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The FReeper Foxhole's TreadHead Tuesday - The Soviet T-72 Series MBT - June 22nd, 2004 ^

Posted on 06/22/2004 12:00:15 AM PDT by SAMWolf


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for all those serving their country at this time.

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Soviet T-72 Series MBT

The T-72, a Soviet medium tank entered production in 1971. It was a parallel design with the T-64.

Production History

The T-72 was the main front-line tank used by the Red Army from the 1970s to the collapse of the Soviet Union. It was also exported to other Warsaw Pact countries and several other countries such as Finland, India, Iran, Iraq and Yugoslavia, as well as being copied, both with and without licenses, in a number of other countries (the Yugoslavs called their copy the M84 and sold thousands of them around the world during the 1980s; the Iraqis called theirs the Assad Babyl, which means "Lion of Babylon," though the Iraqis assembled theirs from "spare parts" sold to them by the Russians as a means of evading the UN-imposed weapons embargo).

Various versions of the T-72 have been in production for decades, and the specifications for its armor have changed considerably. Early T-72 tanks had homogenous cast steel armor incorporated spaced armor technology and were moderately well protected by the standards of the early 1970s. Around 1980, the Soviets began building the tanks with composite armour Composite armour similar to the Chobham armour used in modern Western tanks, in the front of the turret and the front of the hull. Late in the 1980s, T-72 tanks in Soviet inventory (and many of those elsewhere in the world as well) were fitted with reactive armour tiles.

It is believed that since 1985, T-72 tanks in Russian military service have been fitted with laser rangefinders of French design; since 2000, some may have been fitted with thermal imaging night-vision gear of French manufacture as well (though this is less likely than that they might simply use the locally manufactured 'Buran-Catherine' system, which incorporates a locally manufactured version of the French AGAVA-2 thermal sight). Depleted uranium armor-piercing ammunition for the 125mm gun has been manufactured in Russia in the form of the BM-32 projectile since around 1978, though it has never been deployed, and is less penetrative than the later Tungsten BM-42, and the newer BM-42M, which compares in penetrative ability to the German DM-53. The T-72 with these enhancements and a skilled, motivated, proficient crew is a formidable opponent even by 21st Century standards, though it is not in the same class as the most modern Western designs such as the M1 Abrams.

Therefore it is not uncommon around the world and is found in the armies of many potential enemies of the US and other Western nations. Many Western analysts regard this as worrisome, due to the fact that, at least theoretically, its 125mm 2A46 main gun is capable of destroying any modern main battle tank in the world today, including the M1 Abrams. On the other hand, on those three occasions when Soviet clients using T-72s have met Western armies that possessed modern main battle tanks--Lebanon in 1982, Kuwait in 1991, and Iraq in 2003--the Syrians and Iraqis got thrashed very badly indeed, although this might have more to do with the poor training and low morale of their crews than with any deficiencies in the T-72 itself. It might also be mentioned that the versions these armies fielded were, in either case, at least 30 years out of date at the time, had not been significantly upgraded, were firing inferior ammunition (often with steel penetrators and half-charges of propellant), and were faced with well-equipped forces using the most up-to-date cutting-edge equipment.

Compared to modern tanks the T-72 does exhibit a number of glaring deficiencies, which it shares with other tank designs of Soviet origin.

Iraqi T-72 Hit with DU Sabot

Even the most recently produced T-72s are not especially well protected (with the notable exception of the T-72BM); NATO standard 120mm/L60 guns firing the M829 series DU APFSDS rounds, or German Tungsten DM-53 can kill it on the first shot from any angle out past two kilometers, and even the older NATO standard 105mm/L68 can do it at a kilometer or more--at least with depleted uranium Depleted uranium ammunition. 1st generation Reactive armour bricks help it only slightly as concerns APFSDS, but moreso against HEAT ammunition.

M-84 - Yugoslav-built version of the Soviet T-72.

The 125mm 2A46 series main gun is almost as powerful (depending on the ammunition) as the NATO-standard 120mm/L60 found in many modern Western MBTs (which is to say, highly powerful and highly lethal, at least theoretically capable of destroying any tank in the world today at a kilometer or more), but its rate of fire depends very much on the state of repair of the autoloader, which is necessary due to the extremely small and cramped interior apace in the turret, which prevents the addition of a fourth crew member as a loader. This autoloader is based on the autoloader from the T-62 series with mechanical improvements, and is rather slow and prone to malfunctions if not maintained properly.

