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The FReeper Foxhole Remembers Little Round Top - Gettysburg (7/2/1863) - Nov 6th, 2003
military.com ^ | James R. Brann

Posted on 11/06/2003 12:00:42 AM PST by SAMWolf

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Also helping to defend Little Round Top were Major Homer R. Stoughton's 2nd U.S. Sharpshooters, armed with .52-caliber breechloading rifles. These sharpshooters' skirmishing abilities were unequaled in the Union Army, and a 14-man squad was attached to Company B. The men took up a position in a ravine east of Little Round Top.


Colonel Joshua Lawrence Chamberlain


Shortly after the Federals had taken up their positions, the 824 men of the 4th and 5th Texas regiments of Maj. Gen. John B. Hood's division hammered up the slope of Little Round Top, pushing toward the center and right of Vincent's line. During that assault, Captain James H. Nichols, the commander of the 20th Maine's Company K, ran to alert Chamberlain that the Confederates seemed to be extending their line toward the regiment's left. Chamberlain called his company commanders together and told them his battle plans. With the new information from Nichols, Chamberlain ordered a right-angle formation, extending his line farther to the east.

Meanwhile, Colonel Vincent tried to rally his 3rd Brigade as the 16th Michigan staggered under the heavy assault by the 4th and 5th Texas. Just when the Federals were on the verge of collapse, Colonel Patrick O'Rorke led the 140th New York Zouaves into the gap to save Vincent's brigade. Both Vincent and O'Rorke paid with their lives for their heroism.


Colonel William Calvin Oates


Elements of Hood's division, the 15th and 47th Alabama, then began to smash into the Maine troops. Hood ordered these regiments, led by Colonel William C. Oates, to "find the Union left, turn it and capture Round Top."

Twenty-five-year-old Color Sgt. Andrew J. Tozier of the 2nd Maine quickly emerged as an unlikely hero, and he was later awarded the Medal of Honor for his bravery. It had been Chamberlain's idea to elevate Tozier to the post of color sergeant for the 20th Maine, a move designed to instill a new esprit de corps in the mutineers. Color sergeant was a dangerous but coveted position in Civil War regiments, generally manned by the bravest soldier in the unit. As the 20th Maine's center began to break and give ground in the face of the Alabama regiments' onslaught, Tozier stood firm, remaining upright as Southern bullets buzzed and snapped in the air around him. Tozier's personal gallantry in defending the 20th Maine's colors became the regimental rallying point for Companies D, E and F to retake the center. Were it not for Tozier's heroic stand, the 20th Maine would likely have been beaten at that decisive point in the battle.


Sergeant Tozier


When their ammunition had almost run out, Chamberlain decided to fix bayonets and charge down into the two Alabama regiments. Chamberlain later said he communicated his decision to counterattack to Captain Ellis Spear, the acting battalion commander of the unit's left flank. Spear, however, claimed he received no such orders.

Corporal Elisha Coan, a member of the 20th Maine's color guard, claimed that 1st Lt. Holman S. Melcher, the acting commander of Company F, actually conceived the idea to advance the colors and that Colonel Chamberlain initially hesitated, fearing that it would be extremely hazardous. Coan said other officers joined Melcher in urging a forward movement.



Chamberlain -- whose right foot had been pieced by a shell fragment or a stone chip -- then limped along the regimental line giving instructions to align the left side of the regiment with the right. After Chamberlain returned to the regimental center, Melcher asked permission to retrieve his wounded from the front. Chamberlain replied, "Yes, I am about to order a right wheel forward of the whole regiment." (Chamberlain himself claimed later to have said, "yes, sir, in a moment! I am about to order a charge.")

Chamberlain ordered a right-wheel maneuver and took up a place behind Tozier. There is some disagreement about exactly what Chamberlain said to order the bayonet charge. One story is that he screamed: "Bayonet! Forward to the right!" Chamberlain claimed later that one word -- "Bayonet!" -- was enough and that it was vain to order "Forward" because no one could hear it over the noise. Nor was there time. "Right wheel" or "Bayonet! Forward to the right" was perhaps someone's post-war idea of what Chamberlain would have said if time permitted. The state-appointed Maine commission that later gathered facts regarding Maine's contribution to the Bat-tle of Gettysburg maintained that Melcher sprang forward as Chamberlain yelled, "Bayonet!" and that Chamberlain himself was abreast of the colors.


Colonel William C. Oates leads his regiment up the slopes of the Little Round Top to attack the left flank of the Union Army on the second day of the fighting at the Battle of Gettysburg.


With all the confusion and noise on Little Round Top that day, if anything other than "bayonet" had been said it probably would not have mattered, anyway. An infantryman who is out of ammunition, faced with being cut down on the next enemy charge, and hearing the metal-to-metal sound of bayonets being put on en masse knows the intent of the upcoming order without actually hearing it. In all likelihood Lieutenant Melcher conceived the idea to advance the colors to retrieve the wounded, but Chamberlain expanded upon the idea, deciding to have the whole regiment conduct a bayonet attack. In doing so, Chamberlain exercised effective battle command.

After Chamberlain ordered "Bayonet!" the Union line hesitated until Melcher sprang out in front of the line with his sword flashing. Captain Spear said he never received a formal order to charge -- he charged only after he saw the colors start forward.



The Rev. Theodore Gerrish, then a private in Company H, stated that Melcher led the men down the slope when the enemy was only 30 yards away. Corporal Coan said the men hesitated when Melcher ordered them forward because they were not sure if the colonel had sanctioned the attack. Chamberlain claimed there was no hesitation and said that the line quivered for the start. Captain Nichols wrote in 1882 that Company K never hesitated. Perhaps Company H did hesitate on the left because they were taking heavy fire when the charge started. Company K probably did not delay since the right side of the regiment was not experiencing heavy fire at the time. Most evidence indicates that Chamberlain ordered the charge, and Melcher was the first officer down the slopes. Melcher was an inspiration to the tiring regiment as he sprang a full 10 paces to the front with his sword glittering in the sunlight.
1 posted on 11/06/2003 12:00:43 AM PST by SAMWolf
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To: snippy_about_it; PhilDragoo; Johnny Gage; Victoria Delsoul; Darksheare; Valin; bentfeather; radu; ..
Another crisis soon faced the Maine soldiers when the left side of the regiment drew even with the right, short of its planned position. Melcher broke this momentary disruption by running down the slope screaming: "Come on! Come on boys!" with Tozier beside him and Chamberlain not far behind.


Colonel Joshua Chamberlain - his 20th Maine almost out of ammunition - orders a bayonet charge against a superior force of attacking Confederates.


Great responsibility also fell upon Captain Spear, whose flank was to start the attack -- otherwise the charge would not pivot and work to its fullest potential. But Spear gets curiously little credit for marshaling and organizing the tactics of the left flank of the 20th. Spear literally controlled half the regiment during the climactic counterattack. The lack of credit perhaps helped create the rift that later developed between him and Chamberlain.



During the charge, a second enemy line of the 15th and 47th Alabama tried to make a stand near a stone wall. For a moment it looked as though the Confederates might succeed in halting the Unionists and breaking their momentum. But, using the classic element of surprise, Captain Morrill's Company B rose up from behind a stone wall and fired a volley into the Confederates' rear, breaking the will of the enemy troops. Confederate reports showed that the Union company had been magnified into two regiments. According to Confederate Colonel Oates, it was the surprise fire of Company B that caused the disastrous panic in his soldiers. Chamberlain, for his part, wrote incorrectly to his wife that his regiment had been attacked by a whole brigade.



Chamberlain seemed to have been blessed with both good timing and luck. He not only had made the right command decisions but also had managed to survive when by all rights he should have been dead. An Alabama soldier twice failed to pull the trigger of his rifle because he had second thoughts about killing the brave colonel. Then a pistol aimed and fired by a Southern officer misfired only a few feet from Chamberlain's face.

Without the private stand of Sergeant Tozier inspiring others to close up and bolster the sagging middle of the regiment, the Confederate attacks could have eliminated the 20th Maine as a fighting force. Tozier's bravery sparked the 20th Maine and changed the course of the engagement. Without Tozier, there would not have been an opportunity for Chamberlain to attack.



Spear, who would later become a brevet brigadier general, believed that all the officers at Little Round Top shared in the battle fully and honorably, but that the bayonet charge was a success largely due to the spirit of the enlisted men. He was convinced that only the tenacity of the 358 Maine men had enabled Chamberlain to defeat Oates' two Alabama regiments.

