are far more pro-Jewish and pro-Israel than leftist Americans. But most leftist Jews so abhor nationalism, they don't even like the Jews' nationalism (Zionism).

If you believe that leftist ideas and policies are good for America and for the world, then you are particularly pleased to know how deeply Jews -- with their moral passion, intellectual energies and abilities, and financial clout -- are involved with the Left. If, on the other hand, you believe that the Left is morally confused and largely a destructive force in America and the world, then the Jews' disproportionate involvement on the Left is nothing less than a tragedy -- for the world and especially for the Jews.


TOPICS: Constitution/Conservatism; Crime/Corruption; Culture/Society; Editorial; Government; Miscellaneous; News/Current Events; Philosophy
KEYWORDS: dennisprager; jews; judaism; liberalism; life; secularism; socialjustice; tikkunolam; townhall
Why are American Jews liberal? It goes to the Jews' preoccupation with bettering the world - tikkun olam - and the belief leftist policies are the best way to bring it about. Then there is Judaism's concern for social justice, as articulated in the prophetic literature. There's also the perception the Right - identified with the Nazis on the Far Right and Christianity have been a source of persecution of Jews that has had a lasting impact on the Jewish psyche. And for most Jews, liberalism has become a secular substitute for Judaism per se. All of the above reasons go a long way towards explaining the involvement of Jews with the Left even if as Prager contends, it is a tragedy both for the world as well as for the Jews themselves.

(Denny Crane: "I Don't Want To Socialize With A Pinko Liberal Democrat Commie. Say What You Like About Republicans. We Stick To Our Convictions. Even When We Know We're Dead Wrong.")

1 posted on 04/24/2006 9:48:42 PM PDT by goldstategop
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To: goldstategop

Interesting article.


2 posted on 04/24/2006 9:57:35 PM PDT by spetznaz (Nuclear-tipped Ballistic Missiles: The Ultimate Phallic Symbol)
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To: goldstategop
Prager was spot on.. He got the forest and the trees..
Would be an interesting to know what David Horowitz thought of this article.. No doubt he would agree.. but what he would add to the article would be very interesting..
3 posted on 04/24/2006 10:09:20 PM PDT by hosepipe (CAUTION: This propaganda is laced with hyperbole..)
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To: goldstategop

Liberal American Jews are that simply because they have lost much of their faith.

Rather than following the core of their beliefs as the most conservative Jews do, many simply say they are Jewish without bothering with any of the "trappings". If they want to eat pork, it is okay. If they want to have sex, they do.

In many ways, this is how modern Christianity is too. Everything is okay in the end because a good God couldn't have a problem with our personal selfish desires being fulfilled.


4 posted on 04/24/2006 10:09:47 PM PDT by ConservativeMind
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To: goldstategop

"Why Are [fill in the blank] Liberal?" All groups have leftists/liberals. Most western culture religious groups are mostly socially libertine--even groups containing mostly fiscally conservative members. And most groups include mainly observance/behavior/attendance rather than familial descent as a determinant. Sooner or later, Jewish people will be the light to the world.


5 posted on 04/24/2006 10:16:26 PM PDT by familyop (Essayons)
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To: goldstategop

Thanks, Praeger puts everything in a nutshell. Without being anti-semetic, I have long believed the "social justice" theory was a cancer because of it's use as a foundation for everything from Marxism to Rawlsian ethics.


6 posted on 04/24/2006 10:23:10 PM PDT by FastCoyote
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To: goldstategop

Thanks for posting this, as well for the previous part which you posted earlier. Its informative and instructive to many of us non-Jewish Americans. But the articles don't give any suggestions on how to deal with these leftist trends and activities by the majority of Jewish people, who want to take us to a socialistic world government! Should I just disregard that they are Jewish, and just treat them the same as other ordinary leftists? Would appreciate your comment!


7 posted on 04/24/2006 10:24:11 PM PDT by Tangaray
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To: FastCoyote

Without a view of heaven, pace Prager, "social justice" is exactly where "ethical monotheism" will go. This world is the anteroom, it is not the mansion.


8 posted on 04/24/2006 10:25:40 PM PDT by HiTech RedNeck
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To: goldstategop
"There are two types of Jews -- those who believe Judaism is social justice and those who know Hebrew,"

That's pretty funny.

9 posted on 04/24/2006 10:26:49 PM PDT by T. Buzzard Trueblood ("left unchecked, Saddam Hussein...will keep trying to develop nuclear weapons." Sen. Hillary Clinton)
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To: ConservativeMind
You're quite right to remind us of the parallels which afflict both modern secular Judaism and modern secular Christianity. " Liberal American Jews are that simply because they have lost much of their faith." So it is with Christians.

When it comes to faith, we all are as binary as computers, it is either yes or no, on or off, we either have it or we do not. If we do not have it, then we have not God and that leaves us lots of space to play God. Once you feel good and comfy playing God, there is virtually no end to the good you can do so you become a political activist. One sees quickly that he could leverage the good he does by manipulating the levers of the state. Hence, one quickly becomes a statist.

Prager has explored this phenomenon in other essays which are well worth the reading and many of us have also contributed.

Prager's sixth reason, leftist Jews abhorrence of nationalism, is worth special mention. It is also paralleled in the Christian tradition by those who do not actually confess the faith. You will hear them say that nationalism (they will often blame religion as well) is the cause of wars and unnecessary human suffering. This observation is really relevant in these times in which we are dismayed to discover a fifth column operating against the United States in its own CIA, the State Department, and the Pentagon. These institutions, together with the establishment media and academia, have long despised United States of America and decried it as the font of all evil. I have posted my belief that the hatred against United States is generated by the recognition among these leftists that the United States presents the greatest obstacle to their goal of ending nationalism and instituting oneworldism.

Can you imagine the good these people can do when the levers they manipulate govern the whole world?


10 posted on 04/24/2006 10:43:09 PM PDT by nathanbedford (Attack, repeat, Attack..... Bull Halsey)
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To: goldstategop

Odd, I posted comments very similar to this not too longs ago.


11 posted on 04/24/2006 11:34:37 PM PDT by Rocketman (Study to show thyself approved . .)
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To: goldstategop

ping


12 posted on 04/25/2006 12:10:10 AM PDT by trailboss800
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To: goldstategop

I think that Mr. Prager is pretty good as sort of a "big picture guy" - not just on this subject, but many others as well. I also think that he somewhat underestimates the destructive influence of secular Jewish leftists within Israel itself, who suicidally wish to hand over Israel to greater Hamasistan. This substitution of liberalism for actual Jewish religion is as widespread in Israel as it is in other Western nations, according to the comments I've received from some Chassidic and Orthodox correspondents living in Israel.


13 posted on 04/25/2006 12:22:58 AM PDT by Bogolyubski
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To: goldstategop

bttt


14 posted on 04/25/2006 12:26:16 AM PDT by LK44-40
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To: goldstategop
And for most Jews, liberalism has become a secular substitute for Judaism per se.

The Golden Calf...

_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-

It goes to the Jews' preoccupation with bettering the world - tikkun olam - and the belief leftist policies are the best way to bring it about.

Steven Plaut - “The Rise Of Tikkun Olam Paganism”, Arutz Sheva: December 27, 2002

15 posted on 04/25/2006 2:55:36 AM PDT by Sir Francis Dashwood (LET'S ROLL!)
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To: goldstategop

There's something that's hard to believe about these explanations, and I don't know what it is.


16 posted on 04/25/2006 5:23:41 AM PDT by RoadTest (The wicked love darkness; but God's people love the Light!)
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To: dennisw; Cachelot; Nix 2; veronica; Catspaw; knighthawk; Alouette; Optimist; weikel; Lent; GregB; ..
If you'd like to be on or off this middle east/political ping list, please FR mail me.
Articles on Israel can also be found by clicking the keyword or topic Israel.

