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The Virtue Behind D-Day
townhall.com ^ | 5/31/2014 | Ed Feulner

Posted on 05/31/2014 6:39:51 AM PDT by rktman

If I asked you, as we mark the 70th anniversary of D-Day, to sum up that battle in one word, what would it be? For me, it would be “courage.”

Courage means going forward, into the unknown, with no guarantee of success. It means moving out of your comfort zone and being willing to act boldly when the situation requires it. Without it, you couldn’t storm the beaches in France, or accomplish your mission in the face of terrorist attacks.

Courage is built into the DNA of the American character.

(Excerpt) Read more at townhall.com ...


TOPICS: Constitution/Conservatism; Culture/Society; Foreign Affairs
KEYWORDS: committment; courage; honor
I can only imagine the fear these brave souls felt approaching the beaches in France. Facing a wall of incoming from a landing craft certainly couldn't have given many a very good feeling. Thank God we prevailed.
1 posted on 05/31/2014 6:39:51 AM PDT by rktman
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To: rktman

A visit to Omaha Beach several years ago was truly an eye opener. How any soldier got off that beach is a miracle. The German vantage point above the wide beach was superior. Determination, faith and grit got our guys to safety. They never quit. It is a shame now that the politicians on the left have a builtin inclination to quit and take the easy way. Could you fathom Barry Obama in charge on June 6, 1944??


2 posted on 05/31/2014 6:51:09 AM PDT by shankbear (The tree of Liberty appears to be perishing because there are few patriots willing to refresh it.)
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To: shankbear
How any soldier got off that beach is a miracle.

I got to thinking the other day that I don't recall reading much about Allied airpower being used to suppress the Krautenheimers atop all those high points. I'd think that constant strafing runs would have forced their heads down.

3 posted on 05/31/2014 7:01:21 AM PDT by ErnBatavia (It ain't a "hashtag"....it's a damn pound sign. ###)
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To: rktman
This is a rather trite article. It misses the whole point of what courage is for a soldier and tries to tie that to Rosa Parks sitting in the front of a bus and Ronald Reagan facing down Gorbachev in Iceland.

Also Courage is not hereditary as this author implies. Courage is an individual trait not a collective trait.

The article runs so far off base that you forget at the end what his point was at the beginning.

You can't compare the courage of a soldier under fire with any other human action. Maybe the courage of going into a burning building to rescue someone you don't know, but not much else in this world can be compared to what the soldiers on the beaches of Normandy faced.

4 posted on 05/31/2014 7:03:35 AM PDT by P-Marlowe (There can be no Victory without a fight and no battle without wounds)
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To: P-Marlowe

Kinda felt that way too. The title and first couple of paragraphs are maybe where it should have ended. I’m pretty sure that not everybody going ashore was being “courageous”. Some had no choice but performed well despite the overwhelming position and field of fire the opposition held. Bless them anyway because they did do what they did. I’m sure the fear factor and the pucker factor were off the scale.


5 posted on 05/31/2014 7:29:06 AM PDT by rktman (Ethnicity: Nascarian. Race: Daytonafivehundrian)
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To: rktman

While I am not an overall fan of Eisenhower I applaud the courage it took for him to give the “GO” signal in spite of all the negatives he faced. The troops were magnificent, all of them. Mostly 18-20 year old fresh from basic training and without any combat experience, so to speak. America and the allies finest hour.


6 posted on 05/31/2014 7:47:58 AM PDT by Don Corleone ("Oil the gun..eat the cannoli. Take it to the Mattress.")
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To: rktman; xzins
In order to truly understand what these guys were facing, you have to ask them. But most of them never really wanted to talk about it after the war.

Most of these "men" were just out of high school and some had dropped out of high school and lied about their ages just for the privilege of going to war.

These days you are still considered a "child" until you reach the age of 26. This metrosexual millenium generation has no idea what it means to grow up. My parents generation had to grow up really fast and under horrible circumstances.

The courage of the WWII generation had nothing to do with this virtue being built into their DNA. That is preposterous. It was drilled into their character by hard work and hard times. It was instilled in them by their churches and the faith and the morals they were taught at church and in the public schools.

7 posted on 05/31/2014 7:57:20 AM PDT by P-Marlowe (There can be no Victory without a fight and no battle without wounds)
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To: ErnBatavia

Unfortunately, the allied bombing prep of the beach defenses went largely perpendicular from the coast-inland instead of parrallel along the beaches.


