Free Republic
Browse · Search
Topics · Post Article

Skip to comments.

The FReeper Foxhole's TreadHead Tuesday - M2/M3 Bradley - Aug. 31st, 2004 ^

Posted on 08/30/2004 11:20:12 PM PDT by SAMWolf


Keep our Troops forever in Your care

Give them victory over the enemy...

Grant them a safe and swift return...

Bless those who mourn the lost.

FReepers from the Foxhole join in prayer
for all those serving their country at this time.

...................................................................................... ...........................................

U.S. Military History, Current Events and Veterans Issues

Where Duty, Honor and Country
are acknowledged, affirmed and commemorated.

Our Mission:

The FReeper Foxhole is dedicated to Veterans of our Nation's military forces and to others who are affected in their relationships with Veterans.

In the FReeper Foxhole, Veterans or their family members should feel free to address their specific circumstances or whatever issues concern them in an atmosphere of peace, understanding, brotherhood and support.

The FReeper Foxhole hopes to share with it's readers an open forum where we can learn about and discuss military history, military news and other topics of concern or interest to our readers be they Veteran's, Current Duty or anyone interested in what we have to offer.

If the Foxhole makes someone appreciate, even a little, what others have sacrificed for us, then it has accomplished one of it's missions.

We hope the Foxhole in some small way helps us to remember and honor those who came before us.

To read previous Foxhole threads or
to add the Foxhole to your sidebar,
click on the books below.

M2 and M3
Bradley Fighting Vehicle Systems

The M2/M3 BFVS family consists of the M2/M2A1/M2A2/M2A3 Infantry Fighting Vehicle, the M3/M3A1/M3A2/M3A3 Cavalry Fighting Vehicle and derivatives of these vehicles including: manpads under armor - the integration of the STINGER Missile System into the M2A2/M3A3 vehicles; Bradley fire support team vehicles and the command group vehicle variants.

M2 "Bradley" Prototype

The mission of the Bradley Fighting Vehicle [BFV] is to provide mobile protected transport of an infantry squad to critical points on the battlefield and to perform cavalry scout missions. The BFVS will also provide overwatching fires to support dismounted infantry and to suppress or defeat enemy tanks and other fighting vehicles. The Bradley Fighting Vehicle is a fully armored, fully tracked vehicle designed to carry Mechanized Infantry into close contact with the enemy. It possesses sufficient cross-country mobility to keep up with the Abrams Main Battle Tank, medium and long-range firepower capable of defeating any vehicle on the battlefield, and is adequately armored to protect the crew from artillery and small arms threats. During World War II, the vehicle's namesake, General Omar Bradley, was known as the "GI General".

M2 Bradley

The Bradley is able to close with and destroy enemy forces in support of mounted and dismounted Infantry and Cavalry combat operations. The Bradley Fighting Vehicle family currently consists of two vehicles: the M2 Infantry Fighting Vehicle and the M3 Cavalry Fighting Vehicle. Just as with its predecessor, the M113 family, the Bradley will eventually be the platform for a wide range of support vehicles.

M2A2 Bradley

Unlike the M113 family of vehicles the Bradley replaces, this is not simply a "battle taxi". The Bradley is a sophisticated weapons platform capable of providing tremendous firepower in direct support of the Infantry it carries. The role of the Bradley is to :

  • Safely transport Infantry to critical locations on the battlefield;
  • Provide fire support to cover their dismounted operations,
  • Destroy enemy tanks and other vehicles that may threaten the Infantry it carries

The Bradley’s main armament is the M242 25mm "Bushmaster" Chain Gun, manufactured by McDonnell Douglas. The M242 has a single barrel with an integrated dual-feed mechanism and remote ammunition selection. Either armor piercing (AP) or high explosive (HE) ammunition may be selected with the flick of a switch. The Gunner may select from single or multiple shot modes. The standard rate of fire is 200 rounds per minute, and has a range of 2,000 meters (depending on the ammunition used). A wide range of ammunition has been developed for this weapon, making it capable of defeating the majority of armored vehicles it is likely to encounter, up to and including some main battle tanks. The M240C machine gun, mounted to right of the Bushmaster, fires 7.62mm rounds.

