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Scientists find bugs that eat waste and excrete petrol
The Times (UK) ^ | June 14, 2008 | Chris Ayres

Posted on 06/14/2008 12:12:56 PM PDT by Ernest_at_the_Beach

Silicon Valley is experimenting with bacteria that have been genetically altered to provide 'renewable petroleum'


Some diesel fuel produced by genetically modified bugs

“Ten years ago I could never have imagined I’d be doing this,” says Greg Pal, 33, a former software executive, as he squints into the late afternoon Californian sun. “I mean, this is essentially agriculture, right? But the people I talk to – especially the ones coming out of business school – this is the one hot area everyone wants to get into.”

He means bugs. To be more precise: the genetic alteration of bugs – very, very small ones – so that when they feed on agricultural waste such as woodchips or wheat straw, they do something extraordinary. They excrete crude oil.

Unbelievably, this is not science fiction. Mr Pal holds up a small beaker of bug excretion that could, theoretically, be poured into the tank of the giant Lexus SUV next to us. Not that Mr Pal is willing to risk it just yet. He gives it a month before the first vehicle is filled up on what he calls “renewable petroleum”. After that, he grins, “it’s a brave new world”.

Mr Pal is a senior director of LS9, one of several companies in or near Silicon Valley that have spurned traditional high-tech activities such as software and networking and embarked instead on an extraordinary race to make $140-a-barrel oil (£70) from Saudi Arabia obsolete. “All of us here – everyone in this company and in this industry, are aware of the urgency,” Mr Pal says. <

What is most remarkable about what they are doing is that instead of trying to reengineer the global economy – as is required, for example, for the use of hydrogen fuel – they are trying to make a product that is interchangeable with oil. The company claims that this “Oil 2.0” will not only be renewable but also carbon negative – meaning that the carbon it emits will be less than that sucked from the atmosphere by the raw materials from which it is made.

LS9 has already convinced one oil industry veteran of its plan: Bob Walsh, 50, who now serves as the firm’s president after a 26-year career at Shell, most recently running European supply operations in London. “How many times in your life do you get the opportunity to grow a multi-billion-dollar company?” he asks. It is a bold statement from a man who works in a glorified cubicle in a San Francisco industrial estate for a company that describes itself as being “prerevenue”.

Inside LS9’s cluttered laboratory – funded by $20 million of start-up capital from investors including Vinod Khosla, the Indian-American entrepreneur who co-founded Sun Micro-systems – Mr Pal explains that LS9’s bugs are single-cell organisms, each a fraction of a billionth the size of an ant. They start out as industrial yeast or nonpathogenic strains of E. coli, but LS9 modifies them by custom-de-signing their DNA. “Five to seven years ago, that process would have taken months and cost hundreds of thousands of dollars,” he says. “Now it can take weeks and cost maybe $20,000.”

Because crude oil (which can be refined into other products, such as petroleum or jet fuel) is only a few molecular stages removed from the fatty acids normally excreted by yeast or E. coli during fermentation, it does not take much fiddling to get the desired result.

For fermentation to take place you need raw material, or feedstock, as it is known in the biofuels industry. Anything will do as long as it can be broken down into sugars, with the byproduct ideally burnt to produce electricity to run the plant.

The company is not interested in using corn as feedstock, given the much-publicised problems created by using food crops for fuel, such as the tortilla inflation that recently caused food riots in Mexico City. Instead, different types of agricultural waste will be used according to whatever makes sense for the local climate and economy: wheat straw in California, for example, or woodchips in the South.

Using genetically modified bugs for fermentation is essentially the same as using natural bacteria to produce ethanol, although the energy-intensive final process of distillation is virtually eliminated because the bugs excrete a substance that is almost pump-ready.

The closest that LS9 has come to mass production is a 1,000-litre fermenting machine, which looks like a large stainless-steel jar, next to a wardrobe-sized computer connected by a tangle of cables and tubes. It has not yet been plugged in. The machine produces the equivalent of one barrel a week and takes up 40 sq ft of floor space.

However, to substitute America’s weekly oil consumption of 143 million barrels, you would need a facility that covered about 205 square miles, an area roughly the size of Chicago.