8 posted on 05/31/2014 8:03:53 AM PDT by TADSLOS (The Event Horizon has come and gone. Buckle up and hang on.)
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To: rktman
If I asked you, as we mark the 70th anniversary of D-Day, to sum up that battle in one word, what would it be? For me, it would be “courage.”

Courage means going forward, into the unknown, with no guarantee of success. It means moving out of your comfort zone and being willing to act boldly when the situation requires it. Without it, you couldn’t storm the beaches in France, or accomplish your mission in the face of terrorist attacks.

Courage is built into the DNA of the American character. It took courage for millions of immigrants to leave home and come to America in search of a better life. It required courage to move west, to face the open frontier, to risk lives and families to acquire a piece of the American Dream.

And it takes courage to stand up for what you know is right. For example, on Oct. 18, 1986, President Ronald Reagan was meeting in Reykjavik, Iceland, with Soviet Premier Mikhail Gorbachev. The purpose: to broker an arms-control pact that would end the deadly standoff of mutual assured destruction between the United States and the Soviet Union.

But just as the deal was about to be struck, Gorbachev looked across the table at Reagan, smiled, and said, “This all depends, of course, on you giving up SDI” (the Strategic Defense Initiative). Well, missile defense was one thing that Ronald Reagan would never give up.

“Reagan had everything to gain everything in the eyes of the world if he had accepted the Reykjavik deal,” Peggy Noonan wrote in “When Character Was King,” her Reagan biography. “He would have been celebrated by history, known the pleasure of having given the world a gift of extraordinary and undreamed-of progress. … But he wouldn’t do it. He didn’t think it was right. And because he didn’t do it, the Soviet Union finally fell.”

Now, leave Iceland and turn the calendar back 31 years to the evening of Dec. 1, 1955. We’re in Montgomery, Alabama. Buses are carrying people home from work. On one bus all the seats are filled, including the section behind the rear doors, the only place blacks are allowed to sit.

Four white men board. The driver calls out to the four black passengers seated behind the white section. “Get up,” he tells them. “Let the white man have those seats.” Three do as they’re told. But the fourth doesn’t budge. The other passengers turn and stare in stunned silence.

Rosa Parks is defying the unwritten, centuries-old code of racial subservience. She is also defying Alabama law. The driver summons a policeman, who arrests Parks.

Viewed from one perspective, Ronald Reagan and Rosa Parks couldn’t have been more different. He was the most powerful person in the world, commander in chief of the armed forces of the United States. And she was one of the least powerful, an unknown seamstress working in the back room of a department store in the Deep South before the Civil Rights Act.

But in a more fundamental sense, they couldn’t have been more like. All the political power on earth couldn’t move Reagan to do the wrong thing. And all the indignity and intimidation of racism couldn’t keep Rosa Parks from doing the right thing.

It was courage that made Reagan get up and leave. It was courage that kept Rosa Parks in her seat. And in these seemingly simple acts, each began building a bridge that would deliver millions of oppressed people to their God-given birthright of freedom and dignity -- in Reagan’s case, the people of Central and Eastern Europe; in Park’s case, all citizens of the United States.

You demonstrate courage any time you set goals, especially when the probability of success is low. In fact, courage seems to be closely related to commitment. Courageous people make total commitments to the families, friends and other people. They commit completely to their work, company, career and business.

Without the courage of our troops, building and sustaining a great nation would be impossible. And without the courage of ordinary citizens, there would be no great nation to defend. That’s something worth celebrating on D-Day … and every day.

9 posted on 05/31/2014 1:06:43 PM PDT by Kaslin (He needed the ignorant to reelect him, and he got them. Now we all have to pay the consequenses)
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To: P-Marlowe
I know a guy that was at Omaha Beach. 5'4", 1st generation Russian.

I asked him about it one time. He choked up and all he would say was "Those damn bastards slaughtered us".

10 posted on 05/31/2014 1:16:58 PM PDT by Eagles6 (Valley Forge Redux. If not now, when? If not here, where?)
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To: Kaslin

Thanks for posting the entire article.

I was watching a documentary about Saipan the other night. (Had read one of my Dad’s old WWII letters where he talked of spending some time with a Marine that had just returned from Saipan).

The part the always gets me, and mentioned in the documentary was something like “And our boy’s did it. Going up the same small break in the beach where their buddy had been shot just before, and the one before that. And they did it again the next morning.”


