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The FReeper Foxhole Remembers Operation Nordwind - Jan. 1st, 2003 ^

Posted on 01/01/2003 12:01:39 AM PST by SAMWolf

U.S. Military History, Current Events and Veterans Issues

Where Duty, Honor and Country
are acknowledged, affirmed and commemorated.

May the new year be a doorway
to the dreams you create...

The Freeper Foxhole wishes you the best of everything throughout the New Year

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Operation Nordwind
Jan 1 - 7, 1945

The campaign star on the European Theater ribbon for the bitter winter combat during December 1944 and January 1945 is titled "Ardennes-Alsace". Over the past 50 years the "Battle of' the Bulge" in the Ardennes region in northern France and Belgium has received as much publicity as Gettysburg. Unfortunately Nordwind, Hitler's last offensive in Alsace which, in spite of 40,000 German and American casualties, is practically unknown. The Army Chief of Military History's World War II 50th Anniversary Commemorative Pamphlet for the battle of Ardennes-Alsace wryly noted in its "Further Reading", which listed extensive sources on the Ardennes fighting, that "fighting in the Alsace region has been sparsely covered" and highlights the book "When Odds Were Even" by Keith Bonn for further information on Nordwind.

The German First Army launched its initial attacks on schedule a few hours before New Year's Day, with Simon's XIII SS Corps pushing south over the Sarre River valley and Petersen's XC and Hoehne's LXXXIX Corps heading in the same general direction through the woods of the Low Vosges. In both cases the leading German echelons began to hit the main American lines about midnight. In the Sarre valley the assault force was met by determined resistance from the 44th and 100th Infantry Division troops, who were well dug in and deployed in depth.

Expecting the major attack in this area, Patch and Haislip had jammed the XV Corps zone with three infantry divisions buttressed by the two regiments of Task Force Harris and-if the theater reserve units are counted-two armored and another infantry division in reserve, with a third armored division arriving. The Germin attack barely made a dent in the beefed-up Allied line. In some cases the SS troopers advanced in suicidal open waves, cursing and screaming at the American infantrymen who refused to be intimidated. The infantry of the 36th Volksgrenadier did little better. Although Simon's forces finally managed to poke a narrow hole, about two miles in depth, at Rimling on the right wing of the 44th Division, the 100th Infantry Division held firm. In the days that followed the Germans saw their small advances continuously eroded by repeated counterattacks from the 44th, 100th, and 63d (TF Harris) Division infantry supported by elements of the French 2d Armored Division. Allied artillery and, when the weather broke, Allied air attacks, together with the bitter cold, also sapped the strength of the attackers.

On 4 January the German high command formally called off the effort. As General Simon, the attacking corps commander, caustically observed, the Sarre assault had shown only that the German soldier still knew how to fight and how to die, but little else. Blaskowitz, with Hitler and von Rundstedt's approval, obviously chose not to throw the German armored reserves into the battle there, as planned, and sought weaker links in the American lines.

During Operation NORDWIND, the last German offensive on the Western Front, three German divisions attempted to encircle and annihilate the 100th Infantry Division. Near Lemberg, on the Division's right, the XC Corps attackers were stopped by the 399th and elements of the 398th Infantry Regiment after three days of ferocious fighting.

On 5 January, after NORDWIND's main effort had failed, Himmler's Army Group Oberrhein finally began its supporting thrusts against the southern flank of Brooks' VI Corps, with the XIV SS Corps launching a cross-Rhine attack north of Strasbourg. Two days later, south of the city, the Nineteenth Army launched Operation SONNENWENDE ('WINTER SOLSTICE'), attacking north, astride the Rhone-Rhine Canal on the northern edge of the German-held Colmar Pocket. These actions opened a three-week battle, whose ferocity rivaled the Ardennes fighting in viciousness if not in scope and threatened the survival of the VI Corps. SONNENWENDE sparked a new crisis for the 6th Army Group, which had too few divisions to defend every threatened area. With Brooks' VI Corps now engaged on both flanks, along the Rhine at Gambsheim and to the northeast along the Low Vosges mountain exits, Devers transferred responsibility for Strasbourg to the French First Army, and de Lattre stretched his forces to cover both the city and the Belfort Gap 75 miles to the south.