Captain Howard L. Prince, former 20th Maine quartermaster-sergeant, considered Captain Morrill the coolest man in the regiment -- a man who had no superior on the skirmish line. Morrill led his unit at the decisive point of the bayonet charge without orders. His contingent created the impression of two regiments rushing through the woods, though it consisted only of 44 Company B soldiers and 14 U.S. Sharpshooters. It was this group that Oates believed caused panic in his men. Without Morrill's up-front leadership, Chamberlain's attack probably would have been spoiled and pushed back.


Don't Give An Inch


Others who merited more credit than they received were Gouverneur Warren, who conducted one of the best reconnoitering jobs of the war, and Strong Vincent, who unhesitatingly put his brigade on Little Round Top and rallied that brigade under intense fire until he fell mortally wounded. Colonel Patrick O'Rorke was also one of the heroes, as his 140th New York reinforced Vincent's brigade and saved it from early defeat. Both Vincent and O'Rorke gave their lives at Gettysburg, and if not for those two men and others, Chamberlain probably would be remembered today as only a minor figure in a major Union disaster.



Ellis Spear later suggested somewhat bitterly that the abundance of articles written by Chamberlain himself indirectly led to Chamberlain receiving sole credit for the victory. Much of the primary information about Little Round Top does come directly from Chamberlain, who published 25 separate writings on the battle. Chamberlain also was a member of the official Maine at Gettysburg Commission and wrote the organization's chapter on the 20th Maine.


Scenes around Little Round Top at Gettysburg, PA after the battle - early July 1863
PHOTOS: Library of Congress


The problem with becoming a legend is that deeds may become distorted inadvertently due to commercial profits, hero worship and the sheer passage of time. Many American junior officers still look up to Chamberlain. Some take his deeds out of context, however, and mythologize him.

Chamberlain's vivid personality overshadows the regiment that made him famous -- even though it was the regiment that saved the day. There is a Chamberlain museum in Brunswick, Maine; Chamberlain Pale Ale produced in Portland, Maine; and a Chamberlain Bridge exists in Bangor, Maine -- yet no commercial product commemorates the 20th Maine Volunteer Infantry. Chamberlain overshadows the 20th Maine in the way that George S. Patton overshadows the U.S. Third Army in World War II.


Major Holman Melcher,
20th Maine Infantry


The valorous defense of Little Round Top will always belong to the 20th Maine Infantry and to Joshua L. Chamberlain as the regimental commander. But after weighing all the evidence, it seems fair to say that without the contributions of the 2nd Maine Infantry, Andrew J. Tozier, Company B and Holman Melcher, Chamberlain clearly and convincingly would have been defeated. Strong Vincent, Patrick O'Rorke and Ellis Spear also deserve greater recognition for their contributions. Joshua Chamberlain deserves much acclaim, but not to the exclusion of many others whom history has so far -- and so unfairly -- underrated.

Additional Sources:

www.americanmastersgallery.com
www.militaryhistoryonline.com
www.geocities.com/airbornemuseum
polyticks.com/Hole/2k/maine20
www.gdg.org
www.oldgloryprints.com
www.milartgl.com
www.americanmastersgallery.com
www.gallon.com
www.me.ngb.army.mil
www.softwhale.com
www.historicalartprints.com
www.pattonsgallery.com
www.generalsandbrevets.com
www.scot-skinner.com
www.oneworldart.com
www.fredericksburg.com
users.adelphia.net

2 posted on 11/06/2003 12:01:32 AM PST by SAMWolf (A foot is a device for finding furniture in the dark.)
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To: All
'There never were harder fighters than the 20th Maine men and their gallant Colonel. His skill and persistency and the great bravery of his men saved Little Round Top and the Army of the Potomac from defeat. Great events sometimes turn on comparatively small affairs.'

Colonel William Calvin Oates
15th Alabama Volunteer Infantry


3 posted on 11/06/2003 12:02:07 AM PST by SAMWolf (A foot is a device for finding furniture in the dark.)
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To: All

4 posted on 11/06/2003 12:02:40 AM PST by SAMWolf (A foot is a device for finding furniture in the dark.)
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To: All
Veterans Day 2003
PDN News Desk ^ comwatch

November is Here - Veterans Day is right around the corner.

It only takes a few minutes to write a letter to the kids and share a story of why you served.

If you aren't a Veteran then share your thoughts on why it is important to remember our Veterans on Veterans Day.
 

It's an opportunity for us to support our troops, our country and show appreciations for our local veterans. It's another way to counter the Anti-Iraq campaign propaganda.  Would you like to help?  Are there any VetsCoR folks on the Left Coast?  We have a school project that everyone can help with too, no matter where you live.  See the end of this post for details.


Three Northern California events have been scheduled and we need help with each:
 
Friday evening - November 7th Veterans in School (An Evening of Living History, A Veterans Day Ice Cream Social)
http://www.patriotwatch.com/V-Day2003c.htm
 
Saturday - 11 a.m. November 8th: Veterans Day Parade (PDN & Friends parade entry)
http://www.patriotwatch.com/V-Day2003b.htm
 
Sunday November 9, 2003 Noon to 3:00 PM Support our Troops & Veterans Rally prior to Youth Symphony Concert
http://www.patriotwatch.com/V-Day2003d.htm
 
Each of the WebPages above have a link to e-mail a confirmation of your interest and desire to volunteer.  These are family events and everyone is welcome to pitch in.  We'd really appreciate hearing from you directly via each these specific links.  This way, we can keep you posted on only those projects you want to participate in.

Veterans in School - How you can help if you're not close enough to participate directly. If you are a veteran, share a story of your own with the children.  If you have family serving in the military, tell them why it's important that we all support them. Everyone can thank them for having this special event.  Keep in mind that there are elementary school kids. 

Help us by passing this message around to other Veteran's groups.  I have introduced VetsCoR and FreeperFoxhole to a number of school teachers.  These living history lessons go a long way to inspire patriotism in our youth.  Lets see if we can rally America and give these youngsters enough to read for may weeks and months ahead.  If we can, we'll help spread it to other schools as well.

  Click this link to send an email to the students.

5 posted on 11/06/2003 12:03:11 AM PST by SAMWolf (A foot is a device for finding furniture in the dark.)
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To: All
Bugles Across America
http://www.buglesacrossamerica.org/


Bugles Across America, NFP was founded in 2000 by Tom Day, when Congress passed legislation stating Veterans had a right to at least 2 uniformed military people to fold the flag and play taps on a CD player. Bugles Across America was begun to take this a step further, and in recognition of the service these Veterans provided their country, we felt that every Veteran deserved a live rendition of taps played by a live Bugler. To this end, we are actively seeking volunteers to provide this valuable service to Veterans and their families

Our Organization now has 1500 bugler volunteers located in all 50 states and growing number overseas. Since the Department of Veterans Affairs is expecting more than 1/2 million veterans to pass every year for the next 7 years, Bugles Across America is ALWAYS recruiting new volunteers.

Bugler Volunteers can be male or female. They can play a traditional bugle with no valves, or they can perform the ceremony on a Trumpet, Cornet, Flugelhorn, or a 1, 2 or 3 valved bugle. The bugler can be of any age as long as they can play the 24 notes of Taps with an ease and style that will do honor to both the Veterans, their families, and the burial detail performing the service.

Thanks quietolong

6 posted on 11/06/2003 12:03:41 AM PST by SAMWolf (A foot is a device for finding furniture in the dark.)
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To: Matthew Paul; mark502inf; Skylight; The Mayor; Prof Engineer; PsyOp; Samwise; comitatus; ...
.......FALL IN to the FReeper Foxhole!

.......Good Thursday Morning Everyone!


If you would like added to our ping list let us know.
7 posted on 11/06/2003 1:56:36 AM PST by snippy_about_it (Fall in --> The FReeper Foxhole. America's History. America's Soul.)
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To: snippy_about_it
'Morning, snippy and SAM, you guys are up awfully early!

I saw Gettysburg in the title and felt gloomy again. Last spring I finally got the DVD of Gettysburg the movie, but then someone with sticky fingers took it home with them. It's a great movie but Martin Sheen is nauseating as General Robert E. Lee in my opinion.

For the first time in my life I saw Lee without the rose-colored glasses, and was furious with him for prolonging that awful war. I don't remember who played Longstreet, but that guy was absolutely perfect. I loved that historical novel, Gettysburg, and the movie. It's the only fictionalized account of the War I've ever enjoyed, except for the Red Badge of Courage.

As you see, I get talky so early in the morning, already tanked up on coffee! LOL

Thanks for the ping, snippy!

8 posted on 11/06/2003 2:36:55 AM PST by WaterDragon
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To: SAMWolf

Good Morning SAM

9 posted on 11/06/2003 2:56:49 AM PST by snippy_about_it (Fall in --> The FReeper Foxhole. America's History. America's Soul.)
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To: WaterDragon
Good Morning WaterDragon

'Morning, snippy and SAM, you guys are up awfully early!