11 posted on 05/31/2014 1:18:31 PM PDT by 21twelve (http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/f-news/2185147/posts 2013 is 1933 REBORN)
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To: Eagles6

I met a guy in the nursing home living there with his wife. I noticed a navy tattoo and said

“Oh you were in the Navy in WW II?”

“Yep.”

“My dad was in the Navy in the Pacific.”

Wife: “Harry drove a “Higgin’s Boat”

Me: “Oh - a landing craft!”

Harry: “Huh. Not many people know their name.”

Wife: “Harry was at D-Day.”

I could tell he was not the talkative type about it. I just got up, shook his hand again and said thank you. Then asked the wife about the new flowers she had in the room.

But it was amazing to sit there knowing what this guy must have been through. He talked plenty about the kids he had raised, the companies he had worked at, ran, etc. All of the WWII vets that I had known (relatives and my parents friends) never talked about it. Too bad in a sense - but looking back it seems the attitude was “now it is over and time to get back to life”.


12 posted on 05/31/2014 1:30:41 PM PDT by 21twelve (http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/f-news/2185147/posts 2013 is 1933 REBORN)
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To: P-Marlowe
In order to truly understand what these guys were facing, you have to ask them. But most of them never really wanted to talk about it after the war.

That was true of my dad, an infantryman who was part of the Normandy Invasion. He returned home with 2 Purple Hearts, a Bronze Star, and a 1000 yard stare that would last for his entire, short lifetime. He rarely slept more than a few hours without waking up in a cold sweat, from which he would come up swinging and yelling at anybody in the vicinity. He had his first heart attack at the age of 39, and was dead at the age of 44. He never spoke of the war.

13 posted on 05/31/2014 1:31:08 PM PDT by lonevoice (Life is short. Make fun of it.)
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To: Eagles6

Hindsight is 20/20, but I wonder why the D-Day planners didn’t just bypass the “Omaha Beach” section and use those forces instead to invade at Sword, Gold or Juno. They HAD to know that those imposing cliffs were going to be festooned with Krauts wielding MG-42’s.


14 posted on 05/31/2014 1:38:33 PM PDT by Zman516 (Thought-Criminal #1)
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To: 21twelve

True.


15 posted on 05/31/2014 1:53:40 PM PDT by Eagles6 (Valley Forge Redux. If not now, when? If not here, where?)
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To: rktman

You don’t think about fear, about courage, about anything else, but “I CAN’T let my buddies down.” It comes down to just that, just “what will my buddies, my squad leader, the gunny think if I let them down?” Then you go and do, that’s it. That’s the Marine Corps way, anyway, and I suspect the doggies in Europe felt pretty much the same that day.

Besides, the Army in Europe only had to do it once. In Normandy. A FEW might have made one of the three other landings, North Africa, Sicily or mainland Italy, whereas only SIX Marine Divisions made opposed landings on Guadalcanal, Tarawa, Iwo Jima, Guam, Pelilou, and numerous others before joining the Pacific Army troops in taking Okinawa.

I am not trying to imply that these guys at Normandy lacked anything, like guts, courage, whatever, but the Pacific guys made DOZENS of opposed landings and proved the concept of amphibious assault beyond anyone’s WILDEST expectations, long before Ike said “Go!” Most of the credit goes to Major General H. M. Smith (aka “Howlin’ Mad”) in the years before the war. With the debacle of WWI’s Gallipoli very much on everyone’s minds, it took lots of courage to propose amphibious warfare again, but he did, and he and other Marines and sailors took point to make it happen. Guadalcanal was the acid test and we made it work. We even managed to make it look EASY, then taught the Army folks.

Sorry for the history lesson, I guess I got swept up in the moment. ALL the guys who made opposed landings, mostly under ferocious fire from a well entrenched enemy, are my heroes. And there are fewer and fewer left as the days go on!!!


16 posted on 05/31/2014 4:41:55 PM PDT by dcwusmc (A FREE People have no sovereign save Almighty GOD!!! III OK We are EVERYWHERE!!!)
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To: dcwusmc

LOL! No problem. Semper Fi devil dog. :>} When you’re in the thick of it, you gotta thin the enemy down.


17 posted on 05/31/2014 4:47:25 PM PDT by rktman (Ethnicity: Nascarian. Race: Daytonafivehundrian)
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To: dcwusmc

The Army has always conducted amphibious operations, including in WWII.