It takes between seven and fifteen seconds to load a new shell into the main gun, during which time the main gun cannot be aimed due to the fact that the autoloader must crank the gun up three degrees above the horizontal in order to depress the breech end of the gun and line it up with the new shell. Even with a laser rangefinder and a ballistic computer final aiming takes at least another three to five seconds. Even with a very proficient, well-trained crew, a tank with such an autoloader in a condition of poor maintenance (uncommon in elite or guards tank regiments) can only fire approximately four aimed shots per minute. In Western tanks with a human loader, the loading process is much faster, only requiring three to five seconds--and the gunner can aim the gun during this process and fire at the target the instant the loader signals readiness. Modern Western tanks can fire twelve to eighteen aimed shots per minute, compared to the four of most Soviet and Russian designs--though, of course, given the smoke and dust on the battlefield, combined with the relatively poor field of view afforded by even the most efficient and modern periscopes or thermal sights, it is generally regarded as unusual for a tank crew to be able to spot four targets in a minute in most tactical situations (though modern sensors such as thermal imaging sights are changing this).

The vast majority of T-72s do not have FLIR thermal imaging sights, though all T-72s (even those exported to the Third World posses the characteristic (and inferior) 'luna' IR illuminator. Thermal imaging sights are extremely expensive, and the new Russian FLIR system, the 'Buran-Catherine Thermal Imaging Suite' was only introduced recently on the T-80UM tank. Most T-72s found outside the former Soviet Union do not have laser rangefinders. And only the most modern Russian tanks incorporate the ballistic computers that have been found in Western tanks since the mid 1970s.

Finally, all Soviet and Russian tanks designed after the Second World War are designed with relatively limited angles of elevation available for the main gun. This is due to the fact that the low profile of the tank and the correspondingly low turret top cause the breech to contact the top of the turret, inhibiting the de-elevation of the gun (this was seen as a reasonable tradeoff for a low profile, though this decision has been reversed with newer versions like the Black Eagle and T-84-120, which would seem to indicate that the original decision was faulty, however the new tanks actually mitigate this problem with very little increase in profile). The main gun can only be depressed very slightly from the horizontal, only a few degrees--which does not sound significant until you recall that in defensive situations, the "hull down" position, with the tank parked just behind the crest of a ridge and just the muzzle of its gun and part of its turret visible to the anticipated target, have been demonstrated to be highly important. Western tanks have considerably more elevation range and can be parked in a "hull down" position with just the gun and a tiny sliver of the turret showing, whereas Soviet designs under most circumstances cannot take up a "hull down" position at all because they cannot depress their guns far enough to park behind a ridge and shoot down the hill.

KEYWORDS: armor; freeperfoxhole; m84; poland; pt91; sovietunion; t72; tanks; treadhead; veterans; yugoslavia
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The T-72 medium tank is a combat tracked vehicle with high cross-country manoeuvrability. It is intended for destruction of tanks and other armoured targets, or enemy manpower. Using its 12.7mm NSV anti-aircraft machine-gun, it can destroy low flying targets. It provides protection against pressure wave and NBC weapons. Its main armament is a 125 mm smoothbore gun, stabilized in two guiding planes, with maximum effective firing range of 4,500 m and a rate of fire of up to 8 shots in a minute. Moreover, it is fitted with a coaxial 7.62mm PKT machine-gun.

The T-72, which entered production in 1971, was first seen in public in 1977. The T-72, introduced in the early 1970s, is not a further development of the T-64, but rather a parallel design chosen as a high-production tank complementing the T-64. The T-72 retains the low silhouette of the T-54/55/62 series, featuring a conventional layout with integrated fuel cells and stowage containers which give a streamlined appearance to the fenders. While the T-64 was deployed only in forward-deployed Soviet units, the T-72 was deployed within the USSR and exported to non-Soviet Warsaw Pact armies and several other countries.