That is the main problem: although LS9 can produce its bug fuel in laboratory beakers, it has no idea whether it will be able produce the same results on a nationwide or even global scale.

“Our plan is to have a demonstration-scale plant operational by 2010 and, in parallel, we’ll be working on the design and construction of a commercial-scale facility to open in 2011,” says Mr Pal, adding that if LS9 used Brazilian sugar cane as its feedstock, its fuel would probably cost about $50 a barrel.

Are Americans ready to be putting genetically modified bug excretion in their cars? “It’s not the same as with food,” Mr Pal says. “We’re putting these bacteria in a very isolated container: their entire universe is in that tank. When we’re done with them, they’re destroyed.”

Besides, he says, there is greater good being served. “I have two children, and climate change is something that they are going to face. The energy crisis is something that they are going to face. We have a collective responsibility to do this.”

Power points

— Google has set up an initiative to develop electricity from cheap renewable energy sources

— Craig Venter, who mapped the human genome, has created a company to create hydrogen and ethanol from genetically engineered bugs

— The US Energy and Agriculture Departments said in 2005 that there was land available to produce enough biomass (nonedible plant parts) to replace 30 per cent of current liquid transport fuels


TOPICS: Business/Economy; Extended News; Foreign Affairs; News/Current Events
KEYWORDS: biofuels; energy; environment; freepun; marines; oil
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1 posted on 06/14/2008 12:13:00 PM PDT by Ernest_at_the_Beach
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To: Ernest_at_the_Beach

so, how do they know the difference between ‘waste’ and other forms of carbon?


2 posted on 06/14/2008 12:16:00 PM PDT by mnehring
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To: Ernest_at_the_Beach

When these “bugs” escape into the environment; how long before the planet is covered in black ooze?


3 posted on 06/14/2008 12:17:09 PM PDT by USFRIENDINVICTORIA
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To: Ernest_at_the_Beach

Bugs extract a lot of CO2 when digesting their food. What are these people thinking? I thought CO2 was the great evil.


4 posted on 06/14/2008 12:21:35 PM PDT by Steve Van Doorn (*in my best Eric cartman voice* 'I love you guys')
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To: USFRIENDINVICTORIA
lab friendly microbes are notoriously bad at surviving in the natural environment, they have been selected for a lab media-fed lifestyle.
5 posted on 06/14/2008 12:22:43 PM PDT by allmendream (Life begins at the moment of contraception. ;))
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To: All
Related Links from the article:

Biofuel: a tankful of weed juice

************************EXCERPT******************

From

May 25, 2008

It has been blamed for using up food stock, but biofuel is now being made from otherwise useless plant waste

In recent months biofuels have earned a reputation blacker than the crude oil they are meant to be replacing. No sooner do we learn that rainforests from Indonesia to Brazil are being razed to farm “green” fuels for the West than intensive production of biofuels is blamed for the current crisis in world food prices. And apparently some biofuels create more potentially harmful ozone than petrol does.

Before we give up on alternative fuels and dive back into an ever-shallower pool of crude oil, though, let’s spare a thought for a new batch of biofuels being cooked up in laboratories worldwide. They hold the promise of more efficient, cleaner energy sources that don’t compete with forests or food crops for growing space. Airbus, the maker of the A380, the largest passenger aircraft in the world, announced last week that it expects these second-generation biofuels to make up (eventually) a third of all aviation fuel.

Getting new biofuels off the ground is taking some doing. Starchy and sugary crops such as wheat and sugar cane make good biofuels because they are easily converted to ethanol, while oily sunflower and palm plants can readily be made into biodiesel. It would make much more sense, however, to produce biofuels from weeds growing on land that can’t be farmed, or from agricultural waste, old wood chips or even secondhand paper.

The world’s biggest second-generation biofuel factory is due to open in Georgia, USA, next year. Range Fuels’ Soperton plant is expected to produce 16m gallons of ethanol biofuel annually from logging waste and grasses. This may not sound a lot in global terms but it is the start of something much bigger: a 13 billion-gallon ocean of second-generation biofuels that the USA is aiming to produce by 2022.