---------------------------

17 posted on 04/25/2006 5:29:48 AM PDT by SJackson (The Pilgrims—Doing the jobs Native Americans wouldn’t do!)
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To: goldstategop

The problem with liberal Jews is that they care more about saving the world than saving themselves. How can you save others if you don't have enough self-respect to stand up for yourself? I've been right-wing (proudly so) for so many years I simply don't understand liberal Jews. They are alien to me.


18 posted on 04/25/2006 5:37:47 AM PDT by veronica ("A person needs a sense of mission like the air he breathes...")
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To: RoadTest

I've read almost every one of this series. Wanted to like them, wanted to say I now understand, it now makes sense. And still the whole thing falls flat and doesn't make a lick of sense to me. I don't think this can be explained politically.


19 posted on 04/25/2006 6:31:04 AM PDT by Paul_B
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To: ConservativeMind

"In many ways, this is how modern Christianity is too."

Both that comment and this article are right on target.

As CHristian churches are becoming more and more secularist, their hierarchies see things along the same line as secularist Jews.

Only the return of most Jews to Judaism as a religion instead of a cultural expression, and the return of most Christians to Christianity as a religion rather than a social expression, will save America.


20 posted on 04/25/2006 6:46:15 AM PDT by ZULU (Non nobis, non nobis, Domine, sed nomini tuo da gloriam. God, guts, and guns made America great.)
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To: Paul_B
I've read almost every one of this series. Wanted to like them, wanted to say I now understand, it now makes sense. And still the whole thing falls flat and doesn't make a lick of sense to me. I don't think this can be explained politically.

Overanalysis is a wonderful thing. One consideration always left out of these discussions is the Jews live largely in urban areas. From that perspective, they vote very much like their fellow urbanites.


21 posted on 04/25/2006 8:29:02 AM PDT by SJackson (The Pilgrims—Doing the jobs Native Americans wouldn’t do!)
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To: goldstategop; spetznaz; hosepipe; ConservativeMind; familyop; FastCoyote; Tangaray; ...

Waves of immigrants who came to the USA from 1880-1920: the poles the italians the irish the jews. Most of them voted for FDR by large majorities in 1932, 1936 & 1940. Today only the jews still vote democratic by hefty majorities. Why? The reason for this dates explicitly to the McCarthy period from 1950-54. The reason this is clear is because Hollywood still strenuously maintains the communist lie about that era. This lie is maintained by movies in the last years called "A Beautiful Mind," and "Good Night and Good Luck".

There are various reasons given as to why Stalin initiated the Doctor's Plot in the early 1950's before he died. The KGB hated Israel. Many Americans who were enthusiastic supporters of the UN were Jewish.

Edvard Radzinsky in his book "Stalin" argues that while at one time Stalin hoped Jewish financial capital would help rebuild the Soviet Union after the WWII, Stalin hated the prospect of suborning himself to the Baruch Plan and he flat out rejected IAEA nuclear controls--presented in 1946. The Russians were working on their own abomb based on stolen US designs.

Whatever the reason, Stalin fomented the Doctor's plot hysteria and broke off diplomatic relations with Israel. He was within days of preparing to exile the Soviet Jews to the Gulag (as was done previously with various other ethnic minorities such as the Crimean Tatars, Chechens, etc.), and initiate another great purge along the lines of 1938.

The important thing to recall is that the Doctor's Plot happened at the same time as the McCarthy anti communist business from 1950-54

Stalin already had the concentration camps set up. And some of the preliminary accusations had gone out for the Doctor's Plot when he died in 1953.

At the same time the Rosenburgs were tried and executed for treason in the USA in 1953--and this less than a decade after the Holocaust. This naturally caused fear and suspicion in the US Jewish community. This fear and suspicion was played upon by knowledgeable communists and leftists--large numbers of whom were jewish. These folk not only knew about what Stalin had done in the 1930's and was about to do with the doctor's plot--before he died-- but also saw the Rosenburg trials as show trials american style ... that is, a prelude to an american pogrom.

What Stalin had planned to do-- in a brilliant piece of jujitsu --leftists and communists imputed to Americans on the right. But it was done soto voce. Basically a blood libel was perpetrated on Americans without their knowing it. Worse, protestant america had become tribal enemies tooth and claw of the US jewish establishment without protestant america even knowing it. Never again! -- Was the battle cry. But there weren't any protestant tribal enemies of Jews in the USA. If there protestant tribal enemies tooth and claw in the USA -- Meyer Kahane would have provoked them them to a fight. Instead, he married an american woman & helped expedite Stalin's last wish--to rid Russia of Jews. When Kahane died it was at the hands of a Moslem in 1990.

While the American public outside NY/LA were generally given the view that the McCarthy era was an age when innocent men were unjustly tried by suspicious anti semites like McCarthy & Nixon--the NY/LA Jewish establishment was given a different story. They were given to understand that the democrats/liberals had prevented the US from visiting a holocaust on them. And that therefor American Jews owed their loyalty to the liberal democrats because the liberal democrats were the protectors of the Jews.

And this Meme went on untouched for decades after McCarthy.

This dual track story line didn't crack until the early 1990's when the kgb/nkvd/gru opened up their files on the WWII-McCarthy Period. In 1995 the US's NSA agency opened up their Venona files. Both Russian and American spy agency files showed that McCarthy was right. The US government --as well as the Manhattan Project--had been at one time soaked with Russian Spies. The Rosenburgs were guilty. While McCarthy was wrong in all the details he got the general outline of the story right. Why did he get the outline right and the details wrong. The reason is McCarthy's relationship to Hoover was the same as Hoover's relationship to the NSA.The NSA told the FBI about the Venona intercepts but insisted that the FBI could not use NSA intercepts as evidence in court. The FBI had to develop their own leads. As a result most of the spies escaped prosecution. The FBI did not get their man.

In 1950 J Edgar Hoover began weekly meetings with Joseph McCarthy. Those meetings ended in 1954. The beginning and end of those meetings coincided with the beginning and end of McCarthy star turn in the national spot light. McCarthy got most of the details of the spy story wrong but he got the general outline of the story right. His predicament was the same as that of the FBI. To this day the FBI denies that Hoover told McCarthy anything about the Venona Cables and maybe Hoover said nothing explicit to McCarthy for which Hoover could be liable in court.

Needless to say, an American style shoah was never in the cards.

The reason that hollywood hated Ronald Reagan so much was that he was an anti communist in hollywood during the McCarthy period. During this period to be staunchly anti communist in Hollywood or NYC was to be at least vaguely anti semetic because in the 30's to the 50's communism was considered to be almost a secular form of Judaism in the Jewish communities of NY/LA.

Reagan was among the first wave of FDR democrats to switch parties. Reagan was blacklisted from Hollywood. He couldn't get work there after McCarthy. However, his experiences in Hollywood served him well when he went into public service. He always understood the jujitsu of media talk of the age. Something that cannot be said of Nixon.


When I hear American based Moslems talking about McCarthyism being visited on them. I have to laugh. They don't know that they have pronounced themselves guilty in the eyes of many Americans.

As for the democrats, part of the reason for the loss of their inner coherence has been that part their foundational raison d'être steming from the McCarthy era was revealed to be based on a lie. So now the core of the democratic party is the sodomites. Those folks are not just confusing. They are confused.

David Horowitz interviewed by Rush Limbaugh this past week talked about how his parents were communists and he was a communist in college. He said when he was in college his views were always treated respectfully by his professors. But he said recently a young christian college student told him that his homosexual college professor had singled him out in class and asked him "Why do you christians hate queers." Asked why he continued to do what he did in the face of all the abuse he gets, David Horowitz said like Rush he took public political positions because he had to. But also he said he did it as a matter of atonement.