But the real danger was just northeast of Strasbourg. There, the XIV SS Corps had punched out a 10-mile bridgehead around the town of Gambsheim, brushing off small counterattacks from Task Force Linden. Patch's Seventh Army, reinforced with the newly arrived 12th Armored Division, tried to drive the Germans from the Gambsheim area, a region laced with canals, streams, and lesser watercourses. To the south de Lattre's 3d Algerian Division defended Strasbourg, while the rest of the French First Army kept the Colmar Pocket tightly ringed. But the fate of Strasbourg and the northern Alsace hinged on the ability of the American VI Corps to secure its besieged flanks.

Having driven several wedges into the Seventh Army, the Germans launched another attack on 7 January. The German XXXIX Panzer Corps, with the 21st Panzer and the 25th Panzergrenadier Divisions, attacked the greatly weakened VI Corps center between the Vosges and Lauterbourg. Quickly gaining ground to the edge of the Haguenau Forest 20 miles north of Strasbourg, the German offensive rolled along the same routes used during the successful attacks of August 1870 under Field Marshal Helmuth von Moltke. Moltke's successors, however, made no breakthrough. In the two Alsatian towns of Hatten and Rittershoffen, Patch and Brooks threw in the Seventh Army's last reserve, the 14th Armored Division. Assisted by a mixture of other combat, combat support, and service troops, the division halted the Germans.

While the VI Corps fought for its life in the Haguenau Forest, the enemy renewed attacks on both flanks. During an intense battle between units of the 45th Division and the 6th SS Mountain Division in the Low Vosges, the Germans surrounded an American battalion that had refused to give ground. After a week's fighting by units attempting its relief, only two soldiers managed to escape to friendly lines.

Although gaining ground the enemy had achieved no clear-cut success. Hitler nevertheless committed his last reserves on 16 January, including the 10th SS Panzer and the 7th Parachute Divisions. These forces finally steamrolled a path along the Rhine's west bank toward the XIV SS Corps' Gambsheim bridgehead overrunning one of the green 12th Armored Division's infantry battalions at Herrlisheim and destroying one of its tank battalions nearby. This final foray led Brooks to order a withdrawal on the twenty-first, one that took the Germans by surprise and was completed before the enemy could press his advantage.

Forming a new line along the Zorn, Moder, and Rothback Rivers north of the Marne-Rhine Canal, the VI Corps commander aligned his units into a cohesive defense with his badly damaged but still game armored divisions in reserve. Launching attacks during the night of 24-25 January, the Germans found their slight penetrations eliminated by vigorous counterattacks. Ceasing their assaults permanently, they might have found irony in the Seventh Army's latest acquisition from SHAEF reserves-the "Battling Bastards of Bastogne," the 101st Airborne Division, which arrived on the Alsace front only to find the battle over.

KEYWORDS: alsace; freeperfoxhole; nordwind; wwii
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Seen from the "other side of the hill" the observations of a German Colonel who had fought against the French, British and Russians were significant. He commented about the American troops he fought against during Nordwind---"they were extraordinarily flexible, they adapted immediately to a changed situation and fought with great doggedness. They were able to evaluate their experience and through unconventional conduct (transfer) it into results."

In the final analysis the U.S. Task Forces carried out their assigned combat missions though not without heavy costs. As summarized in the book "When Odds Were Even" units of the "70th Division (Task Force Herren) which had not completed their combined training or maneuvers and operating without their parent organization's support echelons, fulfilled their missions and played an important part in halting their adversary's advance. They threw back the best soldiers the Germans could offer - few more telling comparisons could be made"
1 posted on 01/01/2003 12:01:40 AM PST by SAMWolf
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To: souris; SpookBrat; Victoria Delsoul; MistyCA; AntiJen; SassyMom; bentfeather; GatorGirl
The prolonged battle throughout January, 1945 was fought in snow and below zero conditions, the worst in 40 years. Crucial encounters were fought from the Vosges Mountains to the Rhine and throughout the Northern Alsatian plain: Gambsheim, Kilstett, Weyersheim. Offendorf, Drusenheim, Herrlisheim, Soults-Foret, Sessenheim, Hatten, Rittershoffen, and the Haguenau Sector including Kaltenhouse, Neubourg, Schweighausen and the climactic battle of Ohlungen Forest were fought by worn, overworked and under strength divisions which were called upon for further sacrifices and green half trained infantry task forces thrown into the maelstrom without artillery or other supporting units.
2 posted on 01/01/2003 12:07:06 AM PST by SAMWolf
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To: All
'Fighting in the Alsace region has been sparsely covered'

--50th Anniversary Commemorative Pamphlet
for the battle of Ardennes-Alsace

3 posted on 01/01/2003 12:07:26 AM PST by SAMWolf
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To: All
Current Military News
U.S. Troops in Kuwait
Ring in New Year

CAMP DOHA, Kuwait - Though the beer and champagne lacked alcohol, U.S. troops in Kuwait still partied, welcoming the New Year in high spirits and taking a break from tensions ahead of a possible war with neighboring Iraq.