The Russian T-72 main battle tank was produced at the Malyshev HMB Plant, based in Kharkov, Ukraine and at UKBM Nizhny Tagil, Russian Federation. In addition to production in the USSR it has been built under license in Czechoslovakia, India, Poland and the former Yugoslavia.

The T-72, which came into service in the late 1970s, was successfully met by the Israelis in Lebanon in 1982. Armed with a long-barreled, smooth-bored 125mm gun and with a three-man crew, the T-72 at 45 tons (41,000 kg) is considerably lighter than the American M60A1. Both tanks have six road wheels on a side but the T-72 with its squat hull and long-barreled gun is distinctive in silhouette from the M-60, with its more massive turret.


The T-72 medium tank is similar in general appearance to the T-64. The T-72 has six large, die-cast, rubber-coated road wheels and three track return rollers. It has a 14-tooth drive sprocket and a single-pin track with rubber-bushed pins.

The gunner's IR searchlight is mounted to the right of the main gun. The 12.7-mm NSV anti-aircraft machine gun has a rotating mount, and there is no provision for firing it from within the tank. There are normally only a few small stowage boxes on the outside of the turret, and a single short snorkel is stowed on the left side of the turret. The T-72 has a larger engine compartment than the T-64, and the radiator grill is near the rear of the hull.


The T-72 has greater mobility than the T-62. The V-12 diesel engine has an output of 780 hp. This engine appears to be remarkably smoke-free and smooth-running, having eliminated the excessive vibration which was said to cause high crew fatigue in the T-62. Although the engine is larger than that of the T-64, the heavier (41 mt) T-72 is believed to have approximately the same road speed as the T-64. The T-72B1 is powered by a multi-fuel V-12 piston air-cooled 840 hp engine that will run on three fuels: Diesel, Benzene or Kerosene. Two 200-liter auxiliary fuel drums can be fitted on the rear of the hull.

The T-72 can be fitted with a snorkel for deep fording, and takes about 20 minutes to prepare for amphibious use.

The T-72 has better armor protection than the T-62, due to the use of layered armor and other features of the T-64. The advanced passive armor package of the T-72M and T-72M1 can sustain direct hits from the 105mm gun equipped M1 Abrams at up to 2,000 meter range. The later T-72Ms and T-72M1s are equipped with laser rangefinders ensuring high hit probabilities at ranges of 2,000 meters and below. The turret has conventional cast armor with a maximum thickness of 280-mm, the nose is about 80-mm thick and the glacis is 200-mm thick laminate armor. Besides the PAZ radiation detection system, the T-72 has an antiradiation liner (except on export models) and a collective NBC filtration and overpressure system.

The T-72 has the same integral smoke generating capability as earlier T-54/55/62, tanks, and variants have been observed with smoke grenade projectors mounted on the front of the turret.

The T-72 employs the same armament, ammunition, and integrated fire control as the T-64. The low, rounded turret mounts a 125mm smooth bore gun with a carousel automatic loader mounted on the floor and rear wall of the turret. The 125mm gun common to all the T-72 models is capable of penetrating the M1 Abrams armour at a range of up to 1,000 meters. The more recent BK-27 HEAT round offers a triple-shaped charge warhead and increased penetration against conventional armors and ERA. The BK-29 round, with a hard penetrator in the nose is designed for use against reactive armor, and as an MP round has fragmentation effects. If the BK-29 HEAT-MP is used, it may substitute for Frag-HE (as with NATO countries) or complement Frag-HE. With three round natures (APFSDS-T, HEAT-MP, ATGMs) in the autoloader vs four, more antitank rounds would available for the higher rate of fire.