6 posted on 06/14/2008 12:23:02 PM PDT by Ernest_at_the_Beach (No Burkas for my Grandaughters!)
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To: Ernest_at_the_Beach

bookmark


7 posted on 06/14/2008 12:23:02 PM PDT by SE Mom (Proud mom of an Iraq war combat vet)
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To: Ernest_at_the_Beach
you would need a facility that covered about 205 square miles, an area roughly the size of Chicago.

As long as they can move the Blues Clubs, I think that sounds like a good site.

8 posted on 06/14/2008 12:23:59 PM PDT by FredZarguna ("Will no one rid me of this turbulent priest?")
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To: Ernest_at_the_Beach
“Ten years ago I could never have imagined I’d be doing this,” says Greg Pal, 33...

I think he got a big boost from the Kramerica CEO...


9 posted on 06/14/2008 12:25:21 PM PDT by johnny7 (Don't mess with my tag-lines!)
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To: Ernest_at_the_Beach

“Scientists find bugs that eat waste and excrete petrol”
~~~~~
No Sh!t!

;)
Dick G
~~~~~


10 posted on 06/14/2008 12:25:50 PM PDT by gunnyg
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To: All
One more Link from the article:

The arithmetic of crude oil

***************************EXCERPT**********************

From The Times
June 14, 2008

Science may soon liberate us from our addiction to expensive fossil fuel

Forgotten to fill the petrol tank? Worried that you won't find a garage that still has any diesel, because of the strike by fuel tanker drivers? Fearful that even if the garage does have petrol, you don't know if you'll be able to afford any on account of the numbers in the price window at the petrol station spinning round, these days, as randomly as the drums of a one-armed bandit?

If you can hold out for just a few more years, science is galloping towards ridding the world both of its dependency on oil and the climate damage caused by burning it. We report (see page 52) two developments that promise to liberate us from our thirst for crude. If one of them proves successful, Rockefeller's famous recipe for growing rich - “Get up early, work late, and strike oil” - will have to be tweaked to: “Get up early, work late, and acquire some of the designer bugs that scientists are developing in a Californian laboratory that excrete hydrocarbons that act as ersatz crude oil.” If all goes to plan, the Californian biofuels industry expects such synthetic fuels to be available as early as 2011.

Meanwhile, at Tsukuba University in Japan, Professor Makoto Watanabe believes he has made a breakthrough in his lifelong search for a species of alga that “sweats” crude oil, a scientific leap he ambitiously imagines turning his country from a thirsty energy importer to an oil exporter.

The professor's algae produce oil that not only yield more energy than they consume, but are vastly more efficient in generating biofuels than are corn or rapeseed. The financial arithmetic is still problematic. But who knows? The age may be dawning when we not only grow our own vegetables, but our own diesel, too.

11 posted on 06/14/2008 12:26:55 PM PDT by Ernest_at_the_Beach (No Burkas for my Grandaughters!)
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To: Ernest_at_the_Beach

12 posted on 06/14/2008 12:27:26 PM PDT by cake_crumb (Terrorist organizations worldwide endorse Obama.)
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To: mnehrling

You’d be surprised at what a bacteria can be engineered to do.


13 posted on 06/14/2008 12:28:13 PM PDT by cake_crumb (Terrorist organizations worldwide endorse Obama.)
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To: USFRIENDINVICTORIA
"When these “bugs” escape into the environment; how long before the planet is covered in black ooze?"

Wasn't that a Ben Bova novel? I believe I still have it around, somewhere.

14 posted on 06/14/2008 12:29:02 PM PDT by cake_crumb (Terrorist organizations worldwide endorse Obama.)
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To: Ernest_at_the_Beach
you would need a facility that covered about 205 square miles, an area roughly the size of Chicago.

Including space needed to get things moved back and forth, we're talking 16 miles by 16 miles. Stick it in the middle of farm country, and nobody'd even notice it who didn't have business with it.

15 posted on 06/14/2008 12:32:25 PM PDT by hunter112 (The 'straight talk express' gets the straight finger express from me.)
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To: Ernest_at_the_Beach

Unfortunately, the Middle East also sits on most of the world’s supply of crap.