The tanks and humvees were parked off to the side at U.S. military bases in the Persian Gulf state as soldiers filled up recreation halls and decorated tents to dance, pop balloons and stage talent shows.

In the Persian Gulf, some 5,000 U.S. sailors had their party early, turning the flight deck of the USS Constellation into giant picnic area for daytime festivities before gearing up to work New Year's Day.

At Camp Doha, the biggest U.S. base in Kuwait, soldiers wore colorful party hats and garlands of plastic flowers, along with camouflage uniforms, and gorged roast beef and pasta. The walls thudded to a mix of rock, salsa, pop and country western music spun by DJ Shortie, alias Eric White, 35, of Washington, a civilian contractor with the army in Kuwait.

"One challenge is to give everyone a little taste of home," White said. "I have got so many requests that this party could carry on until lunchtime tomorrow."

The soldiers, many of them away from home for the first time, said they missed their families and friends, but that the celebrations helped them to cement the bonds of comradeship in their units.

In line with army orders to respect the law of Muslim-majority Kuwait, the beverages on tap were alcohol-free, versions of beer and sparkling wine.

"If I was home, I would be doing pretty much the same thing with my friends, going to clubs," said Specialist Robert Johnson, 24, of Carlsbad, N.M., from a field artillery unit of the 3rd Infantry Division.

"But these guys here are like my family away from home."

The U.S. forces based here are officially on mission to deter Iraq from repeating the 1990 invasion of Kuwait that triggered the Gulf War. But more forces have arrived in recent months and more are scheduled to come to give President Bush (news - web sites) the option of invading Iraq if it fails to dismantle its weapons of mass destruction.

On the USS Constellation, the fighter jets were chained down, their bombs stowed away, while sailors threw their "steel beach picnic" — a feast of grilled chicken and steak, hot dogs, corn dogs, baked beans, potato chips, cookies and sodas.

Sailors tossed footballs to each other and sent toy radio-controlled cars whizzing across the steel deck.

The next day, pilots from the carrier were to take to the sky again in patrols over southern Iraq.

Few on the carrier doubt that if war does break out, the Constellation's F-14D Super Tomcats and F/A-18C Hornets will lead the attack on Iraq.

"My wife and my son sent their love," said Petty Officer 2nd Class Ricky Carreon, 35, of San Diego, as he exchanged e-mails with family. "They say, 'We love you so much,' and have asked me to be careful and take good care of myself."

On shore, soldiers were setting their New Year's resolution, military style. "Normally, New Year's Eve is a time to correct things," said Specialist Neil Blappert, 24, of New Orleans. "This time my intention is to do my best this year and make sergeant."

For the soldiers here, New Year's Eve is the latest missed holiday in a deployment that for some has stretched back months. They get by with phone calls, e-mails, and even video conferences.

Confined to their posts, west of Kuwaiti city, any bit of entertainment put on by the Military Welfare and Recreation Department becomes a major event.

"New Year's might be an overrated holiday, but it is one more year that we have survived," said Specialist Sergio Cortinas, 32, of Salina, Kan., who works in a reserve transport unit.

"I tell my family I'm sorry I can't be at home with them, but that I am here for them."

4 posted on 01/01/2003 12:07:47 AM PST by SAMWolf
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To: larryjohnson; auboy; 06isweak; 0scill8r; 100American; 100%FEDUP; 101st-Eagle; 101stSignal; ...
PING to the FReeper Foxhole, a new Daily Thread in the VetsCoR Forum.

If you would like to be removed from this daily ping list, it takes only two clicks. Click this link and send a BLANK FReepmail to AntiJen. You will be removed promptly.

If you have comments you would like me to read, use this link. Thanks!

5 posted on 01/01/2003 1:39:18 AM PST by Jen
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To: AntiJen
Morning Jen. Happy New Year.
6 posted on 01/01/2003 1:42:52 AM PST by SAMWolf
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To: SAMWolf
PLEASE remove me from your PING LIST Thank You!
7 posted on 01/01/2003 1:44:04 AM PST by ActionNewsBill
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To: ActionNewsBill; AntiJen
PLEASE remove me from your PING LIST Thank You!