The infra-red searchlight on the T-72 is mounted on the right side of the main armament, versus on the left on the earlier T-64. The 1K13-49 sight is both night sight and ATGM launch sight. However, it cannot be used for both functions simultaneously. A variety of thermal sights is available. They include the Russian Agava-2, French SAGEM-produced ALIS and Namut sight from Peleng. Thermal gunner night sights are available which permit night launch of ATGMs.
1 posted on 06/22/2004 12:00:16 AM PDT by SAMWolf
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To: snippy_about_it; PhilDragoo; Johnny Gage; Victoria Delsoul; The Mayor; Darksheare; Valin; ...
In 1986, the Polish T-72 Vilk project was instituted to allow the tank repair plants to upgrade T-72's at their own facilities. In particular, it was proposed that the Soviet-made Volna fire control system be replaced by the Czechoslovak-made Kladivo FCS or by the Polish Merida, both originally designed for T-55. Beside the new FCS, the Radomka illumination-free night vision devices were installed in the driver's compartment, as were the LIS-Varta night sight, Obra laser illumination warning system, Tellur anti-laser smoke dischargers, solid or sectionalised metal side skirts and the Polish-developed Erava or Erava-2 explosive reactive armour system were fitted.

PT-91 'Twardy'

All these modifications eventually resulted in the PT-90 or Twardy.

PT-91 'Twardy'

The 'Twardy' aka PT-91 is a Polish variant of the T-72 which has a number of Western-made system improvements over the earlier T-72M1. The major improvements include: Polish-developed explosive reactive armor Type ERAWA-1; four laser warning receivers, which warn the crew if they are being targeted by a laser rangefinder or designator; Polish PCO's Drawa-T computerized fire control system, with optional Israeli El-Op thermal sight; new passive night sights; rubber bushed tracks, and a modern fire detection and suppression system. To reduce the tank's radar signature, a special radar-absorbent coating 1K2KS was developed for painting the tank.

PT-91 'Twardy'

Extra armour and new systems took a toll on the weight of the tank and the PZL-Volya company enhanced the horsepower of the B-46 diesel engine to 850hp for the S-850 variant and to 1,000hp for the S-1000 version. After the trials were completed, it was decided to fit the PT-91 with the S-850 diesel engine and a pilot batch of PT-91s was manufactured in 1992. In 1994, the vehicles started entering the inventory with deployment to one of the brigades of the 11th Armoured Division.

Additional Sources:

2 posted on 06/22/2004 12:01:03 AM PDT by SAMWolf (If I were here more often, I wouldn't be gone so much.)
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To: All
The Russian T-72 Ural tank is the most widely-deployed main battle tank of the current generation. Used by the armies of the former Warsaw pact and Soviet Union, it has also been exported in large numbers to many of the states in the Middle East including Syria, Libya, Iraq and Iran, and has been seen in combat in the Lebanon, the Iran-Iraq war, the Gulf War and the Yugoslav civil war. Curiously the T-72 was produced parallel with the T-64A tank, and later the T-80, a subject of considerable debate and mystery till now. The T-72 Ural tank was envisaged to be designed and produced as a cheaper, though less effective, partial-alternative to other main battle tanks in the Soviet armoury. Its vulnerability is demonstrated by an analysis of its performance in both the 1982 Syrian-Israeli War and the 1991 Gulf War, the latter in particular showing that the T-72 is no match for the latest Western main battle tanks. It's EDZ reactive armour which, when it first appeared in December 1984, gave NATO a nasty shock.

3 posted on 06/22/2004 12:01:28 AM PDT by SAMWolf (If I were here more often, I wouldn't be gone so much.)
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To: All

Veterans for Constitution Restoration is a non-profit, non-partisan educational and grassroots activist organization. The primary area of concern to all VetsCoR members is that our national and local educational systems fall short in teaching students and all American citizens the history and underlying principles on which our Constitutional republic-based system of self-government was founded. VetsCoR members are also very concerned that the Federal government long ago over-stepped its limited authority as clearly specified in the United States Constitution, as well as the Founding Fathers' supporting letters, essays, and other public documents.

Actively seeking volunteers to provide this valuable service to Veterans and their families.

Iraq Homecoming Tips

~ Thanks to our Veterans still serving, at home and abroad. ~ Freepmail to Ragtime Cowgirl | 2/09/04 | FRiend in the USAF

PDN members and fans. We hope you will consider this simple act of patriotism worth passing on or taking up as a project in your own back yard. In summary:

Who They Are: Operation: Stitches Of Love was started by the Mothers of two United States Marines stationed in Iraq.

What They Are Doing: We are gathering 12.5"x12.5" quilt squares from across the country and assembling the largest quilt ever produced. When completed we will take the quilt from state to state and gather even more squares.