LOL. We never sleep, dontcha know!

I haven't seen either of those movies but I have heard the same comments about them from SAM and others at the Foxhole.

As you see, I get talky so early in the morning...

I start getting yappy in the evenings when I'm tired, just the opposite. ;)

10 posted on 11/06/2003 3:01:13 AM PST by snippy_about_it (Fall in --> The FReeper Foxhole. America's History. America's Soul.)
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To: snippy_about_it
Good morning, Snippy and everyuone at the Freeper Foxhole. It got down to the upper 30's here last night. We also had a little bit of rain with thunder. How's it going for you?
11 posted on 11/06/2003 3:02:01 AM PST by E.G.C.
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To: E.G.C.
Last week we had one day of snowfall, EGC. Very unusual for us in Salem, OR. Didn't stick though, and it's warmed up. The day it snowed, I built the first fire of the year, and also burned cinnemon candles! Beginning to have Christmassy thoughts and Thanksgiving not even here yet!

Veterans Day is coming up, though, as SAM pointed out. Lots of vets in my family, and I'm remembering them all, as well as the ones I don't know personally.

There are some good, responsible sites that are taking contributions to make today's troops' Christmas a little cheerier. If anyone makes a list of them, I'll look forward to that.

A few years back, one of the Freepers got an email from a woman who'd become aware of an elderly vet who was out of food and money and really ill. The Freeper sent on her email to others, and donations began to flow in. A Freeper who lived near by, I think, checked the situation out. The old guy was so surprised and grateful for the help, and was put in contact with some social services as well. That was a very good experience. It sometimes seems that our veterans get overlooked after they get home and get old. That's not right. It's better to remember them while they're alive.
12 posted on 11/06/2003 3:18:07 AM PST by WaterDragon
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To: SAMWolf; All
Thank you SAM for today's thread. With each story on this war we learn more and more about the individuals who fought which is so important. Good read.



Andrew J. Tozier

Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company I, 20th Maine Infantry. Place and date: At Gettysburg, Pa., 2 July 1863.

Entered service at: Plymouth, Maine.

Birth: Monmouth, Maine.

Date of issue: 13 August 1898. (took them 30 yrs to issue)

Citation: At the crisis of the engagement this soldier, a color bearer, stood alone in an advanced position, the regiment having been borne back, and defended his colors with musket and ammunition picked up at his feet.
13 posted on 11/06/2003 3:28:21 AM PST by snippy_about_it (Fall in --> The FReeper Foxhole. America's History. America's Soul.)
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To: E.G.C.
Good morning EGC. In the mid 40s here this morning. Heading for colder temps as we wind down the work week.
14 posted on 11/06/2003 3:29:53 AM PST by snippy_about_it (Fall in --> The FReeper Foxhole. America's History. America's Soul.)
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To: WaterDragon
It's better to remember them while they're alive.

Amen. That is what Veterans Day is all about, honoring the living veterans.

A great idea is to visit a Veterans hospital or clinic near you. I have a clinic nearby I will take some flowers to on Monday (I expect they will be closed on Tuesday). At least it will brighten up the office for their visits for a few days. A minor gesture of appreciation as I believe we can never do enough.

15 posted on 11/06/2003 3:38:07 AM PST by snippy_about_it (Fall in --> The FReeper Foxhole. America's History. America's Soul.)
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To: snippy_about_it
That's a wonderful idea, snippy! I know there are local Veterans offices, too, where counseling is provided, lots of the Vietnam vets have needed help, in part because of the way they were treated. A bouquet would be welcome in those offices, too.

Several years ago, before I retired, I swam at the local Y, and on Saturdays got into the habit of chatting briefly with a fellow swimmer. I talked of my excitement about taking flying lessons and he talked about his father who built many of the wooden gliders for use in Europe in WWII. I told him my flight instructor was an old WASP pilot, still sharp as a nail in her mid-seventies. He asked if she knew the WASPs had finally gotten official recognition as vets, then asked her name and said he'd send her information about benefits.

Well, soon after she became seriously ill. She turned me over to another instructor and I drove up to visit her at the hospital on the weekends. One day she told me of an amazing visit from a woman who she'd trained with in the WASPs....a woman who now worked for the Veterans' Affairs, who came to see her about enrolling for benefits! She was terribly excited, and pleased. She died soon after, but was comforted that she was going to have a military burial, wear her uniform, and at the gravesite, a few of her friends did a 'fly-over.'

There's veterans of all sorts, men and women. I really do treasure them all, and feel fortunate to have known quite a few.
16 posted on 11/06/2003 4:22:00 AM PST by WaterDragon
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To: snippy_about_it
They shall see His face, and His name shall be on their foreheads. —Revelation 22:4


I am living for the moment
When my Savior's face I see;
Oh, the thrill of that first meeting
When His glory shines on me.  Christiansen

To see Jesus will be heaven's greatest joy.

17 posted on 11/06/2003 4:33:29 AM PST by The Mayor (Through prayer, finite man draws upon the power of the infinite God.)
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To: snippy_about_it; SAMWolf; All
Mornin' Snippy! Mornin' Sam!

Thanks for the post and the ping!

18 posted on 11/06/2003 4:46:02 AM PST by SCDogPapa (In Dixie Land I'll take my stand to live and die in Dixie)
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To: SCDogPapa; snippy_about_it; SAMWolf; nathanbedford
Good Morning, Good Friends.

Grits and Coffee are served! Ironically I was just talking 'bout G'burg last nite. The horseback battlefield ride is on my to-do list one day.

19 posted on 11/06/2003 4:49:53 AM PST by stainlessbanner
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To: WaterDragon
My mother served as a WAVE in WWII at Ford Island and is treated today in Virginia at her local Veteran's hospital/clinic.

They see very few women and treat her like a queen. She has nothing but praise for the staff there. Her service too has been recognized and that is a good thing. We do sometimes forget the women veterans who served as well.

While I'm at it, we often hear horror stories of the Veterans Affairs hospital and clinics and granted they could use much improvement. However, I know from too much experience both in Ohio and Virginia that the staff, many of them veterans themselves, and especially the veterans who work serving our veterans, have the very best intentions and work with what they have to treat our veterans needing their services the best they can.

There are good and bad in all the hospitals and clinics but most to blame is the funding of and administration of those hospitals. You can only do so much with the money given. It needs to be more.

</rant >
20 posted on 11/06/2003 4:50:58 AM PST by snippy_about_it (Fall in --> The FReeper Foxhole. America's History. America's Soul.)
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To: SAMWolf
But did Chamberlain really deserve the credit he received?

I always thought Chamberlin received more credit to the expense of Strong.

21 posted on 11/06/2003 4:52:20 AM PST by stainlessbanner
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To: stainlessbanner
ooh. A horseback battlefield ride! I want to go too.

Thanks for the grits, we don't get those often enough around here.

Good morning.

How did we know we'd see you here today? :)

22 posted on 11/06/2003 4:53:58 AM PST by snippy_about_it (Fall in --> The FReeper Foxhole. America's History. America's Soul.)
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To: The Mayor
Good morning Mayor.
23 posted on 11/06/2003 4:55:05 AM PST by snippy_about_it (Fall in --> The FReeper Foxhole. America's History. America's Soul.)
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To: snippy_about_it
Present!
24 posted on 11/06/2003 4:55:57 AM PST by manna
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To: SCDogPapa
Mornin' SCDogPapa. Good to see you.
25 posted on 11/06/2003 4:56:00 AM PST by snippy_about_it (Fall in --> The FReeper Foxhole. America's History. America's Soul.)
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To: manna
Good morning manna.
26 posted on 11/06/2003 4:56:43 AM PST by snippy_about_it (Fall in --> The FReeper Foxhole. America's History. America's Soul.)
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To: stainlessbanner; snippy_about_it; SAMWolf; nathanbedford
Here are the Official Reports of Lee and Longstreet about Gettysburg. This is kinda long, maybe I should have posted just the link. But here goes.

General Robert E. Lee - Gettysburg
Report of General Robert E. Lee

Headquarters Army of Northern Virginia, Near Gettysburg, PA., July 4, 1863

Mr. President:

After the rear of the army had crossed the Potomac, the leading corps, under General Ewell, pushed on to Carlisle and York, passing through Chambersburg. The other two corps closed up at the latter place, and soon afterward intelligence was received that the army of General Hooker was advancing. Our whole force was directed to concentrate at Gettysburg, and the corps of Generals Ewell and A. P. Hill reached that place on the 1st July, the former advancing from Carlisle and the latter from Chambersburg.