Will do. Thank you

8 posted on 01/01/2003 1:47:42 AM PST by SAMWolf
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To: SAMWolf; MistyCA; All
Hi Sam, Misty, and everybody else.

Looks like a great thread Sam. I'm looking forward to reading about Operation Nordwind.

What do you Yankee people eat on New Years Day? Southerners traditionally have blackeyed peas (for health), cornbread and collard greens (for wealth). We're also cooking some bratwurst, but usually we have ham.

HAPPY NEW YEAR!! I surprised myself by staying up past midnight, but now it's time for bed. See y'all later.
9 posted on 01/01/2003 1:51:47 AM PST by Jen
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To: AntiJen
What do you Yankee people eat on New Years Day?

I don't know about the rest of the Yankees but I eat the usual.

Either siscuits and gravy or scrambled eggs, ham and hash browns with white toast. What else is there?

10 posted on 01/01/2003 1:54:30 AM PST by SAMWolf
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To: AntiJen
Happy Year 2003
God Bless our military

11 posted on 01/01/2003 2:00:35 AM PST by Libertina
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To: AntiJen
Good morning Jen. Happy New Year.

12 posted on 01/01/2003 2:52:54 AM PST by Aeronaut
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To: SAMWolf
Seen from the "other side of the hill" the observations of a German Colonel who had fought against the French, British and Russians...

You might be referring to Colonel von Luck, Commander of the 125th Panzergrenadier Regiment, attached to the 21st Panzer Division. His book, Panzer Commander, has some description of Nordwind (written for a non-military audience), in particular the action at Rittershoffen.
13 posted on 01/01/2003 3:05:19 AM PST by Lee_Atwater
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To: Lee_Atwater
I know I read Guderians "Panzer Leader", but I don't think I read Von Luck's. I just finhed Panzer Aces and Panzer Aces 2. Good books from the tactical level.

Thanks for the lead.
14 posted on 01/01/2003 3:17:09 AM PST by SAMWolf
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To: AntiJen
15 posted on 01/01/2003 3:42:38 AM PST by E.G.C.
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To: AntiJen
16 posted on 01/01/2003 4:03:48 AM PST by facedown
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To: facedown
17 posted on 01/01/2003 4:27:16 AM PST by Samwise
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To: AntiJen; SAMWolf; All
Good morning AntiJen, thanks for the ping

Happy New Year
18 posted on 01/01/2003 5:29:05 AM PST by firewalk
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To: SAMWolf
"In some cases the SS troopers advanced in suicidal open waves, cursing and screaming at the American infantrymen who refused to be intimidated."

Gotta love this one. Just one more little piece of info that makes me proud to be an American. Unfortunately I'm one of the ones who never knew about Nordwind, but now I do - thanks.

19 posted on 01/01/2003 5:44:04 AM PST by Paulie
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Comment #20 Removed by Moderator

To: SAMWolf; AntiJen
RE #9 & #10

Hey you two stop it, you're making me hungry LOL

Happy New Year and best wishes to you all


alfa6 ;>}
21 posted on 01/01/2003 6:00:36 AM PST by alfa6
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To: coteblanche
Nice graphic there, coteblanche.

On minor point, shouldn't Capt. Whisner's score be 15.5 not 155. 155 sounds more like a Luftwaffe ace than USAAF.

Happy New Year Regards

alfa6 ;>}
22 posted on 01/01/2003 6:04:53 AM PST by alfa6
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To: SAMWolf
So I bet you're all asking yourselves, Valin, what happened
On This Day In History