Why They Are Doing This: We are building this quilt to rally support for the Coalition Forces in Iraq and to show the service members that they are not forgotten. We want the world to know Nothing will ever break the stitches that bind us together as a country.

Ideas to start a local project:

Obtain enough Red, White and Blue material (cloth) for a 12.5 x 12.5 quilt square.
If you have someone in your family that sews, make it a weekend project and invite neighbors to join you.

Consider this tribute as a project for your civic group, scouts, church or townhall group.

Locate an elementary school with an after school program in your neighborhood or locate an after school program in your neighborhood not attached to a school and ask if you could volunteer one or two afternoons and create some squares with the kids.

Invite some VFW posts to share your project in honor of their post.

Send us for digital photos of in progress and finished project for various websites, and the media.

PDN is making this appeal in support of Operation: Stitches Of Love
Media Contact: Deborah Johns (916) 716-2749
Volunteers & Alternate Media: PDN (916) 448-1636

Your friends at PDN


The FReeper Foxhole. America's History. America's Soul

Click on Hagar for
"The FReeper Foxhole Compiled List of Daily Threads"

4 posted on 06/22/2004 12:02:15 AM PDT by SAMWolf (If I were here more often, I wouldn't be gone so much.)
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To: Diva Betsy Ross; Americanwolf; CarolinaScout; Tax-chick; Don W; Poundstone; Wumpus Hunter; ...

FALL IN to the FReeper Foxhole!

It's TreadHead Tuesday!

Good Morning Everyone

If you would like added to our ping list let us know.

5 posted on 06/22/2004 12:03:11 AM PDT by snippy_about_it (Fall in --> The FReeper Foxhole. America's History. America's Soul.)
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To: snippy_about_it

Good Night Snippy. I'm beat tonight.

6 posted on 06/22/2004 12:06:12 AM PDT by SAMWolf (If I were here more often, I wouldn't be gone so much.)
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To: SAMWolf

Me too. I had a great time and lots of laughs, thanks.

7 posted on 06/22/2004 12:06:46 AM PDT by snippy_about_it (Fall in --> The FReeper Foxhole. America's History. America's Soul.)
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To: snippy_about_it
Good morning Snippy.

8 posted on 06/22/2004 1:52:12 AM PDT by Aeronaut (I think I'll just go lie by my dish and whimper.)
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To: snippy_about_it

Good morning, Snippy and everyone at the Freeper foxhole.

9 posted on 06/22/2004 3:05:05 AM PDT by E.G.C.
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To: snippy_about_it

Treadhead Tuesday Bump for the FOXHOLE


alfa6 ;>}

10 posted on 06/22/2004 3:26:24 AM PDT by alfa6 (Mrs. Murphy's Postulate on Murphy's Law: Murphy Was an Optimist)
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To: snippy_about_it; SAMWolf; All
Jesus said to them, "Follow Me . . . . " They immediately left their nets and followed Him. —Mark 1:17-18

I am resolved to follow the Savior,
Faithful and true each day;
Heed what He sayeth, do what He willeth
He is the living way

Following Jesus is always right—but not always easy.

11 posted on 06/22/2004 4:21:22 AM PDT by The Mayor (The first step to receiving eternal life is to admit that we don't deserve it.)
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To: snippy_about_it; bentfeather; Samwise
Good morning ladies. Flag-o-gram.

Pilot Mike Melville waves as he sits atop SpaceShipOne as it is towed following his historic flight of the world's first privately funded rocket plane beyond Earth's atmosphere at the Mojave Airport in California, June 21, 2004. SpaceShipOne, designed by legendary aerospace designer Burt Rutan and funded by billionaire Paul Allen, reached a height of 62 miles making Melville the world's first private astronaut. REUTERS/Mike Blake

An eager fan, or perhaps a Space Groupie.

12 posted on 06/22/2004 6:23:16 AM PDT by Professional Engineer (Vexillologist to the FReeper Foxhole)
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To: SAMWolf; Darksheare; colorado tanker; Valin; PhilDragoo; Johnny Gage
Morning Sam: HooterSpankenTruppen for you.