He gets it.


22 posted on 04/30/2006 2:04:24 PM PDT by ckilmer
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To: unionblue83; billorites; edpc; gas0linealley; Alien Gunfighter; satchmodog9; Krusty; ...

Return to Responses, Reflections and Occasional Papers

Return to Historical Writings

Senator Joseph McCarthy’s Lists and Venona

by John Earl Haynes

January 2006

Journalists and historians have often referred to Senator Joseph McCarthy’s “list” as if it were a precisely defined entity. It was not, however. Certainly one would put his “numbered” list of eighty-one cases, given in a Senate speech of February 20, 1950, as the prime candidate for being McCarthy’s “list.” But McCarthy himself quickly added several dozen more names to this list in communications to a subcommittee of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee (commonly referred to in the press as the “Tydings Committee” from its chairman, Senator Millard Tydings). The Tydings subcommittee in its “State Department Employee Loyalty Investigation” inquired into Senator McCarthy’s charges.

Most but not all of Senator McCarthy’s numbered cases were drawn from the “Lee List” or “108 list” of unresolved DOS security cases compiled by the investigators for the House Appropriates Committee in 1947. Robert E. Lee was the committee’s lead investigator and supervised preparation of the list. The Tydings subcommittee also obtained this list. The Lee list, also using numbers rather than names, was published in the proceeding of the subcommittee.[1]

Senator McCarthy furnished the Tydings Committee the real names attached to his numbered cases, and the Tydings Committee received the real names attached to the Lee list as well.[2] Over the years that followed all of the names became public one way or another.

Additionally, in a series of speeches McCarthy named others as secret Communists, spies, security risks, or participants in the Communist conspiracy. Below these various lists are recapitulated. Only those he named from 1950 through 1952 (prior to become chairman of the Senate Governmental Operations Committee) will be considered here. (All lists will be alphabetical.)


McCarthy’s List (1)

McCarthy’s 20 February Numbered List[3]

Real Name: McCarthy list #; Lee list #; Venona status; Non-Venona Evidence of Espionage

*****************************************************************************

Arndt, Ernest Theodore: McCarthy list # 14; Lee List # 10; Not identified in Venona

Barnett, Mrs. Robert Warren: McCarthy list # 49; Lee List # 59; Not identified in Venona

Barnett, Robert Warren: McCarthy list # 48; Lee List # 59; Not identified in Venona

Berman, Harold: McCarthy list # 70; Lee List # 85; Not identified in Venona

Brunauer, Esther Caukin: McCarthy list # 47; Lee List # 55; Not identified in Venona

Cameron, Gertrude: McCarthy list # 55; Lee List # 65; Not identified in Venona

Carlisle, Lois: McCarthy list # 58; Lee List # 68; Not identified in Venona

Carter, William D.: McCarthy list # 44; Lee List # 50; Not identified in Venona

Chipchin, Nelson: McCarthy list # 23; No on Lee List: Benign identification in Venona[4]

Clucas, Lowell M., Jr.: McCarthy list # 26; Not on Lee List; Not identified in Venona

Delgado, Mucio: McCarthy list # 21; Lee List # 28; Not identified in Venona

Demerjian, Alice: McCarthy list # 61; Lee List # 72; Not identified in Venona

Dubois, Cora: McCarthy list # 60; Lee List # 70; Not identified in Venona

Ferry, Frances: McCarthy list # 11; Lee List # 8; Not identified in Venona

Fierst, Herbert: McCarthy list # 1; Lee List # 51; Not identified in Venona

Fishback, Sam: McCarthy list # 43; Lee List # 49; Not identified in Venona

Ford, James T.: McCarthy list # 76; Lee List # 96; Not identified in Venona

Gordon, Stella: McCarthy list # 40; Lee List # 45; Not identified in Venona

Graze, Gerald: McCarthy list # 29; Lee List # 25; Not identified in Venona;[5] Identified as a Soviet Espionage Source in the Gorsky Memo[6]

Graze, Stanley: McCarthy list # 8; Lee List # 8; Not identified in Venona; Identified as a Soviet Espionage Source in the Gorsky Memo[7]

Grondahl, Tegnel Conrad: McCarthy list # 25; Not on Lee List; Not identified in Venona

Gross, Aaron Jack: McCarthy list # 68; Lee List # 83; Not identified in Venona

Harrison, Marcia Ruth: McCarthy list # 7; Lee List # 4; Not identified in Venona

Horwin, Leonard: McCarthy list # 73; Lee List # 91; Not identified in Venona

Hunt, Victor: McCarthy list # 65; Lee List # 79; Not identified in Venona

Ilyefalvi-Vites, Gizella: McCarthy list # 4; Lee List # 3; Not identified in Venona

Jankowski, Joseph T.: McCarthy list # 74; Lee List # 92; Not identified in Venona

Jessup, Philip: McCarthy list # 15; Not on Lee List; Not identified in Venona

Josephson, Joseph: McCarthy list # 30; Lee List # 28; Not identified in Venona

Kamarck, Andrew W.: McCarthy list # 78; Lee List # 100; Not identified in Venona

Katusich, Ivan: McCarthy list # 27; Not on Lee List; Not identified in Venona

Kaufman, Arthur Milton: McCarthy list # 38; Lee List # 43; Not identified in Venona

Kopelewish, Esther Less aka Mrs. Less: McCarthy list # 24; Not on Lee List; Not identified in Venona

Lansberg, Hans: McCarthy list # 28; Lee List # 21; Not identified in Venona

Lemon, Edythe J.: McCarthy list # 18; Lee List # 16; Not identified in Venona

Lewis, Mrs. Preston Keesling: McCarthy list # 75; Lee List # 93; Not identified in Venona

Lifantieff-Lee, Paul A.: McCarthy list # 56; Lee List # 66; Not identified in Venona

Lindsey, John Richard: McCarthy list # 67; Lee List # 81; Not identified in Venona

Lloyd, David Demarest: McCarthy list # 9; Lee List # 99; Not identified in Venona

Lorwin, Val R.: McCarthy list # 54; Lee List # 64; Not identified in Venona

Maguite, Sylvia: McCarthy list # 69; Lee List # 84; Not identified in Venona

Mann, Gottfried Thomas: McCarthy list # 42; Lee List # 47; Not identified in Venona

Margolies, Daniel F.: McCarthy list # 41; Lee List # 46; Not identified in Venona

Margolin, Arnold D.: McCarthy list # 72; Lee List # 90;[8] Not identified in Venona

Meigs, Peveril: McCarthy list # 3; Lee List # 2; Not identified in Venona

Miller, Robert T.: McCarthy list # 16; Lee List # 12; Not identified in Venona;[9] First Identified as a Soviet Espionage Source by Elizabeth Bentley in her 1945 FBI statement.[10]

Montague, Ella M.: McCarthy list # 34; Lee List # 32; Not identified in Venona

Neal, Fred Warner: McCarthy list # 57; Lee List # 67; Not identified in Venona

Ness, Norman T.: McCarthy list # 45; Lee List # 53; Not identified in Venona

Neumann, Franz Leopold: McCarthy list # 59; Lee List # 69; Not identified in Venona[11] Identified as a Soviet Espionage Source in Weinstein and Vassiliev’s The Haunted Wood.[12]

Osnatch, Olga F.: McCarthy list # 37; Lee List # 42; Not identified in Venona

Parsons, Ruby A.: McCarthy list # 81; Lee List # 78; Not identified in Venona

Perkins, Isham W.: McCarthy list # 62; Lee List # 73; Not identified in Venona

Peter, Hollis W.: McCarthy list # 64; Lee List # 76; Not identified in Venona

Polyzoides, T. Achilles: McCarthy list # 79; Lee List # 105; Not identified in Venona