The two leading divisions of these corps, upon reaching the vicinity of Gettysburg, found the enemy, and attacked him, driving him from the town, which was occupied by our troops. The enemy's loss was heavy, including more than 4,000 prisoners. He took up a strong position in rear of the town, which he immediately began to fortify, and where his re-enforcements joined him.

On the 2d July, Longstreet's corps, with the exception of one division, having arrived, we attempted to dislodge the enemy, and, though we gained some ground, we were unable to get possession of his position. The next day, the third division of General Longstreet having come up, a more extensive attack was made. The works on the enemy's extreme right and left were taken, but his numbers were so great and his position so commanding, that our troops were compelled to relinquish their advantage and retire.

It is believed that the enemy suffered severely in these operations, but our own loss has not been light.

General Barksdale is killed. Generals Garnett and Armistead are missing, and it is feared that the former is killed and the latter wounded and a prisoner. Generals Pender and Trimble are wounded in the leg, General Hood in the arm, and General Heth slightly in the head. General Kemper, it is feared, is mortally wounded. Our losses embrace many other valuable officers and men.

General Wade Hampton was severely wounded in a different action in which the cavalry was engaged yesterday.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

R E. Lee, General

His Excellency President Davis Richmond

Source: The Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies

General James Longstreet - Gettysburg
Report of James Longstreet, Lieutenant General

Headquarters, 1st Army Corps, Department of Northern VA

Near Culpeper Court House, July 27, 1863

Colonel:

In obedience to orders from the commanding general, my command marched from Fredericksburg, on June 3, for Culpeper Court-House.:

On the 15th, it moved from Culpeper Court-House along the eastern slope of the Blue Ridge, and, on the 19th, McLaws' division was posted in Ashby's Gap, Hood's at Snicker's Gap, and Pickett's supporting Hood's and guarding points between the two Gaps.

On June 20, I received a dispatch from general headquarters, directing that I should hold myself in readiness to move in the direction of the Potomac, with a view to crossing. As I was ready, and had been expecting an order to execute such purpose, I supposed the intimation meant other preparation, and, knowing of nothing else that I could do to render my preparations complete, I supposed that it was desirable that I should cross the Shenandoah. I therefore passed the river, occupied the banks at the ferries opposite the Gaps, and a road at an intermediate ford, which was practicable for cavalry and infantry.

On the following day, the enemy advanced his cavalry in full force against General Stuart, and drove him into and nearly through Ashby's Gap. I succeeded in passing part of McLaws' division across the river in time to occupy the Gap before night, and, upon advancing a line of sharpshooters the next morning at daylight, the enemy retired. I believe that he engaged the sharpshooters lightly. General Stuart re-established his cavalry, and McLaws' division was withdrawn to the west bank of the Shenandoah before night.

On the 23d, I received orders to march, via Berryville, Martinsburg, and Williamsport, into Maryland. The command moved at early dawn on the following day: First, Pickett's division; second, the Reserve Artillery battalions; third, Hood's division, and, fourth, McLaws' division. Pickett's division and the battalions of Reserve Artillery crossed the Potomac on the 25th, Hood's and McLaws' divisions on the following day. The command reached Chambersburg, Pa., on the 27th, and a halt of two days was made for rest.

On the night of the 28th, one of my scouts came in with information that the enemy had passed the Potomac, and was probably in pursuit of us. The scout was sent to general headquarters, with the suggestion that our army concentrate east of the mountains, and bear down to meet the enemy.

I received orders on the following day to move part of my command, and to encamp it at Greenwood. The command, excepting Pickett's division, which was left to guard our rear at Chambersburg, moved on the morning of the 30th, and the two divisions and battalions of Reserve Artillery got into camp at Greenwood about 2 o'clock in the afternoon. General Hood was ordered to put a brigade and a battery on picket at New Guilford, on the road leading toward Emmitsburg.

On the next day, the troops set out for Gettysburg, excepting Pickett's division, not yet relieved from duty at Chambersburg, and Law's brigade, left by Hood on picket at New Guilford. Our march was greatly delayed on this day by Johnson's division, of the Second Corps, which came into the road from Shippensburg, and the long wagon trains that followed him. McLaws' division, however, reached Marsh Creek, 4 miles from Gettysburg, a little after dark, and Hood's division got within nearly the same distance of the town about 12 o'clock at night. Law's brigade was ordered forward to its division during the day, and joined about noon on the 2d. Previous to his joining, I received instructions from the commanding general to move, with the portion of my command that was up, around to gain the Emmitsburg road, on the enemy's left. The enemy, having been driven back by the corps of Lieutenant-Generals Ewell and A.P. Hill the day previous, had taken a strong position, extending from the hill at the cemetery along the Emmitsburg road.

Fearing that my force was too weak to venture to make an attack, I delayed until General Law's brigade joined its division. As soon after his arrival as we could make our preparations, the movement was begun. Engineers, sent out by the commanding general and myself, guided us by a road which would have completely disclosed the move. Some delay ensued in seeking a more concealed route. McLaws' division got into position opposite the enemy's left about 4 p.m. Hood's division was moved on farther to our right, and got into position, partially enveloping the enemy's left.

The enemy's first position along the Emmitsburg road was but little better, in point of strength, than the first position taken by these two divisions. Our batteries were opened upon this position, Hood's division pressing upon his left and McLaws' upon his front. He was soon dislodged and driven back upon a commanding hill, which is so precipitous and rough as to render it difficult of ascent. Numerous stone fences about its base added greatly to its strength. The enemy, taking shelter behind these, held them, one after another, with great pertinacity. He was driven from point to point, however, until nearly night, when a strong force met the brigades of Major-General Anderson's division, which were co-operating upon my left, drove one of them back, and, checking the support of the other, caused my left to be somewhat exposed and outflanked. Wofford's brigade, of McLaws' division, was driven back at the same time. I thought it prudent not to push farther until my other troops came up.

General Hood received a severe wound soon after getting under fire, and was obliged to leave the field. This misfortune occasioned some delay in our operations. Brig. Gen. G. T. Anderson, of his division, was also severely wounded, and obliged to leave the field. In the same attack, General McLaws lost two of his brigadiers (General Barksdale mortally wounded, and General Semmes severely wounded, and since died of his wounds). The command was finally so disposed as to hold the ground gained on the right, with my left withdrawn to the first position of the enemy, resting at the peach orchard. During the combat of this day, four pieces of artillery were captured and secured by the command, and two regimental standards.

On the following morning our arrangements were made for renewing the attack by my right, with a view to pass around the hill occupied by the enemy on his left, and to gain it by flank and reverse attack. This would have been a slow process, probably, but I think not very difficult. A few moments after my orders for the execution of this plan were given, the commanding general joined me, and ordered a column of attack to be formed of Pickett's, Heth's, and part of Pender's divisions, the assault to be made directly at the enemy's main position, the Cemetery Hill. The distance to be passed over under the fire of the enemy's batteries, and in plain view, seemed too great to insure great results, particularly as two-thirds of the troops to be engaged in the assault had been in a severe battle two days previous, Pickett's division alone being fresh.

Orders were given to Major-General Pickett to form his line under the best cover that he could get from the enemy's batteries, and so that the center of the assaulting column would arrive at the salient of the enemy's position, General Pickett's line to be the guide and to attack the line of the enemy's defenses, and General Pettigrew, in command of Heth's division, moving on the same line as General Pickett, was to assault the salient at the same moment. Pickett's division was arranged, two brigades in the front line, supported by his third brigade, and Wilcox's brigade was ordered to move in rear of his right flank, to protect it from any force that the enemy might attempt to move against it.:

Heth's division, under the command of Brigadier-General Pettigrew, was arranged in two lines, and these supported by part of Major-General Pender's division, under Major-General Trimble. All of the batteries of the First and Third Corps, and some of those of the Second, were put into the best positions for effective fire upon the point of attack and the hill occupied by the enemy's left. Colonel Walton, chief of artillery of First Corps, and Colonel Alexander had posted our batteries and agreed with the artillery officers of the other corps upon the signal for the batteries to open.

About 2 p.m. General Pickett, who had been charged with the duty of arranging the lines behind our batteries, reported that the troops were in order and on the most sheltered ground. Colonel Walton was ordered to open the batteries. The signal guns were fired, and all the batteries opened very handsomely and apparently with effective fire. The guns on the hill at the enemy's left were soon silenced. Those at the Cemetery Hill combated us, however, very obstinately. Many of them were driven off, but fresh ones were brought up to replace them. Colonel Alexander was ordered to a point where he could best observe the effect of our fire, and to give notice of the most opportune moment for our attack.