13 posted on 06/22/2004 6:36:12 AM PDT by Professional Engineer (Vexillologist to the FReeper Foxhole)
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To: SAMWolf; snippy_about_it; Professional Engineer; PhilDragoo; Matthew Paul; All

Good morning everyone.

14 posted on 06/22/2004 7:03:30 AM PDT by Soaring Feather (~The Dragon Flies' Lair~ Poetry and Prose~)
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To: Professional Engineer

M82A1 light .50 cal being handled by a Spankentruppen sniper squad...

15 posted on 06/22/2004 7:06:55 AM PDT by Darksheare (Even as you read, my tagline army is invading your mind.)
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To: Professional Engineer

Wow, (SpaceShipOne) was that not a great event yesterday?? I watched the flight on FOXNEWS.

Thank You for today's Flag-o-gram. Love the lady! :)

16 posted on 06/22/2004 7:08:42 AM PDT by Soaring Feather (~The Dragon Flies' Lair~ Poetry and Prose~)
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To: SAMWolf

On This Day In History

Birthdates which occurred on June 22:
1478 - Philips de Schone, Archduke of Austrian/King of Castilia (Philips I)
1757 George Vancouver, surveyed Pacific coast from SF to Vancouver I
1814 James Henry Lane, MC (Union), died in 1866 [or Jul 28 1833]
1837 Paul Morphy New Orleans, greatest chess player of all time (1857-61)
1856 H Rider Haggard author (King Solomon's Mine, She)
1858 Giacomo Puccini Italy, operatic composer (Madama Butterfly)
1887 Sir Julian Huxley London, biologist/philosopher, Darwin's Bulldog
1896 Francis C Denebrink US Naval officer (WW I, WW II, Korea)
1898 Erich Maria Remarque novelist (All Quiet on the Western Front)
1900 Jennie Tourel [Jennie Davidson], St Petersburg Russia, mezzo-soprano
1903 Carl Hubbell pitcher (NY Giants)-253 wins, 2.97 lifetime ERA
1903 John Dillinger one of America's Most Wanted
1906 Billy Wilder movie director (Some Like It Hot, Apartment, Stalag 17)
1907 Anne Morrow Lindbergh aviator/author (Gift from the Sea)
1920 Paul Frees Chicago Ill, animation voice (Bullwinkle)
1921 Gower Champion choreographer (42nd Street)
1922 Bill Blass Ft Wayne Ind, fashion designer (Nancy Reagan)
1928 Orson Bean Burlington Vt, comedian (I Got a Secret, To Tell the Truth)
1929 Ralph Waite actor (Last Summer, Cool Hand Luke, 5 Easy Piece)
1933 Dianne Feinstein (Senator D-Ca.)
1941 Ed Bradley Phila, CBS news correspondant (60 Minutes)
1947 David L Lander Bkln NY, actor (Squiggy-Laverne & Shirley)
1947 Don Henley drummer/singer (Eagles, Boys of Summer)
1948 "Pistol" Pete Maravich NBA star (Atlanta Hawks)
1948 Todd Rundgren rock singer (Hello it's Me, Bang on the Drum All Day)
1949 Lindsay Wagner LA Ca, actress (Bionic Woman, Paper Chase, Nighthawks)
1949 Meryl Streep NJ, actress (French Lieutenant's Woman, Sophie's Choice)
1954 Freddie Prinze NYC, comedian/actor (Chico & the Man)

Deaths which occurred on June 22:
1276 Innocent V, [Pierre the Tarantaise], Pope (1276), dies at about 36
1874 Howard Staunton world chess champion, designer of chess pieces, dies
1922 Field Marshal Sir Henry H Wilson murdered in London
1945 Isamu Tsjo, Japanese chief-staff 32nd Army, commits harakiri
1945 Mitsuri Ushijima, Jap lt-gen/commandant 32nd Army, commits harakiri
1954 Don Hollenbeck newscaster (CBS Weekend News), dies at 49
1965 David O Selznick Gone With the Wind's producer, dies at 63
1969 Judy Garland singer/actress, dies in London at 47
1979 Julius Sommer dies of heart failure, buried in Dayton Ohio
1987 Fred Astaire actor/dancer, dies at Century City Hospital in LA at 88
1988 Dennis Day Jack Benny Show singer, dies of Lou Gehrigs disease at 71
1993 Pat Nixon, 1st lady (1969-75), dies of lung cancer at 81
1995 Georges Yves Marie Congar, Dominican theologian cardinal, dies at 91


[02/18/73 RELEASED BY DRV, DECEASED 05/09/98]

POW / MIA Data & Bios supplied by
the P.O.W. NETWORK. Skidmore, MO. USA.