When facing heavier enemy armor the Bradley relies on the TOW Anti-Tank Missile, manufactured by the Hughes Aircraft. Launched from a smooth tube launcher, the missile’s wings and tail fins are folded inside its body until launch. Two of these missiles are carried ready to fire in a collapsible, armored launch rack on the left of the turret. The Bradley must stop in order to fire these missiles, which are them reloaded by the Infantrymen in the back of the vehicle, using a special hatch which provides armor protection during the reload operation. The missile is equipped with a massive shaped charge, high explosive warhead and is propelled by a two-stage solid propellant motor. The range of the TOW missile is nearly 4 kilometers and the missile will reach a speed of almost Mach 1 on its way to the target. This weapon is capable of destroying any armored vehicle in existence today and is deadly accurate.

Maximum ground speed is 66km/h.

The wide tracks and 600 horsepower turbo-diesel power plant give the vehicle the mobility it needs to keep up with the Abrams, and keep the soldiers it carries out of harms way. In order to fulfil the requirement for rapid worldwide deployability, the Bradley can be transported by truck, rail, ship and transporter aircraft. In addition, all Bradleys are amphibious. Early models were equipped with a water barrier, which is erected by the crew before entering the water – a procedure that takes about 30 minutes. Later models have an inflatable pontoon, which fits on the front and sides of the vehicle. This pontoon is inflated in about 15 minutes, and is continuously pressurized during operation. The pontoon is compartmentalized to provide protection against sinking in the event of rupture of the pontoon. Water propulsion is provided by tracks which propel the vehicle at about 4 MPH.

KEYWORDS: armor; bfvs; bradleycfv; bradleyifv; freeperfoxhole; m2bradley; m3bradley; tanks; treadhead; unitedstates; veterans
Navigation: use the links below to view more comments.
first 1-2021-4041-6061-80 ... 101-114 next last
The vehicle's reliability, survivability and lethality has surpassed initial expectations. Of the 2,200 Bradleys involved in Operation Desert Storm, only three were disabled. In fact, more enemy armored vehicles were destroyed by Bradleys than by the Abrams Main Battle Tanks!

An M2A3 Bradley at Fort Hood.

The M2 Infantry Fighting Vehicle [IFV] is a fully tracked, lightly armored vehicle that offers significant improvements over the M113 series of armored personnel carriers. The M2 possesses greater power, greater acceleration, and an advanced suspension for a significant increase in cross-country speed. Like the M113, the primary purpose of the M2 is to carry infantryman on the battlefield, and transport and support them with fire if necessary. The M2 Bradley carries a crew of three (Commander, Gunner & Driver) and a six-man Infantry section into combat.

M3 Bradley

The M3 Cavalry Fighting Vehicle [CFV] is exactly the same chassis as the M2 IFV with some minor internal differences. The M3 is a cavalry/scout vehicle, instead of carrying 6 dismounts in the payload compartment, the M3 carries a pair of scouts, additional radios, ammunition, and TOW and Dragon or Javelin missile rounds. In fact, the only noticeable differences between the M2 and the M3 are that the external firing ports for the squad M16s are absent on the M3.

In the early 1980s the U.S. began a new form of vulnerability experimentation called Live-Fire Testing (LFT). In LFT, a complete vehicle, such as a tank or armored personnel carrier, is placed in full battle readiness, engine running, full load of fuel and ammunition, and fired at with an overmatching threat. Only the absence of a live crew compromises actual encounter realism. Congressional legislation had been passed recognizing that in spite of design limits defining absolute protection, systems should nevertheless be tested according to threats expected to be encountered. Many such threats could be overmatching. The issue was to mitigate and ameliorate such events. In addition, LFT can uncover vulnerabilities not foreseen by vehicle designers and improve survivability.

The first LFTs occurred against the M113 armored personnel carrier. Bradley live-fire actually began before the M113 tests, but the M113 firings were completed first. For the most part, these results were noncontroversial. By 1985, testing had begun on the more modern Bradley fighting vehicle. To accompany field testing, the program test plans required that vulnerability models be used both to predict and, subsequently, to be upgraded by actual LFT results. As the test proceeded and the results were compared to model predictions, an apparent pattern of disagreement began to emerge. Critics in the Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD) questioned the fidelity of existing ballistic vulnerability modeling.