“In the summer of 950, when the North Korean Army attacked South
Korea, a US Army infantry battalion landing team was conducting an
amphibious landing exercise in Japan. Over the previous 5 years, the
Army and the Marine Corps had struggled bitterly over which Service
should have the responsibility for amphibious warfare. During the 1920s
and 1930s, both Services had grappled with the problem of transporting
and landing ground forces from the sea, but the Marine Corps systemati­
cally developed doctrine, tactics, techniques, procedures, and equipment
for assault landings against defended shores. During World War II, both
Services made use of those techniques and developed improved methods
for conducting amphibious operations. In Admiral Chester W. Nimitz’s
Paciic Ocean Areas (POA), both Marine and Army forces carried out
landings against Japanese-held islands in the South and Central Paciic,
culminating in the seizure of Okinawa and the Ryukyu Islands by forces
of Tenth US Army under Lieutenant General Simon Bolivar Buckner Jr. In
the Mediterranean Theater of Operations (MTO) and European Theater of
Operations (ETO), the Army, working with the British who had pioneered
their own approach to amphibious operations, had developed doctrine and
capabilities for continental assault landings and had carried out some of
the largest amphibious operations in history in North Africa, Sicily, Italy,
Normandy, and Southern France. In the Southwest Paciic Area (SWPA),
General Douglas MacArthur used predominantly Army and some Marine
forces to carry out a series of landings along the coast of New Guinea
and the nearby islands before conducting the amphibious invasion of the
Philippines, which included several landings of various sizes. MacArthur’s
ground forces were transported in these operations by Rear Admiral Daniel
E. Barbey’s Seventh Amphibious Force and other Navy amphibious ele­
ments and by the very versatile engineer special brigades that, unique to
SWPA, included engineer boat units operating landing craft. By the end of
the war, more amphibious operations had been conducted in MacArthur’s
theater than in any other theater of war.”


18 posted on 05/31/2014 5:49:47 PM PDT by ansel12 ((Ted Cruz and Mike Lee-both of whom sit on the Senate Judiciary Comm as Ginsberg's importance fades)
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To: ansel12

Yes, the army has done amphibious ops. They learned how from us. During the 1920s and 30s, the Marine Corps developed the amphibious operations manual. We wrote the book, the same book the army used also. We developed the doctrines and the tools for forcible entry on defended beachheads and the army also uses it.


19 posted on 05/31/2014 6:09:56 PM PDT by dcwusmc (A FREE People have no sovereign save Almighty GOD!!! III OK We are EVERYWHERE!!!)
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To: All
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20 posted on 05/31/2014 6:11:23 PM PDT by musicman (Until I see the REAL Long Form Vault BC, he's just "PRES__ENT" Obama = Without "ID")
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To: dcwusmc

The Army has always done amphibious operations, long before the doctrine that emerged in the 20s and 30s.


21 posted on 05/31/2014 6:21:46 PM PDT by ansel12 ((Ted Cruz and Mike Lee-both of whom sit on the Senate Judiciary Comm as Ginsberg's importance fades)
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To: ansel12

Ahhh... No. The Navy and Marine Corps did, from Revolutionary days. We embarked with the Navy and went off to sieze advanced NAVAL bases, swarming ashore alongside bluejackets wielding cutlasses. The first MODERN amphib operation was at Gallipoli, Turkey, during WWI. It was a fiasco and Winston Churchill, who authorized it, was forced to resign as First Sea Lord, which is kinda like our SecNav. Until the US MARINE CORPS proved it possible, ALL the sea powers (maybe excepting Japan) had given up on the notion, not the least including the US ARMY. We did proof of concept testing when no one else thought it feasible, just like Marine Major Earl “Pete” Ellis wrote the war plans, in 1919, or so, THAT WE USED SUCCESSFULLY AGAINST JAPAN! He vanished while “touring” many of the Japanese-held Pacific islands in the late 20s.

The army learned the game pretty well, but IT WAS MARINES WHO TAUGHT them, primarily General H. M. Smith, USMC, the godfather of amphibious warfare.