Posner, Marjorie S.: McCarthy list # 10; Lee List # 7; Not identified in Venona

Posniak, Edward G.: McCarthy list # 77; Not on Lee List; Not identified in Venona

Post, Richard: McCarthy list # 53; Lee List # 63; Not identified in Venona

Raine, Philip: McCarthy list # 52; Lee List # 62; Not identified in Venona

Randolph, David (aka Rosenberg): McCarthy list # 66; Lee List # 80; Not identified in Venona

Rapoport, Alexander: McCarthy list # 22; Not on Lee List; Not identified in Venona

Remington, William: McCarthy list # 19; Not on Lee List; Not identified in Venona. First Identified as a Soviet Source by Elizabeth Bentley in her 1945 FBI statement.[13]

Robinson, Jay: McCarthy list # 5; Lee List # 5; Not identified in Venona

Rommel, Rowena: McCarthy list # 51; Lee List # 61; Not identified in Venona

Ross, Lewis: McCarthy list # 31; Lee List # 29; Not identified in Venona

Ross, Robert: McCarthy list # 32; Lee List # 30; Not identified in Venona

Schimmel, Sylvia: McCarthy list # 50; Lee List # 60; Not identified in Venona

Shell, Melville: McCarthy list # 35; Lee List # 34; Not identified in Venona

Siegel, Herman: McCarthy list # 33; Lee List # 31; Not identified in Venona

Smith, S. Stevenson: McCarthy list # 20; Lee List # 20; Not identified in Venona

Smith (Schmidt), Frederick W.: McCarthy list # 36; Lee List # 40; Not identified in Venona

Stoinaoff, Stoian: McCarthy list # 71; Lee List # 87; Not identified in Venona

Stone, William T.: McCarthy list # 46; Lee List # 54; Not identified in Venona

Taylor, Jeanne E.: McCarthy list # 17; Lee List # 14; Not identified in Venona

Tuchscher, Frances M.: McCarthy list # 6; Lee List # 6; Not identified in Venona

Vincent, John Carter: McCarthy list # 2; Lee List # 52; Not identified in Venona

Volin, Maz A.: McCarthy list # 39; Lee List # 44; Not identified in Venona

Washburn, John T.: McCarthy list # 80; Lee List # 106; Not identified in Venona

Washburne, Carleton: McCarthy list # 13; Lee List # 9; Not identified in Venona

Wilcox, Stanley: McCarthy list # 63; Lee List # 75; Not identified in Venona

Yuhas, Helen: McCarthy list # 12; Lee List # 107; Not identified in Venona

*****************************************************************************


McCarthy’s List (2)

Remaining Lee List Names

In as much as Senator McCarthy cited the Lee list as one the DOS was negligent in not pursuing, the Lee list names not already listed above are listed below.

Real Name: Lee list #; Venona status; Non-Venona Evidence of Espionage

*****************************************************************************

Alexander, Dorothy Helen: Lee List # 38; Not identified in Venona

Blaisdell, Donald C.: Lee List # 103; Not identified in Venona

Borton, Hugh: Lee List # 57; Not identified in Venona

Burlingame, Robert Sparks: Lee List # 108; Not identified in Venona

DeMoretz, Shirley T.: Lee List # 27; Not identified in Venona

Elinson, Marcelle D.: Lee List # 104; Not identified in Venona

Eminowicz, Halina D.: Lee List # 48; Not identified in Venona

Fine, Sherwood Monroe: Lee List # 23; Not identified in Venona

Fishburn, John Tipton: Lee List # 106; Not identified in Venona

Forno, Joseph T.: Lee List # 96; Not identified in Venona

Fournier, Norman L.: Lee List # 98; Not identified in Venona

Hankin, Robert: Lee List # 94; Not identified in Venona

Hughes, Henry Stuart: Lee List # 77; Not identified in Venona

Jackson, Malcolm Aage: Lee List # 15; Not identified in Venona

Kamarck, Andrew W.: Lee List # 100; Not identified in Venona

Lazarus, Theodore: Lee List # 26; Not identified in Venona

Lovell, Leander Bell: Lee List # 22; Not identified in Venona

Lunning, Just: Lee List # 11; Not identified in Venona

Magruder, John H., III: Lee List # 17; Not identified in Venona

Mallon, Dwight S.: Lee List # 89; Not identified in Venona

Martin, Shirley Mae: Lee List # 33; Not identified in Venona

Martingale, Rose Marie: Lee List # 37; Not identified in Venona

McDavid, Raven I., Jr.: Lee List # 19; Not identified in Venona

Moore, Leith Celestia: Lee List # 18; Not identified in Venona

Parker, Glen T.: Lee List # 95; Not identified in Venona

Pesto, Paula Pavedo: Lee List # 82; Not identified in Venona

Rennie, Leonard C.: Lee List # 13; Not identified in Venona

Rose, Ernest William: Lee List # 41; Not identified in Venona

Rosenthal, Albert H.: Lee List # 97; Not identified in Venona

Rothwell, George J.: Lee List # 7; Not identified in Venona

Royce, Edith M.: Lee List # 35; Not identified in Venona

Rudlin, Walter Arthur: Lee List # 56; Ambiguously identified in Venona[14]

Salmon, Thomas R.: Lee List # 39; Not identified in Venona

Shevlin, Lorraine Arnold: Lee List # 86; Not identified in Venona

Smothers, Frank Albert: Lee List # 102; Not identified in Venona

Thomson, Charles A.: Lee List # 58; Not identified in Venona

Thursz, Jonathan: Lee List # 74; Not identified in Venona

Toory, Dr. Frank P.: Lee List # 88; Not identified in Venona

Tuckerman, Gustavus: Lee List # 101; Not identified in Venona

Wilfert, Howard F.: Lee List # 36; Not identified in Venona

Wood, James E.: Lee List # 24; Not identified in Venona

***************************************************************************


McCarthy’s List (3)

Other Names Given to the Tydings Subcommittee

In addition to the above McCarthy numbered cases and Lee list, McCarthy also identified by name the following persons to the Tydings subcommittee of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee.[15]

Real Name: Venona status; Non-Venona Evidence of Espionage

*****************************************************************

Askwith, Edna Jerry: Not identified in Venona

Erdos, Arpad: Not identified in Venona

Grajdanzeve, Andrew aka Grade, Andrew: Not identified in Venona

Harris, Reed: Not identified in Venona Not identified in Venona

Henkin, Louis: Not identified in Venona

Hulten, Charles M.: Not identified in Venona

Ingram, George Mason: Not identified in Venona

Ludden, Raymond Paul: Not identified in Venona

Meeker, Leonard C.: Not identified in Venona

Nelson, Clarence J.: Not identified in Venona

Newbegin, Robert: Not identified in Venona

Ramon, Josephine: Not identified in Venona

Rowe, James W.: Not identified in Venona

Sanders, William: Not identified in Venona

Tate, Jack B.: Not identified in Venona

Zablodgwskei, David: Not identified in Venona

**********************************************************************************


McCarthy’s List (4)

Buckley & Bozell List of Other McCarthy Names

Senator McCarthy in 1950, 1951 and 1952 identified other persons in speeches in the Senate and else where. For the date and place of Senator McCarthy’s naming of these persons, see appendix D of William F. Buckley and L. Brent Bozell, McCarthy and His Enemies: The Record and Its Meaning (Chicago: H. Regnery Co., 1954).