Some time after our batteries opened fire, I rode to Major Dearing's batteries. It appeared that the enemy put in fresh batteries about as rapidly as others were driven off. I concluded, therefore, that we must attack very soon, if we hoped to accomplish anything before night. I gave orders for the batteries to refill their ammunition chests, and to be prepared to follow up the advance of the infantry. Upon riding over to Colonel Alexander's position, I found that he had advised General Pickett that the time had arrived for the attack, and I gave the order to General Pickett to advance to the assault. I found then that our supply of ammunition was so short that the batteries could not reopen. The order for this attack, which I could not favor under better auspices, would have been revoked had I felt that I had that privilege. The advance was made in very handsome style, all the troops keeping their lines accurately, and taking the fire of the batteries with great coolness and deliberation. About half way between our position and that of the enemy, a ravine partially sheltered our troops from the enemy's fire, where a short halt was made for rest. The advance was resumed after a moment's pause, all still in good order. The enemy's batteries soon opened upon our lines with canister, and the left seemed to stagger under it, but the advance was resumed, and with some degree of steadiness. Pickett's troops did not appear to be checked by the batteries, and only halted to deliver a fire when close under musket-range. Major-General Anderson's division was ordered forward to support and assist the wavering columns of Pettigrew and Trimble. Pickett's troops, after delivering fire, advanced to the charge, and entered the enemy's lines, capturing some of his batteries, and gained his works. About the same moment, the troops that had before hesitated, broke their ranks and fell back in great disorder, many more falling under the enemy's fire in retiring than while they were attacking. This gave the enemy time to throw his entire force upon Pickett, with a strong prospect of being able to break up his lines or destroy him before Anderson's division could reach him, which would, in its turn, have greatly exposed Anderson. He was, therefore, ordered to halt. In a few moments the enemy, marching against both flanks and the front of Pickett's division, overpowered it and drove it back, capturing about half of those of it who were not killed or wounded. General Wright, of Anderson's division, with all of the officers, was ordered to rally and collect the scattered troops behind Anderson's division, and many of my staff officers were sent to assist in the same service. Expecting an attack from the enemy, I rode to the front of our batteries, to reconnoiter and superintend their operations.

The enemy threw forward forces at different times and from different points, but they were only feelers, and retired as soon as our batteries opened upon them. These little advances and checks were kept up till night, when the enemy retired to his stronghold, and my line was withdrawn to the Gettysburg road on the right, the left uniting with Lieut. Gen. A. P. Hill's right. After night, I received orders to make all the needful arrangements for our retreat. The orders for preparation were given, and the work was begun before daylight on the 4th.

On the night of the 4th, the troops were withdrawn from our line, and my command took up the line of march, following the corps of Lieut. Gen. A. P. Hill. Our march was much impeded by heavy rains and excessively bad roads. We succeeded, however, in reaching the top of the mountain early in the night of the 5th.

On the 6th, my command, passing to the front, marched for Hagerstown. As our exhausted men and animals were not in condition for rapid movement, I thought myself fortunate when I found that I could reach Hagerstown in time to relieve our trains at Williamsport, then seriously threatened. Reaching Hagerstown about 5 p.m., our column moved down the Sharpsburg turnpike, and encamped about 2 miles from Hagerstown.

The next day, the command was put in camp on the best ground that could be found, and remained quiet until the 10th, when the enemy was reported to be advancing to meet us. It was supposed at first to be a cavalry force only, but I thought it prudent to move some of the infantry down on the Antietam, at Funkstown. After reaching the Antietam, General Stuart asked for infantry supports for his batteries, and two brigades (Semmes', under Colonel Bryan, and Anderson's, under Colonel White) were sent across, as he desired. For the report of their service, I refer to the report of Major-General Stuart and the brigade commanders. A line of battle was selected, extending from a point on the Potomac near Downsville to the Hagerstown and Williamsport turnpike, my command on the right. The troops were put to work, and, in twenty-four hours, our line was comfortably intrenched. A few of the enemy's sharpshooters came up on the Boonsborough road, and to within long range of our picket line on the 12th.

On the evening of the same day, a light skirmish was brought on by an advance of a line of sharpshooters at the Saint James' College. That night our bridge was completed, and, the day after, I received orders to recross the Potomac after night, and the caissons of the batteries were started back about 5 o'clock in the afternoon. The troops marched as soon as it was dark, my command leading. Having but a single road to travel upon, our trains soon came to a halt. I rode on to the bridge, to hasten the movements as much as possible, and sent my staff officers to different points along the line to keep everything in motion. Details were made to keep up fires to light the road at the worst points, and Captain Manning, with his signal torches, lighted us across the bridge.

The natural difficulties in making such movements were increased by the darkness of the night, a heavy rain storm, flooding the road with mud and water, and finally by one of our wagons, loaded with wounded, running off the bridge, breaking it down, and throwing our wounded headlong into the river. We were so fortunate, however, as to rescue them in a few moments. They were made somewhat comfortable in other vehicles, and sent forward. Major Clarke and Captains Douglas and Johnston, of the Corps of Engineers, applied themselves diligently to the work of repairing the bridge, and, in two hours, our line was again in motion.

When the accident occurred at the bridge, I sent back orders for one of my divisions to occupy the redoubts that had been thrown up to protect the bridge, and also directed Colonel Alexander to place his batteries in position on the same line. As soon as the bridge was repaired, I rode back to this line, but finding that the enemy was not pursuing, the troops were again put in motion. The rear of my column passed the bridge at 9 o'clock in the morning, and encamped for the night at Hainesville.

On July 19, at Bunker Hill, I received orders to march with my command for Millwood, in order to obtain possession of Ashby's Gap, with a view to covering our future movements. We marched early on the next day, part of the command reaching Millwood at night. The Shenandoah was found to be past fording, however, and the enemy had driven our cavalry from the Gap, and were in possession down to the river bank. I reported this to the commanding general, and continued my march on the following day-for Manassas and Chester Gaps. Arriving at the Shenandoah at Front Royal, it was found to be past fording, and the work of laying our bridges was hardly begun. Brigadier-General Corse, who had been hurried forward with his brigade to secure the Gaps, succeeded in passing the stream with his men and several batteries. Detaching a regiment to Manassas Gap, he marched his main force into Chester Gap, and succeeded in getting possession of the latter some few moments before the enemy appeared. The enemy was in possession of Manassas Gap, but Colonel Herbert, of the Seventeenth Virginia Regiment, secured a strong position with his regiment, from which he held the enemy in check. The rest of Pickett's division was hurried over by crossing the ammunition and arms in a fiat-boat, the men wading. Re-enforcements were sent to Colonel Herbert, when he drove back the enemy, and secured as much of the Gap as was desirable. Re-enforcements were also sent to General Corse, who was engaged in skirmishing with the enemy, and was threatened by a strong cavalry force. The cavalry withdrew about the time the re-enforcements reached him. The bridges were completed about 12 o'clock at night, and the passage by our trains commenced.

The next day the enemy appeared in stronger force in Manassas Gap, but I had posted Hood's division there, under Brig. Gen. E. M. Law, and he gave us but little trouble. He also reappeared at the foot of the mountain, at Chester Gap. As soon as our men finished cooking their rations, General Wofford's brigade, of McLaws' division, was ordered to disperse the cavalry that was at the foot of the mountain, and endeavor to capture his artillery. General Pickett was ordered to send a force down the mountain by a different route, to get in rear of and intercept the cavalry. After a light skirmish with General Wofford, the enemy made a hasty retreat. Our march was continued, arriving at Culpeper Court-House at noon on the 24th instant.

General Benning's brigade, which had been left on picket at Gaines' Cross-Roads with the Fourth and Fifteenth Alabama Regiments, to await the arrival of Lieut. Gen. A. P. Hill's corps, were attacked by the enemy's cavalry while on the march, each having a smart skirmish.

I desire to mention the following-named officers as among those most distinguished for the exhibition of great gallantry and skill, viz: Major-Generals Pickett, Hood, and Trimble, the two latter severely wounded; Kemper, very seriously wounded; Semmes, severely wounded, and since died of his wounds; Pettigrew, slightly wounded; Kershaw, Law, and G. T. Anderson, the last severely wounded.

Brigadier-General Barksdale was mortally wounded in the attack on the evening of the 2d, while bravely leading his brigade in the assault.

Brig. Gen. R. B. Garnett was killed while gallantly leading his brigade in the assault upon the enemy's position upon the Cemetery Hill.

Colonel Walton, chief of artillery, and Colonel Alexander, Major Dearing, Major Huger, Major Eshleman, and Captain Miller, of the Corps of Artillery, were noted for the courage, zeal, and ability with which they discharged their duties.

The troops all exhibited great determination and courage on the battle field, which, together with the fortitude and endurance subsequently shown by them under circumstances of great trial, justly entitles them to our hearty thanks and highest praise.

Major-General Pickett's division merits especial credit for the determined manner in which it assaulted the enemy's strong position upon the Cemetery Hill.

