Skip to comments.LCROSS Impact Data Indicates Water on Moon
Posted on 11/13/2009 5:38:42 PM PST by markomalley
The argument that the moon is a dry, desolate place no longer holds water.
Secrets the moon has been holding, for perhaps billions of years, are now being revealed to the delight of scientists and space enthusiasts alike.
NASA today opened a new chapter in our understanding of the moon. Preliminary data from the Lunar CRater Observation and Sensing Satellite, or LCROSS, indicates that the mission successfully uncovered water during the Oct. 9, 2009 impacts into the permanently shadowed region of Cabeus cater near the moons south pole.
The impact created by the LCROSS Centaur upper stage rocket created a two-part plume of material from the bottom of the crater. The first part was a high angle plume of vapor and fine dust and the second a lower angle ejecta curtain of heavier material. This material has not seen sunlight in billions of years.
"We're unlocking the mysteries of our nearest neighbor and by extension the solar system. It turns out the moon harbors many secrets, and LCROSS has added a new layer to our understanding," said Michael Wargo, chief lunar scientist at NASA Headquarters in Washington.
Scientists have long speculated about the source of vast quantities of hydrogen that have been observed at the lunar poles. The LCROSS findings are shedding new light on the question of water, which could be more widespread and in greater quantity than previously suspected.
Permanently shadowed regions could hold a key to the history and evolution of the solar system, much as an ice core sample taken on Earth reveals ancient data. In addition, water, and other compounds represent potential resources that could sustain future lunar exploration.
Since the impacts, the LCROSS science team has been working almost nonstop analyzing the huge amount of data the spacecraft collected. The team concentrated on data from the satellite's spectrometers, which provide the most definitive information about the presence of water. A spectrometer examines light emitted or absorbed by materials that helps identify their composition.
"We are ecstatic," said Anthony Colaprete, LCROSS project scientist and principal investigator at NASA's Ames Research Center in Moffett Field, Calif. "Multiple lines of evidence show water was present in both the high angle vapor plume and the ejecta curtain created by the LCROSS Centaur impact. The concentration and distribution of water and other substances requires further analysis, but it is safe to say Cabeus holds water."
The team took the known near infrared spectral signatures of water and other materials and compared them to the spectra collected by the LCROSS near infrared spectrometer of the impact.
"We were only able to match the spectra from LCROSS data when we inserted the spectra for water," said Colaprete. "No other reasonable combination of other compounds that we tried matched the observations. The possibility of contamination from the Centaur also was ruled out."
Additional confirmation came from an emission in the ultraviolet spectrum that was attributed to hydroxyl, one product from the break-up of water by sunlight. When atoms and molecules are excited, they release energy at specific wavelengths that are detected by the spectrometers. A similar process is used in neon signs. When electrified, a specific gas will produce a distinct color. The ultraviolet visible spectrometer detected hydroxyl signatures just after impact that are consistent with a water vapor cloud in sunlight.
Data from the other LCROSS instruments are being analyzed for additional clues about the state and distribution of the material at the impact site. The LCROSS science team along with colleagues are poring over the data to understand the entire impact event, from flash to crater, with the final goal being the understanding of the distribution of materials, and in particular volatiles, within the soil at the impact site.
"The full understanding of the LCROSS data may take some time. The data is that rich," said Colaprete. "Along with the water in Cabeus, there are hints of other intriguing substances. The permanently shadowed regions of the moon are truly cold traps, collecting and preserving material over billions of years."
LCROSS was launched June 18, 2009 as a companion mission to the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, or LRO, from NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. After separating from LRO, the LCROSS spacecraft held onto the spent Centaur upper stage rocket of the launch vehicle, executed a lunar swingby and entered into a series of long looping orbits around the Earth.
After traveling approximately 113 days and nearly 5.6 million miles (9 million km), the Centaur and LCROSS separated on final approach to the moon. Traveling as fast as a speeding bullet, the Centaur impacted the lunar surface shortly after 4:31 a.m. PDT Oct. 9 with LCROSS watching with its onboard instruments. Approximately four minutes of data was collected before the LCROSS itself impacted the lunar surface.
Working closely with scientists from LRO and other observatories that viewed the impact, the LCROSS team is working to understand the full scope of the LCROSS data. LRO continues to make passes over the impact site to give the LCROSS team additional insight into the mechanics of the impact and its resulting craters.