The Bradley M2/M3 A3 upgrade

By the end of 1994 the Army had produced a total of 6,724 Bradleys, 4,641 in the M2 Infantry configuration and 2,083 in the M3 Cavalry configuration. Three versions of the M2/M3 have been procured: 2,300 "basic," or A0 Bradleys; 1,371 A1 Bradleys which incorporates the TOW 2 missile subsystem; and 3,053 A2 "high survivability" vehicles. Following Desert Storm the Army conducted depot conversion of A0 and A1 Bradleys to the A2 configuration, modifying 1,423 A2s to the A2 ODS configuration, and preparing to upgrade 1,602 A2s to the A3 configuration. M2/3A0s and A1s continued to be upgraded to the A2 configuration in FY96. Selected M2/3A2s were modified with the ODS upgrade package through FY02. The First Unit Equipped (FUE) for the A2 ODS variant was FY96.

The Bradley M2A3

1 posted on 08/30/2004 11:20:13 PM PDT by SAMWolf
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | View Replies]

To: snippy_about_it; PhilDragoo; Johnny Gage; Victoria Delsoul; The Mayor; Darksheare; Valin; ...
The M3 cavalry fighting vehicle was essentially a restowed M2 Bradley infantry fighting vehicle. The M3 was the cavalry scout version, and its passenger compartment was occupied by two observers and more ammunition and missiles. Since the M3 lacked an infantry squad, it carried no firing port weapons, and the firing ports themselves were covered. The M3 retained the three periscopes between the cargo hatch and entry ramp and the periscopes along the sides of the vehicle.

The M3A1 incorporated the same improvements as the M2A1 Bradley. The CFV differed from the IFV in having NBC masks connected to the central filter for all five crewmen, instead of just the driver, gunner, and vehicle commander. The three periscopes on the rear deck were omitted in the M3A1, and replaced by four periscopes in the cargo hatch itself. The two periscopes on the right side of the passenger copmpartment were also deleted.

M3A2 acquired the improved armor protection and other modifications of the M2A2. After live firing testing, the seating and stowage arrengements of the Bradley were redrawn. The observers were moved to a bench on the left side of the vehicle, and the missile stowage was rearranged to enhance safety in case of an armor penetration.

After Operation Desert Storm, the M3A2 was upgraded again with the addition of an eye-safe carbon dioxide laser rangefinder, global positioning system and compass, missile countermeasure device, combat identification system, and thermal viewer for the driver. The 1423 -A2 Bradleys brought up to this standard were referred to as -A2ODS Bradleys.

The M3A3 uses enhanced information and communication equipment, including a 1553 databus, central processing unit, and information displays for the vehicle commander and squad leader. The M3A3 became compatible with the intervehicular communication system of the M1A2 Abrams tank and AH-64D Apache Longbow helicopter. The commander was provided with an independent thermal viewer, and a new integrated sight unit called the Improved Bradley Acquisition System (IBAS) allowed automatic gun adjustments, automatic boresighting, and tracking of dual targets. The CITV and integrated sight are both second-generation FLIR systems. The roof was reinforced with titanium armor. M3A3s are being converted from M3A2s.

Additional Sources: equipmentshop

2 posted on 08/30/2004 11:21:03 PM PDT by SAMWolf (My mind works like lightning... one brilliant flash and it's gone.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: All
The M2 and M3 Bradley fighting vehicles are designed to operate in combat with the same speed as the M1A1 Abrams and with a greater degree of protection than the M113 armored personnel carrier. The M2 provides infantry squads with a light armored fighting vehicle. The M3 provides scout and armored cavalry units with a vehicle for reconnaissance, screening, and security missions. The infantry version has firing ports for modified M16 rifles. Other modifications include enhanced armor. In addition to the M2 and M3 configurations, the A1 and A2 versions of both models were deployed to Southwest Asia.

The role of the Bradley M2 Infantry Fighting Vehicle is to transport infantry, provide fire cover and suppress enemy armour.

Provides protected transport of an infantry squad on the battlefield and overwatching fires to support the dismounted infantry; is employed to suppress and defeat enemy tanks, reconnaissance vehicles, infantry fighting vehicles, armored personnel carriers, bunkers, dismounted infantry and attack helicoptors; and performs cavalry scout and other essential (Bradley-equipped fire support and Stinger teams) missions in the 21st century. The infantry version (M2) is used most often to close with the enemy by means of fire and maneuver. The primary tasks performed by the cavalry version (M3) as part of a troop and/or squadron are reconnaissance, security and flank guard missions.

3 posted on 08/30/2004 11:21:40 PM PDT by SAMWolf (My mind works like lightning... one brilliant flash and it's gone.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 2 | View Replies]

To: All

If you support the policies and character that our current President, George W. Bush, stands for, please drive with your headlights on during the day this coming Sunday.