For valuable and meritorious services on the field, I desire to express my renewed obligations to the officers of my staff, Lieutenant-Colonel Sorrel, Lieutenant-Colonel Manning, Majors Fairfax, Latrobe, Clarke, and Walton, and Captains Goree, Riely, and Rogers.

Major Mitchell, chief quartermaster; Major Moses, chief commissary of subsistence; Surgeon Cullen, medical director; Surgeons Barksdale and Maury, and Captain Manning, signal officer, discharged the duties of their respective departments with zeal and ability.

Statements of the casualties of the campaign, embracing the killed, wounded, and missing, have been already forwarded.

I have the honor to be, colonel, very respectfully, your most obedient servant,

James Longstreet,
Lieutenant-General, Commanding.

Col. R. H. CHILTON,
Assistant Adjutant and Inspector General.

Source: The Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies

The Civil War Home Page

27 posted on 11/06/2003 5:35:31 AM PST by SCDogPapa (In Dixie Land I'll take my stand to live and die in Dixie)
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To: SCDogPapa; stainlessbanner; snippy_about_it; SAMWolf; nathanbedford
Looks,,,,like a had a Walt moment. :)
28 posted on 11/06/2003 5:39:18 AM PST by SCDogPapa (In Dixie Land I'll take my stand to live and die in Dixie)
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To: SAMWolf
On This Day In History


Birthdates which occurred on November 06:
1558 Thomas Kyd English dramatist (Spanish Tragedy)
1661 Charles II last Habsburg king of Spain (1665-1700)
1671 Colley Cibber England, dramatist/poet laureate (Love's Last Shift)
1746 Absalom Jones Delaware, born into slavery
1771 Alois Senefelder inventor (lithography)
1814 Adolphe Sax Belgium, musician/inventor (saxophone)
1832 Joseph Smith son of founder of Mormonism
1836 Francis Ellingwood Abbot Boston, theologian (Scientific Theism)
1851 Charles H Dow co-founded Dow Jones/1st editor of Wall St Journal
1854 John Phillip Sousa Wash DC, march king (Stars & Stripes Forever)
1860 Ignace Jan Paderewski Kurylowka Poland, composer/pianist/patriot
1861 James A Naismith inventor (basketball)
1887 Walter Johnson Kansas, Wash Senator pitcher (1907-27) (414-218)
1892 John Sigvard Olsen Wabash IN, comedian (Olsen & Johnson)
1896 Jim Jordan radio comedian (Fibber McGee)
1900 Heinrich Himmler Nazi SS leader
1901 Juanita Hall Keyport NJ, actress (Capt Billy)
1904 Selena Royale NYC, actress (Date With Judy, Misleading Lady)
1906 Francis Lederer actor (Diary of a Chambermaid)
1916 Ray Conniff Massachusetts, chorus director (Ray Conniff Singers)
1921 James Jones Robinson IL, novelist (From Here to Eternity)
1923 Robert P Griffin actor (Barricade, Broken Arrow, Crime of Passion)
1928 Peter Matz Pittsburgh PA, orchestra leader (Hullabaloo, Carol Burnett Show)
1931 Mike Nichols stage/film director (Catch 22, Biloxi Blues)
1933 Knut Johannesen Norway, 5K/10K speed skater (Olympic-gold-1964)
1943 Michael Schwerner civil rights worker, murdered in 1964
1946 Sally Field Pasadena CA, we really like her (Gidget, Flying Nun)
1947 Jack Arnold character on Wonder Years
1948 Glenn Frey Detroit, rocker (Eagles-Take it Easy)
1949 Brad Davis Tallahassee FL, actor (Roots, Chiefs)
1950 Ernest Thompson Bellows Fall VT, actor (Sierra, Westside Medical)
1954 Catherine Cryer
1955 Maria Shriver [Mrs A Schwartenegger], Chicago IL, newscaster (Sunday Today)
1959 Teri Peterson Santa Monica Cal, playmate (July, 1980)
1960 Lance Kerwin Newport Beach Ca, (James at 15, The Lonliest Runner)
1962 Lori Singer Corpus Christi Texas, actress (Fame, V, Footloose)
1966 Lisa Fuller Los Angeles CA, actress (Dawn-General Hospital)
1966 Peter DeLuise actor (Free Ride)
1967 Jana McCoy Portales NM, Miss NM-America (1991)
1967 Rebecca Schaeffer Eugene Oregon, actress (Patti-My Sister Sam)
1968 Kelly Rutherford Elizabethtown Kentucky, actress (Generations)
1970 Ethan Hawke Austin, TX, actor (Dad, Dead Poets Society, Explorers)



Deaths which occurred on November 06:
1406 Innocent VII, [Cosma de' Migliorati], Italian Pope (1404-06), dies
1632 King Gustavus Aldophus of Sweden, dies in battle
1839 Rabbi Hayim Rapoport of Ostrowiec author (Maxim Chayyim), dies
1944 Hannah Senesh Jewish poetess, executed by Nazis in Budapest
1972 Tod Andrews actor (Gray Ghost, Counterthrust), dies at 52
1978 Flora Campbell actress (Faraway Hill, Date With Judy), dies at 67
1980 Mary Michael actress (Birdie-Wonderful John Acton), dies at 77
1987 Ross R Barnett lawyer/(Gov-D-Miss), dies at 89
1987 William C Pahlmann interior decorator (4 Seasons NYC), dies at 80
1991 Gene Tierney actress, dies at 70 of emphysema



Reported: MISSING in ACTION

1964 DAWSON DANIEL G.---FORT BRAGG CA.
{ACFT OVERDUE]
1965 BOLSTAD RICHARD E.---MINNEAPOLIS MN.
[02/12/73 RELEASED BY DRV, ALIVE AND WELL 98]
1965 CORMIER ARTHUR---WEST ORANGE NJ.
[02/12/73 RELEASED BY DRV, ALIVE AND WELL 98]
1965 LILLY WARREN E.---DALLAS TX.
[02/12/73 RELEASED BY DRV INJURED, ALIVE AND WELL 98]
1965 MC KNIGHT GEORGE G.---ALBANY OR.
[02/12/73 RELEASED BY DRV INJ, ALIVE AND WELL 98]
1965 SINGLETON JERRY A.---OKLAHOMA CITY OK.
[02/12/73 RELEASED BY DRV, ALIVE IN 98]
1967 HAGERMAN ROBERT WARREN---CHICAGO IL.
[REMAINS RETURNED 12/04/85]
1968 TURNER FREDERICK RAY---COLUMBUS OH.
1972 TOLBERT CLARENCE O.---TISHOMINGO OK.
[REMAINS RETURNED 02/22/89]

POW / MIA Data & Bios supplied by
the P.O.W. NETWORK. Skidmore, MO. USA.