Real Name: Venona status; Non-Venona Evidence of Espionage

*****************************************************************

Brunauer, Stephen: Not identified in Venona

Clubb, Oliver Edmund: Not identified in Venona

Currie, Lauchlin: Identified in Venona as a Soviet Espionage Source;[16] First Identified as a Soviet Source by Elizabeth Bentley in her 1945 FBI statement.[17]

Davies, John Paton: Not identified in Venona

Duran, Gustavo: Not identified in Venona

Geiger, Theodore: Not identified in Venona

Glasser, Harold: Identified in Venon as a Soviet Espionage Source;[18] First Identified as a Soviet Source by Elizabeth Bentley in her 1945 FBI statement.[19]

Hanson, Haldore: Not identified in Venona

Keeney, Mary Jane: Identified in Venona as a Soviet Espionage Source[20]

Kenyon, Dorothy: Not identified in Venona

Kerserling, Mary: Not identified in Venona

Keyserling, Leon: Not identified in Venona

Lattimore, Owen: Not identified in Venona

Nash, Philleo: Not identified in Venona

Schuman, Frederick: Not identified in Venona

Service, John Stewart: Not identified in Venona. Identified by FBI bugging in 1945 as having deliberately leaked DOS information to the pro-Communist journal Amerasia.[21]

Shapley, Harlow: Not identified in Venona

*******************************************************************************


McCarthy’s List (5)

June 14, 1951 “conspiracy of infamy so black” Speech

Senator McCarthy in a speech before the Senate on June 14, 1951, described, “a conspiracy on a scale so immense as to dwarf any previous such venture in the history of man. A conspiracy of infamy so black that, when it is finally exposed, its principals shall be forever deserving of the maledictions of all honest men.”[22] The chief targets of the speech were Dean Acheson, President Truman’s secretary of state, and George Marshall, Army chief of staff under President Roosevelt and secretary of state and secretary of defense under Truman. General Marshall was also the focus of Senator McCarthy’s book America’s Retreat from Victory: The Story of George Catlett Marshall:[23]

Real Name: Venona status; Non-Venona Evidence of Espionage

*****************************************************************

Acheson, Dean: Benign identification in Venona[24]

Marshall, George C.: Benign identification in Venona[25]

******************************************************************************


McCarthy’s List (6)

Other McCarthy Speeches

Below are two additional names McCarthy identified in statement to the Senate on December 19, 1950.[26]

Real Name: Venona status; Non-Venona Evidence of Espionage

*****************************************************************

Karr, David: Identified in Venona as assisting Soviet Espionage[27]

Pearson, Drew: Benign Identification in Venona.[28]

*******************************************************************


McCarthy’s List (7)

Lists 1-6 Combined

For convenience of reference, a combined list of all names above.

Real Name: Venona status; Non-Venona Evidence of Espionage

*****************************************************************************

Acheson, Dean: Benign identification in Venona[29]

Alexander, Dorothy Helen: Not identified in Venona

Arndt, Ernest Theodore: Not identified in Venona

Askwith, Edna Jerry: Not identified in Venona

Barnett, Mrs. Robert Warren: Not identified in Venona

Barnett, Robert Warren: Not identified in Venona

Berman, Harold: Not identified in Venona

Blaisdell, Donald C.: Not identified in Venona

Borton, Hugh: Not identified in Venona

Brunauer, Esther Caukin: Not identified in Venona

Brunauer, Stephen: Not identified in Venona

Burlingame, Robert Sparks: Not identified in Venona

Cameron, Gertrude: Not identified in Venona

Carlisle, Lois: Not identified in Venona

Carter, William D.: Not identified in Venona

Chipchin, Nelson: Benign identification in Venona[30]

Clubb, Oliver Edmund: Not identified in Venona

Clucas, Lowell M., Jr.: Not identified in Venona

Currie, Lauchlin: Identified in Venona as a Soviet Espionage Source;[31] First Identified as a Soviet Source by Elizabeth Bentley in her 1945 FBI statement.[32]

Davies, John Paton: Not identified in Venona

Delgado, Mucio: Not identified in Venona

Demerjian, Alice: Not identified in Venona

DeMoretz, Shirley T.: Not identified in Venona

Dubois, Cora: Not identified in Venona

Duran, Gustavo: Not identified in Venona

Elinson, Marcelle D.: Not identified in Venona

Eminowicz, Halina D.: Not identified in Venona

Erdos, Arpad: Not identified in Venona

Ferry, Frances: Not identified in Venona

Fierst, Herbert: Not identified in Venona

Fine, Sherwood Monroe: Not identified in Venona

Fishback, Sam: Not identified in Venona

Fishburn, John Tipton: Not identified in Venona

Ford, James T.: Not identified in Venona

Forno, Joseph T.: Not identified in Venona

Fournier, Norman L.: Not identified in Venona

Geiger, Theodore: Not identified in Venona

Glasser, Harold: Identified in Venon as a Soviet Espionage Source;[33] First Identified as a Soviet Source by Elizabeth Bentley in her 1945 FBI statement.[34]

Gordon, Stella: Not identified in Venona

Grajdanzeve, Andrew aka Grade, Andrew: Not identified in Venona

Graze, Gerald: Not identified in Venona;[35] Identified as a Soviet Espionage Source in the Gorsky Memo[36]

Graze, Stanley: Not identified in Venona; Identified as a Soviet Espionage Source in the Gorsky Memoo[37]

Grondahl, Tegnel Conrad: Not identified in Venona

Gross, Aaron Jack: Not identified in Venona

Hankin, Robert: Not identified in Venona

Hanson, Haldore: Not identified in Venona

Harris, Reed: Not identified in Venona Not identified in Venona

Harrison, Marcia Ruth: Not identified in Venona

Henkin, Louis: Not identified in Venona

Horwin, Leonard: Not identified in Venona

Hughes, Henry Stuart: Not identified in Venona

Hulten, Charles M.: Not identified in Venona

Hunt, Victor: Not identified in Venona

Ilyefalvi-Vites, Gizella: Not identified in Venona

Ingram, George Mason: Not identified in Venona

Jackson, Malcolm Aage: Not identified in Venona

Jankowski, Joseph T.: Not identified in Venona

Jessup, Philip: Not identified in Venona

Josephson, Joseph: Not identified in Venona

Kamarck, Andrew W.: Not identified in Venona

Kamarck, Andrew W.: Not identified in Venona

Karr, David: Identified in Venona as a Soviet Espionage Source[38]

Katusich, Ivan: Not identified in Venona

Kaufman, Arthur Milton: Not identified in Venona

Keeney, Mary Jane: Identified in Venona as a Soviet Espionage Source[39]

Kenyon, Dorothy: Not identified in Venona

Kerserling, Mary: Not identified in Venona

Keyserling, Leon: Not identified in Venona

Kopelewish, Esther Less aka Mrs. Less: Not identified in Venona

Lansberg, Hans: Not identified in Venona

Lattimore, Owen: Not identified in Venona

Lazarus, Theodore: Not identified in Venona

Lemon, Edythe J.: Not identified in Venona

Lewis, Mrs. Preston Keesling: Not identified in Venona

Lifantieff-Lee, Paul A.: Not identified in Venona

Lindsey, John Richard: Not identified in Venona

Lloyd, David Demarest: Not identified in Venona

Lorwin, Val R.: Not identified in Venona

Lovell, Leander Bell: Not identified in Venona

Ludden, Raymond Paul: Not identified in Venona

Lunning, Just: Not identified in Venona

Magruder, John H., III: Not identified in Venona

Maguite, Sylvia: Not identified in Venona

Mallon, Dwight S.: Not identified in Venona

Mann, Gottfried Thomas: Not identified in Venona

Margolies, Daniel F.: Not identified in Venona

Margolin, Arnold D.: [40] Not identified in Venona

Marshall, George C.: Benign identification in Venona[41]