If you support John Kerry, please drive with your headlights off at night.

John Kerry told the world we were war criminals who raped, tortured and murdered in Vietnam. Now, thirty-three years later, we will tell America the truth.

Join us at the rally we call:

What: A peaceful remembrance of those with whom we served in Vietnam - those who lived and those who died.
We will tell the story of their virtues and how that contrasts with the lies told by John Kerry.

When: Sunday, Sept. 12, 2004 @ 2:00 PM - 4:00 PM EDT

Where: The West Front of the U.S. Capitol Building, Washington, DC

All Vietnam veterans and their families and supporters are asked to attend. Other veterans are invited as honored guests. This will be a peaceful event--no shouting or contact with others with different opinions. We fought for their rights then, and we respect their rights now. This is NOT a Republican or a pro-Bush rally. Democrats, Republicans and independents alike are warmly invited.

Our gathering is to remember those with whom we served, thereby giving the lie to John Kerry's smear against a generation of fine young men. B.G. "Jug" Burkett, author of "Stolen Valor," will be one of our speakers. Jug has debunked countless impostors who falsely claimed to be Vietnam veterans or who falsely claimed awards for heroism. Jug recommends that we refrain from dragging fatigues out of mothballs. Dress like America, like you do every day. Dress code: business casual, nice slacks, and shirt and shoes. No uniform remnants, please. Unit hats OK.

Selected members will wear badges identifying them as authorized to speak to the media about our event. Others who speak to the media will speak only for themselves.

The program will be controlled in an attempt to stay on-message. Speakers are encouraged not to engage in speculative criticism of John Kerry but (1) to stick to known and undisputed facts about John Kerry’s lies while (2) reminding America of the true honor and courage of our brothers in battle in Vietnam.

Send this announcement to 10 or more of your brothers! Bring them by car, bus, train or plane! Make this event one of pride in America, an event you would be proud to have your mother or your children attend.


Veterans for Constitution Restoration is a non-profit, non-partisan educational and grassroots activist organization. The primary area of concern to all VetsCoR members is that our national and local educational systems fall short in teaching students and all American citizens the history and underlying principles on which our Constitutional republic-based system of self-government was founded. VetsCoR members are also very concerned that the Federal government long ago over-stepped its limited authority as clearly specified in the United States Constitution, as well as the Founding Fathers' supporting letters, essays, and other public documents.

Actively seeking volunteers to provide this valuable service to Veterans and their families.


The FReeper Foxhole. America's History. America's Soul

Click on Hagar for
"The FReeper Foxhole Compiled List of Daily Threads"

4 posted on 08/30/2004 11:22:20 PM PDT by SAMWolf (My mind works like lightning... one brilliant flash and it's gone.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 3 | View Replies]

To: Diva Betsy Ross; Americanwolf; CarolinaScout; Tax-chick; Don W; Poundstone; Wumpus Hunter; ...

FALL IN to the FReeper Foxhole!

It's TreadHead Tuesday!

Good Morning Everyone

If you would like added to our ping list let us know.
If you'd like to drop us a note you can write to:

The Foxhole
19093 S. Beavercreek Rd. #188
Oregon City, OR 97045

5 posted on 08/30/2004 11:33:48 PM PDT by snippy_about_it (Fall in --> The FReeper Foxhole. America's History. America's Soul.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 3 | View Replies]

To: mostly cajun; archy; Gringo1; Matthew James; Fred Mertz; Squantos; colorado tanker; The Shrew; ...
Free Republic Treadhead Ping

mostly cajun ;archy; Gringo1; Matthew James; Fred Mertz; Squantos; colorado tanker; The Shrew; SLB; Darksheare; BCR #226; IDontLikeToPayTaxes; Imacatfish; Tailback; DCBryan1; Eaker; Archangelsk; gatorbait; river rat; alfa6; Lee'sGhost; Dionysius; BlueLancer; Frohickey; GregB; leadpenny; skepsel; Proud Legions; King Prout; Professional Engineer;Cannoneer No.4; An Old Man; hookman; DMZFrank; in the Arena; Bethbg79; neverdem; NWU Army ROTC; ma bell; MoJo2001; The Sailor; dcwusmc; dts32041; spectr17; Rockpile; Theophilus;

To snippy about it, I bequeath to you the FR TH PL.