Birthdates which occurred on January 01:
0379 Basilius the Great, of Caesarea, holyman (Moralia)
1387 Charles The Angry One, king of Navarra (1349-87)
1431 Alexander VI [Rodrigo Borgia] Spanish/Italian pope (1492-1503)
1449 Lorenzo de' Medici [The Magnificent] of Florence
1467 Sigismund I the old, king of Poland
1481 Huldrych Zwingli Swiss Protestant reformer
1504 Caspar Cruciger German church reformer
1520 Franciscus Balduinus [François Baudouin], lawyer
1618 Bartolomé Esteban Murillo Spain, Baroque artist [baptized]
1622 Isaac Sweers Dutch Admiral/General/Civil rights activist
1628 Christoph Bernhard German composer
1638 Antoinette du Ligier de la Guard Deshoulieres French poet/playwright
1652 Johann Krieger composer
1697 Johann Pfeiffer composer
1709 Johann H H Bütz German/Dutch organ builder
1714 Kristijonas Donelaitis Lutheran pastor, Lithuanian poet (The Seas)
1723 Christian Friedrich Gregor composer
1729 Edmund Burke British author/famous Whig (Philosophy & Inquiry, Reflections on the Revolution)
1734 John F E Acton cruel premier of Naples
1735 Paul Revere silversmith/US patriot (British are coming)
1745 "Mad" Anthony Wayne General
1748 Giovanni Furno composer
1752 Elizabeth Griscom (Betsy) Ross flag maker
1764 John Kinker Dutch linguist/philosopher/poet (Minderjarige Zangster)
1777 Micah Hawkins composer
1784 William Beale composer
1792 Henrik A Bjerregaard Norwegian writer/poet (Sønner af Norge)
1800 Sydney Nelson composer
1800 Vaclav Horak composer
1809 John Pieter Heije Dutch physician/writer/poet (Silver Fleet)
1815 Charles Renouvier French philosopher (neocriticism)
1817 Martin H Klaproth Germany, chemist
1819 Arthur Hugh Clough poet, friend of Matthew Arnold
1819 George Foster Shepley Brigadier General (Union volunteers), died in 1878
1823 Sándor Petöfi Kikkörös, Hungary, poet, revolutionary (Jáos Vitéz)
1827 William Lewis "Old Tige" Cabell Brigadier General (Confederate Army)
1831 William Joseph Westbrook composer
1834 Ludovic Halévy Paris France, actor (Carmen)
1838 William Hugh Young Brigadier General (Confederate Army), died in 1901
1839 Maria Louise Ramé "Ouida" Bury St. Edmunds Suffolk England, screenwriter (A Dog of Flanders, The Little Dutch Girl)
1843 Nikolay Nikolayevich Lodizhensky composer
1846 Nikola Pasic Serbian nationalist/premier (1891-1926)
1853 Hans Koessler composer
1854 Sir James Frazer Britain, anthropologist/author (The Golden Bough)
1861 Isaac Murphy thoroughbred jockey, 628 wins on 1,412 mounts (44.5%)
1861 William Morris Boston MA, actor (Brothers, The Roadhouse Murder)
1862 Snitz Edwards Hungary, actor (College, Phantom of the Opera)
1863 Baron Pierre de Coubertin France, revived Olympic games
1863 Aleko Konstantinov Bulgarian writer (To Chicago & Back)
1863 Pierre de Coubertin France, baron (revived Olympic games)
1864 Alfred Stieglitz US photographer-father of modern photography/art dealer (Camera Work)
1865 Giuseppe Ferrata composer
1866 [Lars] Peter Elfelt [Petersen] Denmark, director (Henrettelsen)
1867 Lew Fields New York NY, comedian/actor (of Weber & Fields, 23-Skidoo)
1867 Charles Edward Montague English author/critic (Fiery Particles)
1869 Louis de la Vallée-Poussin Belgian indologist
1873 Mariano Azuela Mexico, novelist (The Flies, The Bosses)
1873 Willis Robards Texas, actor/director (Mothers of Men, Every Woman's Problem)
1874 Hugo Leichtentritt composer
1875 Charles Rist French economist
1875 N F Druce cricketer (5 Tests for England vs Australia 1897-98)
1876 Johan C Altorf sculptor (October 3rd monument)
1878 Edwin Franko Goldman composer
1878 François Ambrosiny French dancer/choreograph (L'oiseau enchanté)
1879 Edward Dillon New York NY, actor/director (Young Ironsides, The Golden West)
1879 E[dward] M Forster London England, novelist (Howard's End, Passage to India)
1879 Emile Argand Swiss geologist (Dekbladen Theory)
1879 Ernest Jones British psychoanalyst (Life & Work of Sigmund Freud)
1879 Paul Porcasi Palermo Sicily Itlay, actor (Say It Again, I'll Remember April)