On this day...
431 Council of Ephesus (3rd ecumenical council) opens
816 Stephen IV begins his reign as Catholic Pope
1342 Bilbo Baggins returns to his home at Bag End, (Shire Reconning)
1377 Richard II succeeds Edward III as king of England
1497 Antitax insurrection in Cornwall suppressed at Blackheath
1559 Jewish quarter of Prague burned and looted
1611 Henry Hudson & son set adrift in Hudson Bay by mutineers
1675 Royal Greenwich Observatory established in England by Charles II
1772 Slavery outlawed in England
1775 1st Continental currency issued ($3,000,000)
1807 British board USS Chesapeake, a provocation leading to War of 1812
1808 Zebulon Pike reaches his peak
1812 Napoleon's Grand Army invades Russia
1815 2nd abdication of Napoleon (after Waterloo)

1847 Doughnut created

1848 Barnburners (anti-slavery) party nominates Martin Van Buren for Pres
1849 Stephen C Massett opens courthouse using only piano in Calif
1851 Fire destroys part of SF
1868 Arkansas re-enters US
1870 Congress creates Department of Justice
1873 Prince Edward Island joins Canada
1874 Dr Andrew T Sill, of Macon, Missouri, finds science of osteopathy
1889 Louisville Colonels set ML baseball record with 26th consecutive loss
1910 1st airship with passengers sets afloat-Zeppelin Deutscheland
1911 King George V of England crowned
1918 Circus train rammed by troop train kills 68 (Ivanhoe Illinois)
1925 G Shajn discovers asteroid #1058 Grubba
1930 Lou Gehrig hits 3 HRs in a game, Ruth hits 3 in doubleheader
1936 Virgin Islands receives a constution from US (Organic Act)
1937 Joe Louis KOs James Braddock for the heavyweight boxing crown
1938 Joe Louis KOs Max Schmeling at 2:04 of 1st round at Yankee Stadium
1940 France falls to Nazi Germany; armistice signed, France disarmed
1941 Estonians starts armed resistance against Soviet occupation
1941 Germany declares war on Soviet Union during WW II
1944 FDR signs "GI Bill of Rights" (Servicemen's Readjustment Act)
1944 Longest shut out in Phillies history, Phils beat Braves 1-0 in 15 inn Boston Brave Jim Tobin 2nd no-hitter of yr beats Phils, 7-0 in 5 inn
1947 12" rain in 42 mins (Holt, MO)
1949 Ezzard Charles defeats Jersey Joe Walcott for the boxing title
1957 KC stops using streetcars in it's transit system
1958 Game in KC between A's & Red Sox delayed 29 minutes due to tornado
1959 "Along Came Jones" by Coasters peaks at #9
1959 Eddie Lubanski bowls 2 consecutive perfect games
1959 Most Phillies strike out in a game (16 by Sandy Koufax)
1959 Vanguard SLV-6 launched for Earth orbit (failed)
1969 Aretha Franklin arrested in Detroit for creating a disturbance
1970 Pres Nixon signs 26th amendment (voting age lowered to 18)
1973 Skylab 2's astronauts land
1977 Former AG John Mitchell starts 19 months in Alabama prison
1978 James Christy's discovery of Pluto's moon Charon announced
1978 Neo-Nazis call off plans to march in Jewish community of Skokie, Ill (I hate Illinois Nazis)
1980 Jim King begins riding Miracle Strip Roller coaster 368 hours
1981 2 Habash terrorists attack a travel agency in Greece killing 2
1981 John McEnroe exhibites a disgraceful act of misbehavior at Wimbeldon (SHOCK)
1981 Mark David Chapman pleads guilty to killing John Lennon
1982 Susan Lea Hammett, of Miss, 18, crowned 25th America's Junior Miss
1983 "Monty Python's The Meaning of Life," released in France
1983 1st time a satellite is retrieved from orbit by Space Shuttle
1983 NHL institutes a 5 minute sudden death overtime period
1984 Calvin Griffith signs letter of intent to sell ownership of Twins
1984 Carl Pohlad becomes CEO of Minn Twins
1990 Florida passes a law prohibits wearing a throng bathing suit
1991 Underwater volcano, Mount Didicas, erupts in Phillipines
1996 At their first summit in six years, Arab leaders meeting in Cairo, Egypt, urged Israel to prove its commitment to peace by resuming negotiations without delay.
(and now back to the real world)
2000 Independent Counsel Robert Ray ended his investigation of the 1993 firings in the White House travel office, issuing no indictments but saying he'd found "substantial evidence" that First Lady Hillary Rodham Clinton played a role in the dismissals.