16 posted on 06/14/2008 12:34:42 PM PDT by SampleMan (We are a free and industrious people, socialist nannies do not become us.)
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To: Ernest_at_the_Beach

Gosh!
They’ve discovered a productive use of Democrats!


17 posted on 06/14/2008 12:35:00 PM PDT by river rat (Semper Fi - You may turn the other cheek, but I prefer to look into my enemy's vacant dead eyes.)
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To: Ernest_at_the_Beach

?? I thought we were being told that corn was being razed to produce ethanol! Which is different! Oh.


18 posted on 06/14/2008 12:35:52 PM PDT by cake_crumb (Terrorist organizations worldwide endorse Obama.)
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To: river rat

You MIGHT owe me a new keyboard!


19 posted on 06/14/2008 12:37:24 PM PDT by cake_crumb (Terrorist organizations worldwide endorse Obama.)
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To: USFRIENDINVICTORIA
When these “bugs” escape into the environment; how long before the planet is covered in black ooze?

No more gas stations. Just stop by the side of the road and scoop up some fuel out of the ditch!

20 posted on 06/14/2008 12:40:21 PM PDT by OSHA (framing it as though you've magically neutralized any potential negative eventuality)
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To: cake_crumb
There is this also ... FR Thread:

Biofuel 2.0 gets off ground in Kiwi airliner trial ( Oily desert nuts juice up righteous jumbo )

**************************EXCERPT INTRO************

The Register (UK) ^ | Friday 6th June 2008 11:43 GMT | Lewis Page

Air New Zealand has announced that its planned airliner biofuel test will be carried out using biodiesel made from jatropha nuts. Jatropha plants, able to survive in deserts, could offer a biofuel source which would not compete with food production or drive deforestation.

"Air New Zealand is absolutely committed to being at the forefront of testing environmentally sustainable fuels," said the airline's chief, Rob Fyfe, quoted in the Sydney Morning Herald.

The test will be carried out later this year, using a Boeing 747 with engines from Rolls Royce. Boeing has been at the forefront of an industry push toward alternative fuels since last year, following soaring rises in the price of ordinary fossil jet fuel.

Earlier tests have seen aircraft running without problems on synthetics made from natural gas and coal, and Virgin partnered with Boeing earlier this year to power a jumbo using coconut and palm oils.

All of these efforts have drawn criticism, however. Alternate fossil fuels, while they could offer some security of supply and price, have no ecological benefits - quite the reverse, actually, as a tonne of gas or coal is burned for every tonne converted into synthetic jet juice. First-generation biofuel sources like coconut and palm are usually seen as lower-carbon - though just how much is a subject of vigorous debate - but they are also implicated in rising food prices and deforestation. It has also been credibly suggested that in any case, there just isn't enough farmland to run much transport on first-gen crop biofuel.

So-called second generation biofuels like jatropha or algae which don't need good land are seen by many in the aviation industry as their best way ahead. The technical problems of alternative propulsion for planes are much more severe than in cars, meaning that options such as battery power, hydrogen and so on aren't seen as viable.

Thus the ANZ trial is sure to be watched with interest. The airline believes it would need plantations totalling 1.25 million hectares to run entirely on jatropha. In the case of first-gen biofuel, that would equate to about 85 per cent of New Zealand's arable land, but hardy jatropha might, for instance, be grown in the deserts of Australia. There are 1.4 million square kilometres of deserts in Oz, enough to fuel a hundred airlines the size of ANZ if they were all covered in jatropha plants. ®

21 posted on 06/14/2008 12:42:35 PM PDT by Ernest_at_the_Beach (No Burkas for my Grandaughters!)
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To: Ernest_at_the_Beach
P.o.o.p into Diesel fuel.. what a concept..
It then must be said..

"Excrement is a terrible thing to waste.." -Hosepoop.. ugh pipe..

22 posted on 06/14/2008 12:42:43 PM PDT by hosepipe (This propaganda has been edited to include some fully orbed hyperbole....)
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To: Ernest_at_the_Beach
They start out as industrial yeast or nonpathogenic strains of E. coli, but LS9 modifies them by custom-de-signing their DNA.