D. C. Wright
USMC Retired
III/OK


22 posted on 05/31/2014 10:19:26 PM PDT by dcwusmc (A FREE People have no sovereign save Almighty GOD!!! III OK We are EVERYWHERE!!!)
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To: dcwusmc

I just inherited my Dad’s box of WWII letters (he was on a minesweeper in the Pacific. I need to figure out how to create a website for them. But - the one that is on my desk at the moment has the following (written to my mom, Sept. 1, 1944):

“A small speed boat came out to us with a passenger - a Marine that was the brother to one of our signal men. His ship had come in from Guam the day before and he saw our number on our bow and immediately knew his brother was on it.... These two brothers were sure happy guys. The Marine stayed aboard all that night and we took him to his ship yesterday morning. His ship pulled out last night. Where I can’t tell you - but you’ll be reading about it by the time you get this!”

“The night he was aboard, his brother had the 8-12 signal watch together with me so I had a good chance to talk a little to this Marine. He had a lot of experiences - said he had killed 8 Japs that he was sure of. Two of them with a knife after they rolled into his fox hole at night. He sure thought we had a PLEASURE CRUISE! Could hardly believe anyone could have such soft duty as we have. He was right....

I may not get back until the war is over - but at least I’m pretty sure I WILL get back.”


23 posted on 05/31/2014 11:04:04 PM PDT by 21twelve (http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/f-news/2185147/posts 2013 is 1933 REBORN)
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To: 21twelve; dcwusmc

from the net; Sept. 15: American Marines land on Peleliu in the Palau Islands; a bloody battle of attrition continues for two and a half months. In total, the 1st Marine Division suffered over 6,500 casualties during their month on Peleliu, over 1/3 of their entire division. The 81st Infantry Division suffered nearly 3,300 casualties during their tenure on the island.

I wonder if the brother ever made it back home?


24 posted on 05/31/2014 11:05:21 PM PDT by 21twelve (http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/f-news/2185147/posts 2013 is 1933 REBORN)
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To: dcwusmc

The Army was conducting operations in the Civil war.

Their, and America’s first major amphibious landing was in 1847.


25 posted on 05/31/2014 11:18:29 PM PDT by ansel12 ((Ted Cruz and Mike Lee-both of whom sit on the Senate Judiciary Comm as Ginsberg's importance fades)
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To: ansel12

That was also our largest amphibious operation until the US Army attacked in North Africa in 1942.


26 posted on 05/31/2014 11:22:20 PM PDT by ansel12 ((Ted Cruz and Mike Lee-both of whom sit on the Senate Judiciary Comm as Ginsberg's importance fades)
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To: dcwusmc

You have to remember that much of your Marine history taught to you, was fake, from “Devil Dogs” to thinking the Marines invented the Indian code talkers.


27 posted on 05/31/2014 11:26:01 PM PDT by ansel12 ((Ted Cruz and Mike Lee-both of whom sit on the Senate Judiciary Comm as Ginsberg's importance fades)
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To: Don Corleone

Some of our invasion troops already had experience fighting in North Africa, Italy and Sicily. Those campaigns had been going since the Spring of 1942.

My dad was part of 7th Army in the Med. They landed in southern France on August 15, 1944 and drove north until they linked up with the Normandy forces and then on into Germany.

He grumbles about June 6, 1944 being known as D-Day- he likes to point out that every military operation has a D-Day and an H-Hour when you’re writing an Op order. I guess you have to be an old soldier for that to get under your skin.


28 posted on 05/31/2014 11:40:15 PM PDT by Pelham (If you do not deport it is amnesty by default.)
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To: 21twelve

Thanks for your posts. That was some great information. Let me know when you get your site set up!


29 posted on 06/01/2014 12:32:05 AM PDT by dcwusmc (A FREE People have no sovereign save Almighty GOD!!! III OK We are EVERYWHERE!!!)
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To: ansel12

Your lies are starting to become a bit threadbare. The War between the States was 1861-65. 1847 is about the time of our war with Mexico, and WE WERE THERE. “From the Halls of Montezuma...” and all... We and the Navy were the experts on amphibious landings. We were part of the Naval Establishment and had access to there ships ALL the time, not just when we needed transport somewhere.

And riddle me THIS... WHO ELSE had code talkers? Not the army, certainly, nor the Navy, or it would have been braodcast round the world when the program was declassified in the mid60s. So try another lie. Or try calling me a pedophile as you do on the other threads you stalk me on.


30 posted on 06/01/2014 12:43:25 AM PDT by dcwusmc (A FREE People have no sovereign save Almighty GOD!!! III OK We are EVERYWHERE!!!)
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To: dcwusmc

I haven’t “lied’ about anything, and I have no idea who you are, I have never Stalked you or anyone, and I have never called you a pedophile, so you can stop the wild lying.