Note: Some Holidays are only applicable on a given "day of the week"

Congo : Army Day
El Salvador : School Teacher's Day/D¡a del Maestro
Haiti : Sovereignty Day/President's Day
Virgin Islands : Organic Act Day (1954)
Yemen PDR : Corrective Move Day
Newfoundland : Discovery Day (1497-John Cabot) (Monday)
National Sheriff's Week (Day 2)
National Doughnuts Day
National Dream Work Month

Religious Observances
RC : Mem of SS John Fisher, bp, martyr, & Thomas More, martyr (opt)
witch : Alban Hefin sabbat
Ang : Feast of Alban, 1st martyr of Britain
RC : Feast of St Paulinus, bishop of Nola, confessor

Religious History
1559 In England, Queen Elizabeth's Prayer Book was issued. During her 45-year reign, Elizabeth I rejected the Catholic faith, adopting instead the Thirty-Nine Articles of the Anglican Church.
1745 Colonial missionary to the American Indians David Brainerd wrote in his journal: 'I am often weary of this world, and want to leave it on that account; but it is more desirable to be drawn, rather than driven out of it.'
1750 Clergyman Jonathan Edwards was dismissed from his Congregational pulpit in Northampton, MA, after serving there 23 years. Maintaining his ultra- conservative theology, Edwards had grown to become administratively too inflexible for his congregation.
1865 The society known today as the Palestine Exploration Fund (PEF) was first organized. Its purpose is to provide information about the archaeology, the history and the people of the Holy Land.
1870 Scholars began translation work on the English Revised Version of the Bible. Released in 1881, the ERV became the textual basis for the American Standard Version (ASV), first published in the United States in 1901.

Source: William D. Blake. ALMANAC OF THE CHRISTIAN CHURCH. Minneapolis: Bethany House, 1987.

Thought for the day :
"You are not judged by how much you love, but by how much you are loved by others."

Things To Do If You Ever Became An Evil Overlord...
The hero is not entitled to a last kiss, a last cigarette, or any other form of last request

The World's Shortest Books...
Dr. Kevorkian's Collection of Motivational Speeches

Dumb Laws...
North Carolina:
If a man and a woman who aren't married go to a hotel/motel and register themselves as married then, according to state law, they are legally married.
(A word to the wise)

Top 10 signs your family is stressed...
You have to check your kid's day-timer to see if he can take out the trash.

17 posted on 06/22/2004 7:20:42 AM PDT by Valin (What part of "You don't understand anything" don't you understand?)
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To: snippy_about_it; SAMWolf; All

Good morning! Happy Heavy Metal Tuesday :)

18 posted on 06/22/2004 7:24:58 AM PDT by Colonel_Flagg ("Now he sees his Savior face to face." - George W. Bush, eulogizing Ronald Reagan)
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To: SAMWolf

Be back in a bit, t-storms rolling in at the moment.

19 posted on 06/22/2004 7:29:49 AM PDT by Darksheare (Even as you read, my tagline army is invading your mind.)
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To: SAMWolf

After the Iraqi tanks blown to pieces, my favorite one is the one with the anti-aircraft guns on it. :-)

20 posted on 06/22/2004 7:46:17 AM PDT by snippy_about_it (Fall in --> The FReeper Foxhole. America's History. America's Soul.)
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