Count on the environazis nipping this in the bud like they have every other gene modification project. Should be pretty easy--"...it's the same stuff they put in hamburgers to kill your kids!!"

23 posted on 06/14/2008 12:44:47 PM PDT by randog (What the...?!)
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To: randog

I like the idea of jatropha plants.

Gives the people in arid climates something useful to grow.


24 posted on 06/14/2008 12:55:12 PM PDT by Ernest_at_the_Beach (No Burkas for my Grandaughters!)
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To: Ernest_at_the_Beach

How about bugs who eat petrol and excrete waste? I read a sci-fi story about that once—it wasn’t pretty.


25 posted on 06/14/2008 12:55:25 PM PDT by rbg81 (DRAIN THE SWAMP!!)
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To: Ernest_at_the_Beach
to substitute America’s weekly oil consumption of 143 million barrels, you would need a facility that covered about 205 square miles...

Washington DC is 64 sq miles, but I'd imagine its wasteland has now slimed into at least another 141 sq miles, so there you go!

26 posted on 06/14/2008 12:57:33 PM PDT by C210N (The television has mounted the most serious assault on Republicanism since Das Kapital.)
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To: Ernest_at_the_Beach

and yet the socialists are still hell bent on trying to destroy American life and capitalism as the ‘solution’ instead of letting truly smart people create better alternatives.

I’ve always said it. Real science can solve problems. (But it has to be ‘real’ science)


27 posted on 06/14/2008 12:58:08 PM PDT by bpjam (Drill For Oil or Lose Your Job!! Vote Nov 2008)
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To: Ernest_at_the_Beach

And perhaps, with a little genetic engineering, so could we!


28 posted on 06/14/2008 1:09:38 PM PDT by 668 - Neighbor of the Beast (Teach your child to be an American. Take him out of public school.)
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To: Ernest_at_the_Beach

Do you realize what this would do to the economy of the Arab nations?
}:{>


29 posted on 06/14/2008 1:13:15 PM PDT by 668 - Neighbor of the Beast (Teach your child to be an American. Take him out of public school.)
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To: Ernest_at_the_Beach

not to worry,

if its for real and works,

the democrats will make sure it doesn’t get to the market.


30 posted on 06/14/2008 1:17:09 PM PDT by ken21 ( people die + you never hear from them again.)
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To: Ernest_at_the_Beach

I wonder if we keep digging, maybe we’ll find the bugs that excreted the original petroleum.


31 posted on 06/14/2008 1:22:14 PM PDT by 668 - Neighbor of the Beast (Teach your child to be an American. Take him out of public school.)
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To: hosepipe

Two holer porta-john’s, with some wheels, a small diesel engine, and synthetic ‘bugs’.

Poop your way down the highway.


32 posted on 06/14/2008 1:22:21 PM PDT by UCANSEE2 (I reserve the right to misinterpret the comments of any and all pesters)
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To: bpjam

The Russians and other geologist have a theory that crude is not a fossil fuel but is generated deep underground by microbes. My niece, who is a geologist confirmed this theory. Thus oil is a naturally renewable resource.


33 posted on 06/14/2008 1:25:59 PM PDT by Eaglefixer
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To: Ernest_at_the_Beach

limitless oil bump for later..........


34 posted on 06/14/2008 1:33:35 PM PDT by indthkr
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To: Ernest_at_the_Beach

Oh, no. Frankenfuel. Frankenfuel. We must ban it now! (/s)


35 posted on 06/14/2008 1:33:48 PM PDT by CPOSharky (Vote demoncrat: Kiss goodby to your money, privacy, freedom, and guns.)
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To: Ernest_at_the_Beach
However, to substitute America’s weekly oil consumption of 143 million barrels, you would need a facility that covered about 205 square miles, an area roughly the size of Chicago

I don't know about Chicago, but replacing Detroit might be a good idea.