148 posted on 08/24/2004 11:39:45 AM PDT by Cannoneer No. 4 (I've lost turret power; I have my nods and my .50. Hooah. I will stay until relieved. White 2 out.)

Cannoneer, we miss you already. :-)
6 posted on 08/30/2004 11:37:29 PM PDT by snippy_about_it (Fall in --> The FReeper Foxhole. America's History. America's Soul.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 5 | View Replies]

To: snippy_about_it

Good night Snippy.
7 posted on 08/30/2004 11:49:41 PM PDT by SAMWolf (My mind works like lightning... one brilliant flash and it's gone.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 6 | View Replies]

To: SAMWolf
Good night Sam.

8 posted on 08/30/2004 11:54:34 PM PDT by snippy_about_it (Fall in --> The FReeper Foxhole. America's History. America's Soul.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 7 | View Replies]

To: SAMWolf

M2 Bradley Interior
the interior pictures by Richard S. Eshleman


Clic on the pics to enlarge.

9 posted on 08/31/2004 12:03:21 AM PDT by snippy_about_it (Fall in --> The FReeper Foxhole. America's History. America's Soul.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 7 | View Replies]

To: snippy_about_it

M3 Bradley Interior
the interior pictures by Richard S. Eshleman


Clic on the pics to enlarge.

Now I really am calling it a night, see you tomorrow.
10 posted on 08/31/2004 12:06:43 AM PDT by snippy_about_it (Fall in --> The FReeper Foxhole. America's History. America's Soul.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 9 | View Replies]

To: snippy_about_it

Good morning, Snippy and everyone here at the Freeper Foxhole.

11 posted on 08/31/2004 3:02:09 AM PDT by E.G.C.
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 5 | View Replies]

To: SAMWolf

G'mornin' Steve...bookmarked for later...

12 posted on 08/31/2004 3:22:19 AM PDT by ken5050 (Bill Clinton has just signed to be the national spokesman for Hummer..)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 7 | View Replies]

To: snippy_about_it

Good morning FRiends

13 posted on 08/31/2004 4:25:49 AM PDT by GailA ( hanoi john, I'm for the death penalty for terrorist, before I impose a moratorium on it.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 5 | View Replies]

To: snippy_about_it; SAMWolf; All

August 31, 2004

Be Glad For Today

Read: Psalm 118:14-24

This is the day the Lord has made; we will rejoice and be glad in it. —Psalm 118:24

Bible In One Year: Psalms 132-134; 1 Corinthians 11:17-34

In Edith Schaeffer's book called The Tapestry, she describes a summer when her husband Francis was away in Europe for 3 months. During that time of missing him greatly, Edith and her sister Janet took their children to live in a former schoolhouse on Cape Cod. On a shoestring budget they shared the rent, lived without a car, and created daily adventures for the five young children.

Looking back years later, Edith said of that summer: "Never again have I spent time of that sort with my own children or my sister and nephews. The sudden precious moments in life need to be recognized for the unique periods they are, not wasted by wishing for something else."

Edith's perspective offers us a key to applying the words of Psalm 118:24, "This is the day the Lord has made; we will rejoice and be glad in it." During difficult times, we are tempted to become passive while waiting for a storm of life to pass. But God invites us to actively pursue the opportunities at hand instead of lamenting over what we don't have.

Because the Lord has made this day, we can look past the closed doors to see people and opportunities we had previously overlooked. In celebrating their value, we will discover joy and gladness from God. —David McCasland

The God who put us here on earth
Knows life is tinged with sadness,
And so He gives us many things
To fill our hearts with gladness. —Hess

You don't have to worry about eyestrain from looking on the brighter side of life.

14 posted on 08/31/2004 5:03:12 AM PDT by The Mayor (You don't have to worry about eyestrain from looking on the brighter side of life.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 5 | View Replies]

To: SAMWolf
Most (if not all) Navy ships also carry one or more Chain Gun mounts now, called Mk 38.

15 posted on 08/31/2004 5:13:57 AM PDT by GATOR NAVY
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 3 | View Replies]

To: snippy_about_it; SAMWolf; Professional Engineer; PhilDragoo; All

Good morning everyone.

16 posted on 08/31/2004 5:54:07 AM PDT by Soaring Feather
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 5 | View Replies]

To: snippy_about_it; bentfeather; Samwise
Good morning ladies. Engineer-o-Flag-o-gram.