What other secrets will the moon reveal? The analysis continues!
The visible camera image showing the ejecta plume at about 20 seconds after impact.
Data from the down-looking near-infrared spectrometer. The red curve shows how the spectra would look for a "grey" or "colorless" warm (230 C) dust cloud. The yellow areas indicate the water absorption bands.
Data from the ultraviolet/visible spectrometer taken shortly after impact showing emission lines (indicated by arrows). These emission lines are diagnostic of compounds in the vapor/debris cloud.
The water levels may be rising on the moon due to Global Warming. Send Algore up there on LCROSS 2 (it may take a Saturn V to get the lift capability for that job).
It is budget time at NASA so it is either water on the moon or Mars. Always the same story.
NASA was good when the Germans and Von Braun ran it. Today it is like the Post Office and ACORN.
Obama wants to cut NASA’s budget. Hopefully this means Bill Nelson will lose his seat in FL when he is up for election. He is a POS and a NASA pimp.
NASA figures” if we can out-lie the muslim in chief, we can scam more money for our Buck Rogers schemes”.
You know, I really agree with this. I have been saying lately that they are "water happy". This data seems very thin to me, and you could cut the politics with a knife.
NASA is a Global Warming pimp. Shut it down!
I liked NASA circa Von Braun. They had a plan, went to the moon etc. The technology to go much further just is not there. The space station while incredible engineering is an expensive waste. We cannot give endless benefits to illegals, fight two wars, build space stations, provide endless mandated welfare programs to everyone plus tens of billions in foreign aid and stay solvent.
Whenever it is budget time they start talking about water on Mars or the moon. Even if there is so what. The moon can never have an atmosphere and so what if we could put a base on the moon. Water on Mars has more potential but it is too far away for now.
Maybe would create a better atmosphere on Mars if there was water but we will all be dead by then. The country may be broke next year. Obama wants to turn America into Zimbabwe and Somalia.
Agreed. Even if they found unground oceans of water - so what. A base on the moon? For what? If there was water maybe somehow you could create an atmposhere but the USA is bankrupt so what is the point.
My only hope is NASA workers who lose their jobs are Dems because they voted for destroying our economy and standard of living.
The EU and China will find this research very useful and actionable. But, 0 is in the process of destroying America and we have to be more concerned with food and shelter.
You took the words right out of my mouth!
This Tang’s for you ;)
Traveling as fast as a speeding bullet, the Centaur impacted the lunar surface
I hate that saying, it's utterly meaningless.
Muzzle Velocities (Handgun rounds)
a 50gr .25 Auto travels at 760 fps, or 518 mph
a 150 gr, .38 Special travels at 845 fps, or 576 mph
a 230gr, .45 ACP travels at 835 fps, or 569 mph.
and a 115 gr. 9mm JHP goes 1,225 fps, or 835 mph
But now, for Rifle Muzzle Velocities we have a little something more 'fitting':
a 130 gr. 270 Win goes at 3050 fps, or 2,080 mph
a 150 gr, 30-30 Win goes 2390 fps, or 1,630 mph
a 150 gr, .308 Win goes 2810 fps, or 1,916 mph
a 123 gr. FMJ, 7.62x39 goes 2,350 fps, or 1,602 mph
and a 55gr, .223 Rem travels at 3,240 fps, or 2,209 mph
So really. What does, 'as fast as a speeding bullet' mean -- nothing. We have sub-sonic handgun rounds to rifle bullets approaching Mach 3. But for a Spacecraft's 'speed'? ... Whoopee! It was a cool saying for Superman and that's about it.
Oh and a 40 gr, .22LR goes 1,255 fps, or 856 mph. (Mach 1.125)
And those *evil* Pellet Rifles with 1,000 Muz Vel, that little pellet is going 682 mph, or Mach .9, now that is cool. (No wonder Chicago outlawed those back in the '50's.) (/s)
Firearm Ballistics from Winchester. 'Typical' round selected for above
Golly, Uncle Chode, that looked like it must’ve hurt a bit!
It’s almost as if Six is trying to avoid me...
Me, I'd be happy if we could just get back to the point where we can build spaceships that don't explode.