Martin, Shirley Mae: Not identified in Venona

Martingale, Rose Marie: Not identified in Venona

McDavid, Raven I., Jr.: Not identified in Venona

Meeker, Leonard C.: Not identified in Venona

Meigs, Peveril: Not identified in Venona

Miller, Robert T.: Not identified in Venona;[42] First Identified as a Soviet Espionage Source by Elizabeth Bentley in her 1945 FBI statement.[43]

Montague, Ella M.: Not identified in Venona

Moore, Leith Celestia: Not identified in Venona

Nash, Philleo: Not identified in Venona

Neal, Fred Warner: Not identified in Venona

Nelson, Clarence J.: Not identified in Venona

Ness, Norman T.: Not identified in Venona

Neumann, Franz Leopold: Not identified in Venona[44] Identified as a Soviet Espionage Source in Weinstein and Vassiliev’s The Haunted Wood.[45]

Newbegin, Robert: Not identified in Venona

Osnatch, Olga F.: Not identified in Venona

Parker, Glen T.: Not identified in Venona

Parsons, Ruby A.: Not identified in Venona

Perkins, Isham W.: Not identified in Venona

Pearson, Drew: Benign Identification in Venona.[46]

Pesto, Paula Pavedo: Not identified in Venona

Peter, Hollis W.: Not identified in Venona

Polyzoides, T. Achilles: Not identified in Venona

Posner, Marjorie: Not identified in Venona

Posniak, Edward G.: Not identified in Venona

Post, Richard: Not identified in Venona

Raine, Philip: Not identified in Venona

Ramon, Josephine: Not identified in Venona

Randolph, David (aka Rosenberg): Not identified in Venona

Rapoport, Alexander: Not identified in Venona

Remington, William: Not identified in Venona. First Identified as a Soviet Espionage Source by Elizabeth Bentley in her 1945 FBI statement.[47]

Rennie, Leonard C.: Not identified in Venona

Robinson, Jay: Not identified in Venona

Rommel, Rowena: Not identified in Venona

Rose, Ernest William: Not identified in Venona

Rosenthal, Albert H.: Not identified in Venona

Ross, Lewis: Not identified in Venona

Ross, Robert: Not identified in Venona

Rothwell, George J.: Not identified in Venona

Rowe, James W.: Not identified in Venona

Royce, Edith M.: Not identified in Venona

Rudlin, Walter Arthur: Ambiguously identified in Venona[48]

Salmon, Thomas R.: Not identified in Venona

Sanders, William: Not identified in Venona

Schimmel, Sylvia: Not identified in Venona

Schuman, Frederick: Not identified in Venona

Service, John Stewart: Not identified in Venona. Identified by FBI bugging in 1945 as having deliberately leaked DOS information to the pro-Communist journal Amerasia.[49]

Shapley, Harlow: Not identified in Venona

Shell, Melville: Not identified in Venona

Shevlin, Lorraine Arnold: Not identified in Venona

Siegel, Herman: Not identified in Venona

Smith, S. Stevenson: Not identified in Venona

Smith (Schmidt), Frederick W.: Not identified in Venona

Smothers, Frank Albert: Not identified in Venona

Stoinaoff, Stoian: Not identified in Venona

Stone, William T.: Not identified in Venona

Tate, Jack B.: Not identified in Venona

Taylor, Jeanne E.: Not identified in Venona

Thomson, Charles A.: Not identified in Venona

Thursz, Jonathan: Not identified in Venona

Toory, Dr. Frank P.: Not identified in Venona

Tuchscher, Frances M.: Not identified in Venona

Tuckerman, Gustavus: Not identified in Venona

Vincent, John Carter: Not identified in Venona

Volin, Maz A.: Not identified in Venona

Washburn, John T.: Not identified in Venona

Washburne, Carleton: Not identified in Venona

Wilcox, Stanley: Not identified in Venona

Wilfert, Howard F.: Not identified in Venona

Wood, James E.: Not identified in Venona

Yuhas, Helen: Not identified in Venona

Zablodgwskei, David: Not identified in Venona

***************************************************************************


Security Risks

Of the 159 persons listed above, there is substantial evidence that nine assisted Soviet espionage against the United States: Lauchlin Currie, Harold Glasser, Gerald Graze, Standley Graze, Many Jane Keeney, David Karr, Robert T. Miller, Franz Neumann, and William Remington.

Some of the others were security risks. To say that someone was a security risk is not to say that that person is a proven or even most likely a Soviet espionage source. It is only to say that in matters of national security “better safe than sorry” is a principle. Risks should be minimized by excluding those persons from employment in positions where they would have access to sensitive information.

Risk factors vary from the purely personal to the ideological. Entirely patriotic and loyal persons may have risk factors that make them a security risk. Someone with a history of financial irresponsibility (chronic gambling, bankruptcy) may be tempted by financial gain to betray secret without regard to their patriotism. Someone with close relatives living in a hostile foreign nation may be vulnerable to blackmail due to coercive threats against those family members.

And, of course, someone with ideological sympathy for a hostile foreign power may be tempted to betray by appeals to that ideology. Obviously, in the Cold War between the Communist bloc and the West, persons with Communist or pro-Communist ideological sympathies were security risks due to the possibility of ideological recruitment by Communist intelligence officers. Indeed, the great majority of American, several hundred, now known to have assisted Soviet espionage in the United States in the 1930s, 1940s, and 1950s were motivated by ideology and many were secret members of the CPUSA.[50]

Many, but certainly not all, of those in the above lists had in their background some ideological security risk factors. A few were established as having been members of the Communist Party, USA (CPUSA) or the Young Communist League. Many had belonged to a number of special purpose organizations, some closely, some not so closely, aligned with the CPUSA, were know to former co-workers as pro-Soviet, or had other signs of Communist sympathies. In some cases those affiliations were recent or ongoing. Frederick Schuman, for example, had a long and enduring history of intense Communist sympathies. With others, however, their affiliation with the Communist left were youthful and a decade or more in the past, and the person may have abandoned those views. Stephen Brunauer, for example, had been in the Young Communist League in the late 1920s but appears to have abandoned the movement by the early 1940s and in 1946 the U.S. government sent him to Hungary (he was Hungarian born) to assist in the escape of Hungarian scientists from Communist Hungary. There were also cases were some association legitimately raised security risk concerns but on inspection, the association appears to have been coincidental. For example McCarthy number case # 1 (Lee list # 51) Herbert Fierst, socialized with and was associated at work with several persons known to be linked to Soviet intelligence. But on examination, Fierst’s association appeared to have been no more than that: social and related to his official duties. Among other points, he was a firm supporter of Zionism, an ideological attribute not merely distrusted but hated by Soviet intelligence.[51]

It would take an extensive review of each person separately to come to a firm view on each case, and in a number of cases the passage of time might make reaching a firm conclusion impossible. My own view is that a number of those on the lists above, perhaps a majority, likely were security risks, but others, a minority but a significant one, likely were not, and some, Drew Pearson, Dean Acheson, and George Marshall for example, certainly were not.

Return to Responses, Reflections and Occasional Papers

Return to Historical Writings



[1]. U.S. Senate Committee on Foreign Relations, State Department Employee Loyalty Investigations (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1950).

[2]. McCarthy to Tydings, 18 March 1950 with attached list.

[3]. Remarks of Senator Joseph McCarthy, Congressional Record, 20 February 1950.