Corps of Engineers launch on the Columbia River, Oregon.
US Army Corp of Engineers photo

17 posted on 08/31/2004 6:15:05 AM PDT by Professional Engineer (Who knew it would be so much fun to watch a baby learn to grab her toes.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 5 | View Replies]

To: snippy_about_it


18 posted on 08/31/2004 6:22:42 AM PDT by manna
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 5 | View Replies]

To: Professional Engineer

Morning, PE!! Great Flag-o-gram.

19 posted on 08/31/2004 6:23:01 AM PDT by Soaring Feather
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 17 | View Replies]

To: SAMWolf

On This Day In History

Birthdates which occurred on August 31:
0012 Caligula (Gaius Caesar), 3rd Roman emperor (37-41 AD)
0161 Lucius A A Coomodus, emperor of Rome (180-91)
1811 Goode Bryan, Brig General (Confederate Army), died in 1885
1822 Fitz John Porter, Major General (Union volunteers), died in 1901
1823 Galusha Aaron Grow, MC (Union), died in 1907
1828 George Leonard Andrews, Bvt Major General (Union volunteers)
1834 Amilcare Ponchielli Paderno Italy, composer (I Lituani)
1870 Maria Montessori Italy, educator (spontaneous response)
1880 Queen Mother Wilhelmina Netherlands (1890-1948)
1885 DuBose Heyward novelist (Porgy)
1889 A Provost Idell father of modern volleyball
1897 Frederic March Wisc, actor (Dr Jeckyll-Acad Awards 1932/1946)
1903 Arthur Godfrey radio, TV host (Arthur Godfrey's Talent Scout)
1903 Sir Bernard Lovell England, radio astronomer, founded Jodrell Bank
1908 William Saroyan US, novelist/playwright (Time of Your Life)
1914 Richard Basehart Zanesville Oh, actor (Voyage to Bottom of Sea)
1916 Daniel Schorr "journalist" (CBS, PBS Pravda)
1918 Alan Jay Lerner lyricist composer (Lerner & Leowe-My Fair Lady)
1924 Buddy (Leonard) Hackett Bkln, comedian (God's Little Acre, Music Man)
1928 James Coburn Laurel Nebr, actor (Our Man Flint, Magnificent Seven)
1931 Dan Rather news anchor (CBS-TV)
1935 Eldridge Cleaver Black Panther
1935 Frank Robinson baseball player/manager (MVP 1961-NL 1966-AL)
1945 Itzhak Perlman Tel Aviv Israel, violinist/polio victim
1945 Leonid I Popov cosmonaut (Soyuz 35, 40, T-7)
1945 Van Morrison Belfast, singer (Gloria, Moondance)
1949 Richard Gere Phila Pa, actor (Breathless, Cotton Club)
1958 Edwin C Moses track star (hurdler, Olympic-gold-1984)
1959 Rachel Dennison Knoxville Tn, actress (Doralee Rhodes-9 to 5)
1961 David Chastain heavy metal rocker (Chastain-Rule of Wasteland)
1970 Debbie Gibson Brooklyn NY, singer (Only in My Dreams)
1977 Paul Garber helped establish Air & Space Museum in Washington DC

Deaths which occurred on August 31:
1057 Leofric husband of Lady Godiva, dies
1218 Al-Malik ab-Adil/Saphadin/Saif al-Din), brother of Saladin,
1422 Henry V, King of England (1413-22)/France (1416-19)
1688 John Bunyan preacher/novelist/author of "Pilgrim's Progress,", dies
1862 George William Taylor, US Union brig-general, dies in battle
1879 William Barber 6th US chief engraver (1844-79), dies
1888 Mary Ann Nicholls a 42-year-old prostitute, was found stabbed to death in London, 1st of at least five murders by Jack the Ripper
1942 Von Bismarck, German major general, (Africa Corps), dies in battle
1944 Killinger, German ambassador to Romania, commits suicide
1964 Carole Coleman singer (Face the Music), dies at 42
1964 Rocky Marciano former heavyweight champ, dies in a plane crash
1968 Dennis O'Keefe actor (Suspicion), dies at 60
1979 Sally Rand, stripper, dies at 75
1997 Diana Spencer, princess of England, dies in car crash in Paris at 36


POW / MIA Data & Bios supplied by
the P.O.W. NETWORK. Skidmore, MO. USA.