On this day...
1429 Henry VI is crowned King of England.
1528 Cabeza de Vaca discovers what would become Texas
1572 Supernova is observed in the constellation known as Cassiopeia
1812 The first winter snow falls on the French Army as Napoleon Bonaparte retreats from Moscow
1813 Chilpancingo congress declares Mexico independent of Spain
1844 Spain grants Dominican Rep independence
1850 1st Hawaiian fire engine
1850 Yerba Buena & Angel Islands (San Francisco Bay) reserved for military use
1860 Abraham Lincoln (R-Ill-Rep) elected 16th President
1861 Jefferson Davis elected to 6 year term as Confederate President
1862 NY-San Francisco direct telegraphic link established
1869 1st intercollegiate football (soccer) game (Rutgers 6, Princeton 4)
1883 NYAC organizes 1st American cross-country championship race
1884 British protectorate proclaimed over southeast New Guinea
1885 US mint at Carson City, Nevada directed to close
1888 Benjamin Harrison (R-Sen-Indiana) beats President Grover Cleveland (D), 233 electoral votes to 168, Cleveland received slightly more votes
1891 Comanche, the only 7th Cavalry horse to survive George Armstrong Custer's "Last Stand" at the Little Bighorn, dies at Fort Riley, Kansas
1900 President William McKinley (R) re-elected, beating William Jennings Bryan
1906 Charles Evans Hughes (R) elected NY gov beats William Randolph Hearst
1911 Francisco Madeiro inaugurated President of Mexico
1913 Mohandas K Gandhi arrested for leading Indian miners march in South Africa
1917 Bolshevik revolution begins with the capture of the Winter Palace
1918 Republic of Poland proclaimed
1923 USSR adopts experimental calendar, with 5-day "weeks"
1924 Stanley Baldwin becomes PM of England
1928 Herbert Hoover (R) beats Alfred E Smith (D) for President
1935 Maiden flight by Canada's Hawker Hurricane military plane
1936 RCA displays TV for the press
1939 WGY-TV (Schenectady, NY), 1st commercial TV station, begins service
1942 Nazis execute 12,000 Minsk ghetto Jews
1945 HUAC begins investigation of 7 radio commentators
1952 1st hydrogen bomb exploded (by US at Eniwetok Atoll)
1956 Holland & Spain withdraw from Olympics, protest Soviets in Hungary
1956 President Eisenhower (D) re-elected defeating Adlai E Stevenson (R)
1957 Felix Gaillard becomes premier of France
1961 US government issues a stamp honoring 100th birthday of James Naismith
1962 BART bond issue just gets by with a 66.9% favorable vote
1962 Edward M Kennedy 1st elected (Sen-D-MA) PARRRTY!!!
1962 Edward W Brooke (R) elected attorney general of Massachusetts
1966 1st entire lineup televised in color (NBC)
1967 US launches Surveyor 6; makes soft landing on Moon Nov 9
1969 1st Cy Young Award tie (Mike Cuellar, Baltimore & Denny McLain, Detroit)
1973 Abe Beame elected 1st jewish mayor on NYC
1973 Coleman Young elected mayor of Detroit
1975 1st appearance of the Sex Pistols
1976 Benjamin Hooks, succeeds Roy Wilkins as executive director of NAACP
1977 39 killed in an earthen dam burst at Toccoa Falls Bible College, Ga
1978 Shah of Iran places Iran under military rule
1983 Discovery transported to Vandenberg AFB, California
1984 President Reagan (R) landslide (won 49 states) re-election over Mondale (D)
1985 22nd Space Shuttle Mission (61A) -Challenger 9- lands at Edwards AFB
1985 Exploratory well at Ranger TX, explodes spilling 6.3 m gallons of oil
1985 General Jaruzelski elected Poland's head of state
1986 Reagan signs landmark immigration reform bill
1988 Japan & MLB all stars played to a 6-6 draw (Game 2 of 7)
1988 Steve Jones wins NY men's marathon; Grete Waitz 9th women's title
1989 US marshals & FCC seize pirate radio station WJPL in Brooklyn
1990 Arsenio Hall gets a star on Hollywood's Walk of Fame
1990 Fire destroys some of Universal Studio's stages
1993 Next transit of Mercury
1995 Art Modell officially announces Cleveland Browns are moving to Baltimore



Holidays
Note: Some Holidays are only applicable on a given "day of the week"

Mauritius : Ganga Asnam
Virgin Islands : Liberty Day (Monday)
Liberia : Thanksgiving Day (Thursday)
World : World Community Day (1945) (pray for peace) (Friday)
Denmark : Esbjerg Cup-World's largest ice skating championship (Saturday)
US : Double Talk Week (Day 5)
Arbor Day (Samoa).
US : Saxophone Day
British Appreciation Month
National Accordion Month!




Religious Observances
Anglican : St Illtyd & Leonard's Day (abbot)
Ang, RC : Commemoration of St Leonard, hermit



Religious History
1777 Anglican hymnwriter John Newton wrote in a letter: 'God often takes a course for accomplishing His purposes directly contrary to what our narrow views would prescribe. He brings a death upon our feelings, wishes and prospects when He is about to give us the desire of our hearts.'
1789 Following the American Revolution, Father John Carroll, 54, was appointed the first Roman Catholic bishop in the newly organized and independent United States of America.
1853 The first Chinese Presbyterian Church in the U.S. was organized in San Francisco, CA.
1953 English apologist C.S. Lewis wrote in a letter: 'Our prayers are really His prayers; He speaks to himself through us.'
1977 In Toccoa Falls, GA, the Barnes Lake Dam burst, following heavy rains, and the resulting flood destroyed the (Christian and Missionary Alliance) campus of Toccoa Falls Bible Institute. Thirty_eight students and instructors were also killed in the tragedy.

Source: William D. Blake. ALMANAC OF THE CHRISTIAN CHURCH. Minneapolis: Bethany House, 1987.



Thought for the day :
"Even the smallest candle burns brighter in the dark."


Question of the day...
Why don't you ever see the headline "Psychic Wins Lottery"?


Murphys Law of the day...(Kitman's Law)
On the TV screen, pure drivel tends to drive off ordinary drivel


Incredibly amazing fact #8,751...
In 1983, a Japanese artist made a copy of the Mona Lisa completely out of toast.
29 posted on 11/06/2003 5:43:43 AM PST by Valin (We make a living by what we get, we make a life by what we give.)
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To: SCDogPapa
LOL. shhh, be very very quiet

I'm going to have to read this on my lunch break. ;)

30 posted on 11/06/2003 5:49:01 AM PST by snippy_about_it (Fall in --> The FReeper Foxhole. America's History. America's Soul.)
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To: Valin
Why don't you ever see the headline "Psychic Wins Lottery"?

LOL. Good morning Valin.

31 posted on 11/06/2003 5:51:19 AM PST by snippy_about_it (Fall in --> The FReeper Foxhole. America's History. America's Soul.)
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To: snippy_about_it
Howdy!
32 posted on 11/06/2003 6:01:51 AM PST by The Mayor (Through prayer, finite man draws upon the power of the infinite God.)
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To: The Mayor
How are you doing Mayor?
33 posted on 11/06/2003 6:37:22 AM PST by snippy_about_it (Fall in --> The FReeper Foxhole. America's History. America's Soul.)
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To: snippy_about_it
That is so neat about your mom, that she was a WAVE. During the Vietnam war there were many, many nurses. Those are the only women I know about who were military then.

Recently there was a small article about vets in, I think, a southern California town, who had been begging the Vets Admin for years for a hospital there. Then the government suddenly decided to build a hospital....exclusively for the illegal immigrants! It felt like such a slap in the face to the vets. They were outraged and rightly so. Those men certainly seem to consider a Veterans Hospital something very desirable indeed!

34 posted on 11/06/2003 6:38:22 AM PST by WaterDragon
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To: snippy_about_it
bump
35 posted on 11/06/2003 6:42:50 AM PST by WhiskeyPapa (Virtue is the uncontested prize.)
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To: WhiskeyPapa
Good morning WhiskeyPapa.
36 posted on 11/06/2003 6:58:08 AM PST by snippy_about_it (Fall in --> The FReeper Foxhole. America's History. America's Soul.)
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To: snippy_about_it
Doing ok considering, I am running out to apply for a job in Construction Management.
37 posted on 11/06/2003 6:59:56 AM PST by The Mayor (Through prayer, finite man draws upon the power of the infinite God.)
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To: WaterDragon
That's shameful. I really wish we had more coverage on those issues. It's bad enough our "greatest generation" has had to suffer from bad administration of VA hospitals and it would be good to correct the errors before our Vietnam Veterans the age our WWII vets are now. Grrrr.
38 posted on 11/06/2003 7:00:36 AM PST by snippy_about_it (Fall in --> The FReeper Foxhole. America's History. America's Soul.)
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To: snippy_about_it; SAMWolf
Good morning everyone!
39 posted on 11/06/2003 7:09:47 AM PST by Soaring Feather (Poets are in the Lair!)
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To: bentfeather
Good morning feather. How are you doing today?
40 posted on 11/06/2003 7:21:29 AM PST by snippy_about_it (Fall in --> The FReeper Foxhole. America's History. America's Soul.)
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To: SCDogPapa; carton253
Here you go,Carton, I think you might enjoy this.
41 posted on 11/06/2003 7:36:13 AM PST by nathanbedford (qqua)
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To: SCDogPapa; carton253
Here you go,Carton, I think you might enjoy this.
42 posted on 11/06/2003 7:41:41 AM PST by nathanbedford (qqua)
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To: snippy_about_it
I am well today snippy, thank you.
43 posted on 11/06/2003 7:48:54 AM PST by Soaring Feather (Poets are in the Lair!)
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To: *all

Air Power
B-57 "Canberra"

The origins of the B-57 Canberra can be traced indirectly to the latter part of World War II when the Luftwaffe began combat operations with two jet propelled aircraft. The Messerschmidt and the Arado. Although the introduction of these two aircraft was too late to affect the outcome of the war, it sent a shock throughout the allied air forces. In 1951, the United States broke a long-standing tradition by purchasing a foreign military aircraft to be manufactured in quantity for the U.S. Air Force. The B-57 is a modified version of the English Electric Canberra which was first flown in Great Britain on May 13, 1949, and later produced for the Royal Air Force.