“During the Mexican-American War, U.S. forces under General Winfield Scott invade Mexico three miles south of Vera Cruz. Encountering little resistance from the Mexicans massed in the fortified city of Vera Cruz, by nightfall the last of Scott’s 10,000 men came ashore without the loss of a single life. It was the largest amphibious landing in U.S. history and not surpassed until World War II.”

The largest American and US Army amphibious landing until the Army landed in North Africa in 1942.

In the Civil War, the US Army conducted many major amphibious operations.

In WWII, the Army, who did most of the fighting and dying in the Pacific, conducted over 100 Amphibious assaults just in the Pacific theater, without getting into Africa and Europe.


31 posted on 06/01/2014 1:10:00 AM PDT by ansel12 ((Ted Cruz and Mike Lee-both of whom sit on the Senate Judiciary Comm as Ginsberg's importance fades)
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To: dcwusmc
As far as the Army's code talkers, they began in WWI, and the US Army used them in the Pacific, Africa, and Europe in WWII.

“The first known use of Native Americans in the American military to transmit messages under fire was a group of Cherokee troops utilized by the American 30th Infantry Division serving alongside the British during the Second Battle of the Somme.”

"In the days of World War I, company commander Captain Lawrence of the U.S. Army overheard Solomon Louis and Mitchell Bobb conversing in the Choctaw language. He found eight Choctaw men in the battalion. Eventually, fourteen Choctaw men in the Army's 36th Infantry Division trained to use their language in code. They helped the American Expeditionary Forces win several key battles in the Meuse-Argonne Offensive in France".

U.S Army Choctaw Codetalkers. Image created before 1918.
Image and video hosting by TinyPic

""The name code talkers is strongly associated with bilingual Navajo speakers specially recruited during World War II by the Marines to serve in their standard communications units in the Pacific Theater. Code talking, however, was pioneered by Choctaw Indians serving in the U.S. Army during World War I. These soldiers are referred to as Choctaw code talkers.

Other Native American code talkers were deployed by the United States Army during World War II, including Cherokee, Choctaw, Lakota Meskwaki, and Comanche soldiers. Soldiers of Basque ancestry were used for code talking by the U.S. Marines during World War II in areas where other Basque speakers were not expected to be operating.""

World War I

In France during World War I, the 142nd Infantry Regiment, 36th Division, had a company of Indians who spoke 26 languages and dialects. Two Indian officers were selected to supervise a communications system staffed by 18 Choctaw. The team transmitted messages relating to troop movements and their own tactical plans in their native tongue. Soldiers from other tribes, including the Cheyenne, Comanche, Cherokee, Osage and Yankton Sioux also were enlisted to communicate as code talkers. Previous to their arrival in France, the Germans had broken every American code used, resulting in the deaths of many Soldiers. However, the Germans never broke the Indians’ “code,” and these Soldiers became affectionately known as “code talkers.”

World War II

During World War II, the Army used Indians in its signal communications operations in both the European and Pacific theaters of operations. Student code talkers were instructed in basic military communications techniques. The code talkers then developed their own words for military terms that never existed in their own native tongue. For instance, the world for “colonel” was translated to “silver eagle,” “fighter plane” became “hummingbird,” “minesweeper” became “beaver,” “half-track” became “race track,” and “pyrotechnic” became “fancy fire.”

The Army and Marine Corps used a group of 24 Navajo code talkers in the Pacific Theater, who fought in the many bloody island campaigns. In North Africa, eight Soldiers from the Meskwaki tribe in Iowa served as code talkers in the 168th Infantry Regiment, 34th Division. In Europe, the 4th Signal Company, 4th Infantry Division, was assigned 17 Comanche code talkers. From the D-Day landings at Normandy in June 1944, to the liberation of Paris and the Battle of the Bulge, they kept the lines of communications secure.

Soldiers from other tribes, including the Kiowa, Winnebago, Chippewa, Creek, Seminole, Hopi, Lakota, Dakota, Menominee, Oneida, Pawnee, Sac, Fox and Choctaw served during the war. Some were killed and wounded and at least one was taken prisoner. As a testament to their professionalism, the enemy was never able to break the code talkers’ communications.

32 posted on 06/01/2014 1:20:24 AM PDT by ansel12 ((Ted Cruz and Mike Lee-both of whom sit on the Senate Judiciary Comm as Ginsberg's importance fades)
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