36 posted on 06/14/2008 1:40:38 PM PDT by Dog Gone
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To: UCANSEE2
Poop your way down the highway.
And if your car stalls you can just give it a quick poop-start.
37 posted on 06/14/2008 1:43:04 PM PDT by samtheman
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To: Ernest_at_the_Beach
the carbon footprint people will be at the throat of peta/insect division people.
38 posted on 06/14/2008 1:45:59 PM PDT by the invisib1e hand (Obama's a front man. Who's behind him?)
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To: Ernest_at_the_Beach

Now that is INTERESTING. Ironic too, if successful.


39 posted on 06/14/2008 1:46:25 PM PDT by cake_crumb (Terrorist organizations worldwide endorse Obama.)
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To: Ernest_at_the_Beach
However, to substitute America’s weekly oil consumption of 143 million barrels, you would need a facility that covered about 205 square miles, an area roughly the size of Chicago.

We don't necessarily have to substitute the total oil consumption. Perhaps we could start with a facility the size of Detroit, which I'm willing to donate, because it's doing nothing but sucking up oxygen now, anyway ;-)

40 posted on 06/14/2008 1:46:35 PM PDT by varon (Allegiance to the constitution, always. Allegiance to a political party, never.)
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To: Ernest_at_the_Beach

Just don’t light up after you take them out for a meal!


41 posted on 06/14/2008 1:47:29 PM PDT by melsec (A Proud Aussie)
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To: Ernest_at_the_Beach
...$140-a-barrel oil (£70) from Saudi Arabia obsolete.

I don't mean to harp but Russia is the world's second largest exporter of oil (that's one country, whereas OPEC is how many?) and they are far more hostile to America than Saudi Arabia is.

42 posted on 06/14/2008 1:48:23 PM PDT by the invisib1e hand (Obama's a front man. Who's behind him?)
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To: Ernest_at_the_Beach
You could extrapolate this out. If they can make a bug that excretes oil, then, they could create one that excrete gasoline (87 octane).

It's not that much different.

The book about bacteria that ate petrol was “The Plastic Eaters” but I don't remember who wrote it.

Andromeda ate plastic if I remember right.

43 posted on 06/14/2008 1:48:56 PM PDT by Conan the Librarian (The Best in Life is to crush my enemies, see them driven before me, and the Dewey Decimal System)
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To: randog
The "black ooze" comments, after years of experimentation, are proof of that. It's like the "no nukes" crowd. Only time they show up, is on the threads advocating more nuclear power plats for electric, DESPITE the fact that the world is still inflicted with France, which has been nuke dependent for years.
44 posted on 06/14/2008 1:49:23 PM PDT by cake_crumb (Terrorist organizations worldwide endorse Obama.)
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To: Ernest_at_the_Beach
The professor's algae produce oil that not only yield more energy than they consume

Well, I washopeful for a moment there... then I read this line. It makes me wonder who is ignorant of the basic laws of physics and chemistry... the interviewee, or the "journalist".

45 posted on 06/14/2008 1:50:44 PM PDT by Teacher317 (Thank you Dith Pran for showing us what Communism brings)
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To: Ernest_at_the_Beach

I saw estimates that algae oil will be able to produce 100,000 gallons of fuel grade diesel in one acre of land per year. This technology is now being ran through its prototype tests.


46 posted on 06/14/2008 1:53:28 PM PDT by jonrick46
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To: Teacher317
Well, I was hopeful for a moment there... then I read this line.

Details. You probably don't want to buy my perpetual motion machine, either.

47 posted on 06/14/2008 1:57:02 PM PDT by Dog Gone
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Comment #48 Removed by Moderator

To: Ernest_at_the_Beach

?


49 posted on 06/14/2008 2:14:55 PM PDT by BenLurkin
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To: USFRIENDINVICTORIA

In the “There will be war” anthologies was a set of stories set after the release of the “Gas bug”, a genetically engineered bacteria that ate all gasoline / petroleum. Threw the world back to dark ages unless you had renewable fuel or ethanol basis.
Glad to see someone working on the alternative.


50 posted on 06/14/2008 2:18:34 PM PDT by tbw2 ("Sirat: Through the Fires of Hell" by Tamara Wilhite - on amazon.com)
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