After the Korean Conflict began in 1950, the U. S. Air Force looked for a jet-powered medium bomber to replace the aging Douglas B-26 Invader. Korean war experience revealed an urgent USAF need for a high-performance jet-powered night-intruder aircraft capable of precise nighttime and bad-weather weapons delivery on moving targets located hundreds of miles from home base. The need was considered so pressing that the time usually required for development of a new aircraft was deemed unacceptable. Hence, an existing "off the shelf " aircraft was sought to fill the mission requirements. From a number of candidate vehicles, including the previously discussed North American B-45 Tornado, the English Electric Canberra bomber was selected to fill the USAF night-intruder role. In March 1951, the USAF contracted with the Glenn Martin Company to build the Canberra in the United States under a licensing agreement with English Electric. The first Canberra in American colors flew in 1951 with the first American built Canberra or Intruder in 1953. The Martin-built B-57 made its first flight on July 20, 1953. When production was terminated in 1959, a total of 403 Canberras had been produced for the USAF.

The Canberra was originally developed in response to a British requirement issued in 1945 for a high-altitude bomber. First flight of the aircraft took place in May 1949. The first Martin-produced Canberra, known as the B-57 in USAF nomenclature, made its initial flight in July [391] 1953; before production of the Martin-built B-57 ended, 403 examples of the type had been produced. In England, total production of the Canberra was 984 units. By the summer of 1980, about three decades after the first flight of the Canberra, the type was still in the active inventory of 12 countries. The aircraft is no longer in active service with combat units of either the USAF or the RAF although a few are still used by the United States Air National Guard. A number of B-57 aircraft also fill a variety of utility roles with different United States Government agencies.

As with so many of the early jet aircraft, configuration of the B-57 was similar in concept to contemporary twin-engine propeller-driven aircraft but with jet engines replacing the reciprocating units. The unswept wing had a relatively low aspect ratio of 4.27 and airfoil thickness ratios that varied from 12 percent at the root to 9 percent at the tip. With so low an aspect ratio, the maximum lift-drag ratio might be expected to be very low. On the contrary, the large surface area of the wing relative to that of the fuselage and other elements of the aircraft gave a low zero-lift drag coefficient of 0.0 119 and a maximum lift-drag ratio of 15.0. Power was provided by two nonafterburning Wright J65-W-5 turbojet engines of 7,200 pounds thrust each. These Wright engines were an American-built version of the British Rolls-Royce Avon. Conventional rudders, ailerons, and elevators were used for control of the aircraft. Simple high-lift flaps were located in the wing trailing edge between the engine nacelles and the sides of the fuselage.

The two-man crew of the B-57 consisted of a pilot and navigator-bombardier-radar operator who were seated in a tandem arrangement. As compared with the B-57A, later versions of the aircraft had an extended canopy to enhance visibility for both crew members. Pressurization, air-conditioning, and ejection seats were provided for the crew. Various types of weapons such as bombs and rockets could be carried externally as well as in an internal bomb bay located in the fuselage. A Martin innovation, not included on the British Canberra, was the unique rotary bomb door similar to the one on the P6M flying boat. The bombs were loaded on the door assembly itself which would rotate completely inside the bomb bay prior to weapon release. In the closed position, bombs were attached to the inner side of the door, and bomb release took place after the door was rotated through 180°. Armament consisted of eight .50-caliber machine guns.

The B-57 is usually considered to be a light bomber; however, this classification must be related to the time frame under discussion. With a gross weight of 53,721 pounds, the B-57B was only 2,000 pounds lighter than the Boeing B-17G, one of the standard heavy bombers of World War II. Mission radius of the B-57B was 948 miles with a payload of 5240 pounds, and ferry range was 2722 miles. Maximum speed was 598 miles per hour (Mach 0.79) at 2500 feet and cruising speed was 476 miles per hour. The performance characteristics of the B-57B and the B-45C have many similarities. Being about twice as heavy as the B-57B, the B-45C carried nearly twice the payload for approximately the same mission distance.

The Canberra class of aircraft has seen action in many wars, including service with the USAF in Vietnam. More recently, it was used by the Argentine Air Force in the undeclared war with Britain in the Falkland Islands. Although the B-57 was originally procured by the USAF as a night intruder, it has been successfully used in many other roles, including photoreconnaissance and strategic bombing. No distinctive design innovations were incorporated in the purely subsonic B-57; however, its pertinent design parameters were chosen in such a way that the aircraft was readily adaptable to a variety of roles calling for diverse characteristics.

One version, the RB-57 with greatly enlarged wings, served as a stratospheric reconnaissance aircraft. Other B-57s served as tactical aircraft in Vietnam.

The EB-57B electronic warfare version called the "Night Intruder" dispensed chaff to jam hostile radar transmissions. Other B-57s were used to tow targets and as transitional trainers for jet aircrews.

In the early 1970s, a Martin B-57B Canberra light bomber was used in several NASA joint flight test programs at the NASA Flight Research Center (now Dryden Flight Research Center) located at Edwards Air Force Base, California. The early 1970s was a period of growing interest in continuing atmospheric research. The B-57B Camberra was at NASA Flight Research Center for a joint program with NASA Langley Research Center and was having a set of special instrumentation installed for these measurements. Delays in completing the instrumentation provided another opportunity to support the NASA space program. The B-57B was used in proof of concept testing of the Viking Mars landers. The deceleration drop testing part of the program was performed at the Joint Parachute Test Facility, located at El Centro California. With completion of the Viking parachute testing the B-57B Camberra was flown for measuring and analysis of atmospheric turbulence research in 1974-75 as part of a joint NASA program between the Flight Research Center and Langley Research center. Additional atmospheric testing provided samples for aerosols for the University of Wyoming and clear-air turbulence data for the Department of Transportation. The aircraft was tested over a span of many years at Edwards by NASA centers for other types of research. In the early 1960s the B-57B was flown at NASA Flight Research Center by NASA Lewis Research Center in support of the newly established NASA Electronics Center located in Boston, Massachusetts. Later in 1982 the B-57B returned to NASA Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility for more NASA Langley sponsored turbulence testing.

Although not a technically exciting aircraft, the B-57 has certainly proved its worth in many years of effective operation. Because of its wide range of capabilities and docile handling characteristics, the B-57 has sometimes been likened to a Goony Bird with jet engines. ("Goony Bird" is the nickname for the USAF version of the famous Douglas DC-3).

Specifications:
Manufacturer: Glen L. Martin
Primary Role: Light Bomber
Crew: 2 - Pilot and Weapons/Radar Operator
Powerplant: Two Wright J65-W-5 engines or two Buick J65-BW-5 engines with 7,200 lbs thrust each

Dimensions:
Length: 65' 6"
Height: 15' 6"
Wingspan: 64'
Empty Weight: 26,000 lbs
Max Weight: 55,000 lbs

Performance :
Cruise Speed: 450 mph
Max Speed: 570 mph
Service Ceiling: 49,000 ft
Range: 2,000 miles

Armaments:
Guns: 4 - 20mm cannons (or) 8 - .50 caliber machine guns
Bombs: (internal) 5,000 lbs
Bombs: (external) 4 weapons pylons for bombs or rockets






All information and photos Copyright of Global Security.org
44 posted on 11/06/2003 8:04:57 AM PST by Johnny Gage (If at first you don't succeed... Check to see if the loser gets anything.)
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To: snippy_about_it; SAMWolf
Morning Glory Snip & Sam~ Outstanding reading . . . very rich and insightful regarding Chamberlain, Tozier and Melcher.

Chamberlain overshadows the 20th Maine in the way that George S. Patton overshadows the U.S. Third Army in World War II.

45 posted on 11/06/2003 8:17:23 AM PST by w_over_w (If your hunting guide has to do an on-line search for deer, you've been scammed.)
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To: snippy_about_it
Good morning Snippy.
46 posted on 11/06/2003 8:28:38 AM PST by SAMWolf (A foot is a device for finding furniture in the dark.)
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To: WaterDragon
Morning Water Dragon.

I have "Gettysburg" and "Gods and Generals", both excellent movies. Tom Berenger palyed longstreet and you're right, he was excellent.
47 posted on 11/06/2003 8:30:56 AM PST by SAMWolf (A foot is a device for finding furniture in the dark.)
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To: snippy_about_it
AWWWWWWWW.

He's adorable and the song is just right this morning, but then "Unchained Melody" is always perfect. I have some very special memories from 1969 associated with that song.
48 posted on 11/06/2003 8:32:31 AM PST by SAMWolf (A foot is a device for finding furniture in the dark.)
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To: E.G.C.
Morning E.G.C. We're finally getting our typical weather, cool and clear.
49 posted on 11/06/2003 8:33:38 AM PST by SAMWolf (A foot is a device for finding furniture in the dark.)
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To: snippy_about_it
Gettysburg has to be one of the most studied and wrote about battles in history. Lots of fascinating stories.
50 posted on 11/06/2003 8:36:09 AM PST by SAMWolf (A foot is a device for finding furniture in the dark.)
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