On this day...
1385 English King Richard the Second invaded Scotland with a force estimated at 80-thousand men.
1521 Cortes captures the city of Tenochtitlan, Mexico, and sets it on fire.
1535 Pope Paul II deposed & excommunicated King Henry VIII
1778 British kill 17 Stockbridge indians in the Bronx during Revolution
1802 Captain Merriwether Lewis leaves Pittsburgh to meet up with Captain William Clark and begin their trek to the Pacific Ocean.
1842 US Naval Observatory authorized by an act of Congress
1850 Calif pioneers organized at Montgomery & Clay Streets
1864 Atlanta Campaign-Battle of Jonesborough
1864 At the Democratic convention in Chicago, General George B. McClellan is nominated for president.
1865 Federal government estimates the American Civil War had cost about eight-billion dollars. Human costs have been estimated at more than one-million killed or wounded.
1881 1st US tennis championships (Newport, RI)
1886 1st major earthquake recorded in eastern US, at Charleston, SC
1887 Thomas A Edison patents Kinetoscope, (produces moving pictures)
1889 Start of Sherlock Holmes adventure "Cardboard Box" (BG)
1894 Phillies Billy Hamilton steals 7 bases
1895 1st pro football game (QB John Brallier paid $10 & won 12-0)
1900 Dodgers' Brickyard Kennedy walks 6 straight Phillies
1902 Split skirt 1st worn by Mrs Adolph Landeburg (horse rider)
1903 A Packard automobile completed a 52-day journey from San Francisco to New York, becoming the first car to cross the nation under its own power.
1903 Joe McGinnity wins his 3rd doubleheader of the month
1907 England, Russia & France form the Triple Entente
1919 Communist Labor Party of America formed in Chicago
1919 Petlyura's Ukranian Army kills 35 members of a Jewish defense group
1934 1st football all star game-Bears tie collegians 0-0 in Chicago
1935 1st national skeet championship (Indianapolis)
1935 FDR signs an act prohibiting export of US arms to belligerents
1939 Japanese invasion army driven out of Mongolia
1939 Staged "Polish" assault on radio station in Gleiwitz by Nazis dressed as Poles to "provoke" war, excuse for Gerrmany to invade Poland tomorrow to start World War II
1941 Great Gildersleeve, a spin-off of Fibber McGee & Molly debuts on NBC
1949 Six of the 16 surviving Union veterans of the Civil War attend the last-ever encampment of the Grand Army of the Republic, held in Indianapolis, Indiana.
1950 Dodger Gil Hodges hits 4 HRs & a single in a game vs Braves
1951 The 1st Marine Division begins its attack on Bloody Ridge in Korea. The four-day battle results in 2,700 Marine casualties.
1954 Census Bureau established
1954 Hurricane Carol (1st major named storm) hits New England, 70 die
1955 1st microwave TV station operated (Lufkin, Tx)
1955 1st sun-powered automobile demonstrated, Chicago, Ill
1957 Malaya (Malaysia) gains independence from Britain (National Day)
1960 Agricultural Hall of Fame established
1962 Trinidad & Tobago gain independence from Britain (National Day)
1965 House of Reps joins Senate establish Dept of Housing & Urban Develop
1968 6,000 die in 7.8 quake destroys 60,000 buildings in NE Iran
1968 Private Eye magazine reports a John Lennon & Yoko Ono album will have a picture of them nude on the cover
1970 US defeats German FR for tennis' Davis Cup
1970 -Peter Yarrow (Peter Paul & Mary) arrested for taking "immoral liberties" with girl, 14
1971 Dave Scott becomes 1st person to drive a car on the Moon
1972 Olga Korbut, USSR, wins olympic gold medal in gymnastics
1973 1st heavyweight championship fight in Japan (Foreman beats Roman)
1977 Aleksandr Fedotov sets aircraft alt rec of 38.26 km (125,524')
1978 Symbionese Liberation Army founders William & Emily Harris plead guilty to 1974 kidnapping of newspaper heiress Patricia Hearst
1979 Comet Howard-Koomur-Michels collides with the Sun
1979 Donald McHenry named to succeed Andrew Young as UN ambassador