[4]. A Soviet spy in the U.S. Army, Ilya Elliott Wolston, was a student in the Russian section of the U.S. Army intelligence school and provided the KGB with a list of his fellow students and instructors. Nelson Chipchin was one of those. There is nothing adverse about Chipchin in the reference to him in the two messages in which his name appears. Venona 777-781 KGB New York to Moscow, 26 May 1943; Venona 893 KGB New York to Moscow, 10 June 1943. On Wolston work for the KGB, see John Earl Haynes and Harvey Klehr, Venona: Decoding Soviet Espionage in America (New Haven: Yale University Press [Nota Bene], 2000), 275–76.

[5]. Gerald Graze was not identified in Venona under his own name. Venona does contain a cryptonym, Arena, that FBI/NSA identified as that of Mary Price. Based on the 1948 Gorsky memo, likely this was in error and Arena was Gerald Graze. Anatoly Gorsky, “Failures in the U.S.A. (1938–1948),” memo, December 1948: <http://www.johnearlhaynes.org/page48.html> in Alexander Vassiliev’s Notes from the KGB Archive. Gerald Graze is the brother of Stanley Graze.

[6]. Gorsky, “Failures in the U.S.A. (1938–1948).”

[7]. Gorsky, “Failures in the U.S.A. (1938–1948).”

[8]. Arnold Margolin is cited by both Lee and McCarthy as an anti-Communist denied DOS employment.

[9]. Robert T. Miller is not identified in Venona under that name. However, Venona has a crytonym, Mirage, that is unidentified. The Gorsky memo identifies Mirage as Robert Miller. Gorsky, “Failures in the U.S.A. (1938–1948)”. Miller is discussed in Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000], 207, 228–29.

[10]. Elizabeth Bentley, “Elizabeth Bentley FBI Deposition of 30 November 1945,” FBI file 65–14503.

[11]. Franz Neumann was not identified by FBI/NSA in Venona. However, Venona has an unidentified cryptonym, Ruff. Ruff is identified as Neumann in Gorsky, “Failures in the U.S.A. (1938–1948)”; and Allen Weinstein and Alexander Vassiliev, The Haunted Wood: Soviet Espionage in America--the Stalin Era (New York: Random House, 1999). Neumann is discussed in Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000], 194–95, 220.

[12]. Weinstein and Vassiliev, The Haunted Wood.

[13]. Bentley, “Bentley Deposition”. Remington in 1951 was convicted of perjury related to Bentley’s charges and was murdered in prison. Also identified as a Soviet source in Gorsky, “Failures in the U.S.A. (1938–1948)”.

[14]. Venona 1668 KGB New York to Moscow, 29 November 1944 is part three of a longer message, but the earlier parts were not deciphered at all and only part of this message was decoded. Walter Rudlin is referred to as the source of information about the relationship of the office he headed, the Economic Intelligence Section of the Foreign Economic Administration, with the DOS. However, from the contents of the cited remarks and the partial nature of the message it is not possible to determine if Rudlin is a direct KGB source or if an unidentified Soviet spy was simply passing along information the unidentified KGB source heard from Rudlin in a benign legitimate context. Rudlin’s name is given in the clear without a cryptonym. While the KGB sometimes used real names for sources in Venona, more often cryptonyms were used.

[15]. “List of 25 Additional Names Given to Senate Foreign Relations Committee,” document provided by M. Stanton Evans.

[16]. On Currie’s assistance to the KGB, see Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000], 145–49.

[17]. Elizabeth Bentley, “Elizabeth Bentley FBI Deposition, 30 November 19045, FBI File 65–14603” (1945).

[18]. Glasser’s assistance to the KGB is discussed in Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000], 125–28.

[19]. Bentley, “Bentley 1945 Deposition.”

[20]. Many Jane Keeney and her husband Philip O. Keeney are identified as agents first of the GRU (Soviet Military Intelligence) and latter for the KGB. See Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000], 178–80.

[21]. On Service’s role see: Harvey Klehr and Ronald Radosh, The Amerasia Spy Case: Prelude to McCarthyism (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1996). Service was engaged in certainly unethical and probably illegal leaking of sensitive American diplomatic information to Amerasia in order to promote his preferred policy positions and undercut the policies of superiors in the Department of State and the White House who were pursuing policies he opposed. There is no indication that he believed he was in contact with Soviet intelligence or that Amerasia was a conduit for Soviet intelligence.

[22]. Joseph McCarthy speech, U.S. Senate, 14 June 14, 1951, Congressional Record, vol. 97, part 5, 6602.

[23]. Joseph Raymond McCarthy, America’s Retreat from Victory: The Story of George Catlett Marshall (New York: Devin-Adair, 1951).

[24]. As a senior State Department official, Assistant Secretary of Sate in 1945, Acheson was mentioned in several Venona messages, but all were reports about him, not by him, and none indicated any relationship with Soviet intelligence.

[25]. As Army Chief of Staff, General Marshall was mentioned a number of times in Venona messages, but all were reports about him, not by him, and none indicated any relationship with Soviet intelligence.

[26]. Remarks of Senator Joseph McCarthy, 19 December 1950, Congressional Record.

[27]. Karr is discussed in Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000], 244–47.

[28]. Pearson is identified in Venona as David Karr’s employer and simply as a prominent American journalist. There is no indication of any Pearson cooperation with Soviet intelligence. See Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000], 244–45.

[29]. As a senior State Department official, Assistant Secretary of Sate in 1945, Acheson was mentioned in several Venona messages, but all were reports about him, not by him, and none indicated any relationship with Soviet intelligence.

[30]. A Soviet spy in the U.S. Army, Ilya Elliott Wolston, was a student in the Russian section of the U.S. Army intelligence school and provided the KGB with a list of his fellow students and instructors. Nelson Chipchin was one of those. There is nothing adverse about Chipchin in the reference to him in the two messages in which his name appears. Venona 777-781 KGB New York to Moscow, 26 May 1943; Venona 893 KGB New York to Moscow, 10 June 1943. On Wolston work for the KGB, see Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000], 275–76.

[31]. On Currie’s assistance to the KGB, see Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000], 145–49.

[32]. Bentley, “Bentley 1945 Deposition.”

[33]. Glasser’s assistance to the KGB is discussed in Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000], 125–28.

[34]. Bentley, “Bentley 1945 Deposition.”

[35]. Gerald Graze was not identified in Venona under his own name. Venona does contain a cryptonym, Arena, that FBI/NSA identified as that of Mary Price. Based on the 1948 Gorsky memo, likely this was in error and Arena was Gerald Graze. Gorsky, “Failures in the U.S.A. (1938–1948)”. Gerald Graze is the brother of Stanley Graze.

[36]. Gorsky, “Failures in the U.S.A. (1938–1948).”

[37]. Gorsky, “Failures in the U.S.A. (1938–1948).”

[38]. Karr is discussed in Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000], 244–47.

[39]. Many Jane Keeney and her husband Philip O. Keeney are identified as agents first of the GRU (Soviet Military Intelligence) and latter for the KGB. See Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000], 178–80.

[40]. Arnold Margolin is cited by both Lee and McCarthy as an anti-Communist who was denied DOS employment.

[41]. As Army Chief of Staff, General Marshall was mentioned a number of times in Venona messages, but all were reports about him, not by him, and none indicated any relationship with Soviet intelligence.

[42]. Robert T. Miller is not identified in Venona under that name. However, Venona has a crytonym, Mirage, that is unidentified. The Gorsky memo identifies Mirage as Robert Miller. Gorsky, “Failures in the U.S.A. (1938–1948)”. Miller is discussed in Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000], 207, 228–29.

[43]. Bentley, “Bentley Deposition.”

[44]. Franz Neumann was not identified by FBI/NSA in Venona. However, Venona has an unidentified cryptonym, Ruff. Ruff is identified as Neumann in Gorsky, “Failures in the U.S.A. (1938–1948)”; and Weinstein and Vassiliev, The Haunted Wood. Neumann is discussed in Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000], 194–95, 220.