1980 Poland's Solidarity labor union founded

1983 Edwin Moses of USA sets the 400m hurdle record (47.02) in Koblenz
1984 Pinklin Thomas defeats Tim Witherspoon for the WBC heavyweight title
1985 "Prakas" sets trotting mile record of 1:53.4 at Du Quoin, Ill
1985 Night Stalker suspect that terrorized S Calif captured in East LA
1987 Curtis Strange sets golf's earning for the year record ($697,385)
1988 5-day power blackout of downtown Seattle begins
1991 Kyrgyzstan The Land of "Tien Shan" (Heavenly Mountains) Uzbekistan and Kirghizia declared their independence, raising to 10 the number of republics seeking to secede and leaving only five republics with membership in the Soviet Union.
1992: White separatist Randy Weaver surrenders to authorities in Naples Idaho, ending an 11-day siege by federal agents (Weaver's wife & son, and a deputy U.S. marshal, were killed during the seige)
1994: The Irish Republican Army declares a cease-fire
1994: After a half-century, Russia officially ends its military presence in the former East Germany and the Baltics
1996 Seven people drowned when their vehicle rolled into John D. Long Lake in Union, S.C.; they had gone to see a monument to the sons of Susan Smith, who had drowned the two boys in October 1994.
1997: Diana, the Princess of Wales, is killed in an automobile accident (milllions go insane)
2000 President Clinton vetoed a bill that would have gradually repealed inheritance taxes, saying it would have benefited the wealthiest Americans while threatening the nation's financial well-being.

Note: Some Holidays are only applicable on a given "day of the week"

Afghanistan : Pashtunistan Day
Malaysia : Malaysia Day (1957)
Trinidad & Tobago : Independence Day (1962)
US : Festal Day/Order of the Eastern Star (Robert Morris' birthday)
Mental Health Workers Week Begins
National Financial Services Week Begins
National Trail Mix Day
National Golf Month

Religious Observances
Ang : Commem of Aidan, bishop of Lindisfarne, monastic founder
RC : Comm of St Raymund Nonnatus, cardinal, ransomer of captives
Luth : Commemoration of John Bunyan, teacher

Religious History
1688 Death of English Puritan clergyman and writer John Bunyan, 69. Imprisoned several times between 1660 and 1672, Bunyan used these periods of isolation to pen his two literary masterpieces, Grace Abounding to the Chief of Sinners (1666) and Pilgrim's Progress (1678).
1757 Anglican clergyman and hymnwriter John Newton wrote in a letter: 'I am persuaded that love and humility are the highest attainments in the school of Christ and the brightest evidences that He is indeed our Master.'
1824 Birth of Anna B. Warner, American hymnwriter. She never married, but lived with her sister Susan in New York state. In 1860, a novel they co-authored contained a poem which became one of the most beloved of all children's hymns: I Know.'
1861 Birth of Jesse Brown Pounds, American hymnwriter. During her lifetime she published nine books, 50 cantatas and over 400 religious song texts. Three of her hymns remain popular today: "Anywhere With Jesus," "I Know That My Redeemer Liveth" and "The Way of the Cross Leads Home."
1870 Birth of Maria Montessori, Italian educator. She developed a theory of teaching which emphasized a reinforcement of initiative, and a freedom of movement for the child. Her theory of elementary education has since been named, appropriately, the "Montessori Method."

Source: William D. Blake. ALMANAC OF THE CHRISTIAN CHURCH. Minneapolis: Bethany House, 1987.

Thought for the day :
"Faith is like radar that sees through the fog."

Translating Southern United States Slang to English...
BARE - noun. An alcoholic beverage made of barley, hops an yeast.
Usage: "Ah thank ah'll have a bare."

Things a Cat Thinks About...
Why doesn't the government do something about dogs?

Politically Correct Terms for Females...
You do not ask her to dance,

you request a precoital rhythmic experience.

Feel Smarter -- Instantly!...
I've always thought that underpopulated countries in Africa are vastly underpolluted.

-- Lawrence Summers, chief economist of the World Bank, explaining why we should export toxic wastes to Third World countries

20 posted on 08/31/2004 6:23:03 AM PDT by Valin (It Could Be that the Purpose of Your Life is Only to Serve as a Warning to Others.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

Navigation: use the links below to view more comments.
first 1-2021-4041-6061-80 ... 101-114 next last

Disclaimer: Opinions posted on Free Republic are those of the individual posters and do not necessarily represent the opinion of Free Republic or its management. All materials posted herein are protected by copyright law and the exemption for fair use of copyrighted works.

Free Republic
Browse · Search
Topics · Post Article

FreeRepublic, LLC, PO BOX 9771, FRESNO, CA 93794 is powered by software copyright 2000-2008 John Robinson