[45]. Weinstein and Vassiliev, The Haunted Wood.

[46]. Pearson is identified in Venona as David Karr’s employer and simply as a prominent American journalist. There is no indication of any Pearson cooperation with Soviet intelligence. See Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000], 244–45.

[47]. Bentley, “Bentley 1945 Deposition”. Remington in 1951 was convicted of perjury related to Bentley’s charges and was murdered in prison. Also identified as a Soviet source in Gorsky, “Failures in the U.S.A. (1938–1948)”.

[48]. Venona 1668 KGB New York to Moscow, 29 November 1944 is part three of a longer message, but the earlier messages were not deciphered at all and only part of this message was decoded. Walter Rudlin is referred to as the source of information about relationship of the office he headed, the Economic Intelligence Section of the Foreign Economic Administration, with the DOS. However, from the contents of the cited remarks and the partial nature of the message it is not possible to determine if Rudlin is a direct KGB source or if an unidentified Soviet spy is simply passing along information the unidentified KGB source heard from Rudlin in a benign legitimate context. Rudlin’s name is given in the clear without a cryptonym. While the KGB sometimes used real names for sources in Venona, more often cryptonyms were used.

[49]. On Service’s role see: Klehr and Radosh, Amerasia Spy Case. Service was engaged in unethical and possibly illegal leaking of information to Amerasia in order to promote his preferred policy positions and undercut the position of superiors in the Department of State and the White House who were pursuing policies he opposed. There is no indication that he believed he was in contact with Soviet intelligence or that Amerasia was a conduit for Soviet intelligence.

[50]. The Communist affiliations of most of those identified as assisting Soviet espionage in Venona are discussed in Haynes and Klehr, Venona [2000].

[51]. The expressive KGB cryptonym for Zionists was “Rats.”


23 posted on 04/30/2006 2:07:52 PM PDT by ckilmer
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To: goldstategop

bookmark


24 posted on 04/30/2006 2:17:18 PM PDT by GiovannaNicoletta
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To: FastCoyote
Marx was a Jew. I guess that explains a lot. However, it's interesting to note that most adherents of Marxism, or at
least those wanting to impose it by force on the hoi polloi, as the article points out, hate Jews.
25 posted on 04/30/2006 3:00:01 PM PDT by Calvin Locke
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To: Calvin Locke
"Marx was a Jew. I guess that explains a lot."

Marx was a Christian.
26 posted on 04/30/2006 3:54:40 PM PDT by familyop ("Either you are with us, or you are with the terrorists." --President Bush)
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To: sauropod

review


27 posted on 04/30/2006 3:55:57 PM PDT by sauropod (Gael Murphy calls Kristinn her very own "teddy bear")
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To: Calvin Locke

Karl Marx's father converted to Lutheranism before Karl was born. Karl was baptized in 1824, and his mother was baptized in 1825.


28 posted on 04/30/2006 4:01:43 PM PDT by familyop ("Either you are with us, or you are with the terrorists." --President Bush)
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To: SJackson
"One consideration always left out of these discussions is the Jews live largely in urban areas. From that perspective, they vote very much like their fellow urbanites."

That's a good and true point.
29 posted on 04/30/2006 4:07:11 PM PDT by familyop ("Either you are with us, or you are with the terrorists." --President Bush)
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To: goldstategop
The main problem with most Jews, BTW, is that most of them assimilate. Those who refuse to assimilate and those who reenter the way of Judaism are the most biblically conservative people on our planet.
30 posted on 04/30/2006 4:12:31 PM PDT by familyop ("Either you are with us, or you are with the terrorists." --President Bush)
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To: ckilmer
Good work... thanks..

Pity, that Now, the Fox now lives in the henhouse..
The hens are gone or are being ostracized..
Only heroic action will save this country..

31 posted on 04/30/2006 5:18:49 PM PDT by hosepipe (CAUTION: This propaganda is laced with hyperbole..)
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To: ckilmer
You obviously spent a lot of time thinking about and writing this. But the demagraphics of jewish voting patterns do not in anway way go along with this theory. The gathering of the jews occurred in the 1930's, the ghetto's in warsaw poland and then the death camps The Jews in the US that arrived in the 1880's on first off were predomiantly democrats one event that was galvanizing for jew in New York city their largest community was taminaty hall with boss tweed this was a republican scandal of scandals that flipped new york state and new york city from being a republican strong hold to the democratic strong hold it is today and that swayed the jewish population of its day. As for WWII if was FDR that championed bringing down the nazi empire and the US was one of the few nations that recieved tens ofthousands of eupropeans jews and all that cme over gave their alligence to the party of FDR and unabashedly supported the democratic parties foray into european christian socialism. The demographics clearly support this -- not macarthyism -- that is a straw dog all the jews that came over from WWII were already here and registered voters before that ever came about Next point about reagan many jews are business people and while they are liberals they were fiscal conservatives they are known for their penny pinching and by th e 1980's the tax bit had become too much and the ever expanding programs and their tentacles were to burdensome -- so they in a rebellion voted for reagan and received relief but it is clear when clinton came they voted for him en mass

Bush senior with his read my lips no new taxes emaciated the republican party and the damage done still follows us in the son W as he has grossly over spent and vetoed nothing and the voters are going to punish all of that at the ballot box. If I were to fantasize a ticket it would be condolezze rice and joseph Lieberman -- And I would say landslide. Rice would preach the conservatism of reagan and Liberman would be a stauch defender of US foreign policy against terrorism and immigration policy The dems would be hard pressed the ticket would carry great weight with blacks and jews and convervatives.

32 posted on 04/30/2006 6:27:25 PM PDT by Rocketman (Study to show thyself approved . .)
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To: familyop
Hmmm, I was listening to a rabbi on shortwave, and he said Marx was Jewish. Perhaps Marx rediscovered his "roots"?

Just a passing thought.

33 posted on 04/30/2006 7:05:18 PM PDT by Calvin Locke
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To: veronica

Let me give you my personal take on why many Jews are liberals,and in the Sixties,wandered into the radical left camp.
My all white suburban high school was mostly Italian and Irish Catholic with a hefty mix of Protestants and a Jewish demographic of around 20%
Well,the Jewish kids as a group were the ones who shined most scholastically and won many of the academic awards at the school.They were less likely to be the popular trendy stylemakers and were the most"free thinking"in that they were the ones most likely to support the embyronic civil rights and"peace"movements of the middle sixties.
As a group,they were the ones most likely to be persecuted by the less successful ethnic groups at the school.It was not uncommon to hear the epiteth "kike"and "Jewboy".They were the outsiders for the most part and I really think their mistreatment in high school fueled their college radicalism.
Many joined SDS and other Marxist groups as sort of a way to exact revenge.Many hooked up with black militants who they saw as alienated"outsiders"like themselves.They saw that their Goy tormenters from high school were usually quite afraid of"the niggers"and by allying with the black enrages they often obtained a shield from these"reactionary"types.
Many Jewish girls joined Women's Lib for the same reason.Very few were the glamour girl and cheerleader types in high school and, as most of us remember, it was these"foxes"that got all the male attention.Who wanted an overweight Jewish chick who could quote Sartre and Camus?So they were ripe for the whole women's movement whose main point was to "smash male chauvinism"and decry the"objectification"of women.
It all makes sense from a certain vantage point.The desire for revenge and vindication is part of human nature.Of course,most of these Jewish radicals are now upper middle class professionals and live the same lives as their upwardly mobile parents whom they rebelled against.Most are still liberals but probably chastened somewhat by the current anti-Israeli anti-Semitism of the Left and the unraveling of the black-Jewish alliance of the civil rights era.


34 posted on 04/30/2006 7:27:49 PM PDT by Riverman94610
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