1879 William Fox Tulchva Hungary, US film pioneer (Nickelodeon)
1880 Edie Martin London England, actress (Titfield Thunderbolt)
1880 Shalom Asch Poland, yiddish writer (Motke Ganev)
1881 Carry van Bridges [de Haan], Dutch author (Heleen, Eva)
1881 Richard Kean England, actor (Story of Will Rogers, Ten Commandments)
1882 W C Wendelaar mayor of Alkmaar (1919-34)/Dutch MP (VVD)
1883 Federigo Tozzi Italian writer/journalist (La Torre, Tre Croci)
1883 Heiko E Arnoldi Dutch actor (3 Drops of Water)/theater director
1884 George W Meyer Boston MA, composer/lyricist (Bells of St. Mary's, Broadway Babies)
1885 Lawrence Alfred Bowes Newark CA, actor (Big Town Ideas)
1885 Roland Diggle composer
1885 Winifred Greenwood Geneseo New York, actress (Don't Call Me Little Girl, Love Never Dies)
1886 Willard Robertson Runnels TX, actor (Deep Valley, Fury at Furnace Creek)
1886 William Edmunds Italy, actor (Lost Moment, Big Sombrero)
1887 Wilhelm Canaris German admiral/head German military intelligence
1888 Chesley Bonestell San Francisco CA, special effects/actor/writer (Swiss Family Robinson, War of the Worlds)
1888 Joseph Marievsky Russia, actor (Three Godfathers)
1888 Ludwig Rex Berlin Germany, actor (Der Mensch am Wege)
1889 Alexander Smallens St Petersburg, Russia, conductor
1889 Tadeusz Jarecki composer
1889 Tom Dugan Dublin Ireland, actor (Circus Clown, Drag, Skyway)
1890 Florence Lawrence Hamilton Ontario, silent screen actress (Confidence)
1890 Lawford Davidson London England, actor (Love Doctor, Vagabond King)
1890 Wanda Capodaglio Asti Italy, actress (La Donna Nuda, Gelosia)
1891 Alessandro De Stefani Cividale del Friuli Italy, writer (La Signorina, Africa sotto i mari)
1891 Charles Bickford Cambridge MA, actor (John-The Virginian, Days of Wine and Roses)
1891 Frank Pettingell Liverpool England, actor (Gaslight, Goose Steps Out)
1892 Manuel Roxas y Acuna 1st President of Philippines
1892 Artur Rodzinski Spalato Dalmatia Poland, conductor/composer
1892 Lillian Lorraine San Francisco CA, actress (Lonesome Corners, Should a Wife Forgive?)
1892 Miklos Radnai composer
1893 Frank Badgley Ottowa Canada, actor (Man From Glengarry)
1893 Jay Rescher Bayonne NJ, cinematographer (Girl of the Sea, Straight To Heaven)
1894 Iván Petrovich Novi Sad Serbia, actor (Magician, Garden of Allah)
1895 Alice Tissot Paris France, actress (Tambour battant, Jamais deux sans trois)
1895 J Edgar Hoover Washington DC, Director of US Fedreal Bureau of Investigation
1895 Nathaniel Shilkret New York City NY, conductor
1895 Rafael Martínez Zaragoza Spain, composer (Nuestra Natacha, Ana María)
1896 Maurice Jacobson composer
1896 Teinosuke KinugasaMie Ken Japan, writer/director (Jujiro, Jigoku-mon)
1896 Yitzhak Edel composer
1897 Al Martin screenwriter (Blondie Knows Best)
1897 Walter Greaza St Paul MN, actor (Martin Kane Private Eye, Edge of Night)
1898 George van Derton Belgian racer (won 500 race)
1898 Viktor Ullmann opera composer (Der Kaiser von Atlantis)
1899 Juozas Tallat-Kelpsa composer
1899 Lev V Kuleshov Tambov Russia, director/theorist (Po Zakonu)
1899 Raymond Loucheur composer
19-- Alexia Robinson Fort Lauderdale FL, actress (Total Recall, General Hospital)
19-- Stephanie Faracy Brooklyn NY, actress (Judy-Thorn Birds)
1900 Erwin S. Gelsey New York NY, screenwriter (Cover Girl, Touchdown Army)
1900 Hubert van Doorne Dutch auto manufacturer (DAF)
1900 Lillian Rich Herne Hill London England, actress (One Wonderful Night, Never Say Die)
1900 Paola Borboni Parma Italy, actress (La Cage aux folles II, Cicciabomba)
1900 William Haines Staunton VA, actor (Fast Life, Little Annie Rooney)
1900 Xavier Cugat [Francisco de Asís Javier Cugat Mingall de Brue y Deulofeo] Tirona Catalonia Spain, bandleader (married Abbe Lane, Charo)
1901 Christine Wittewaall van Stoetwegen Dutch MP (CDD)
1902 Aldo Graziati Scorze Italy, cinematographer (Othello, Indiscretion, The Wayward Wife)
1902 Buster Nupen cricketer (1-eyed South African quick, great on matting)
1902 Dimiter Nenov composer
1905 Melvin Price (Representative-D-IL, 1945- )
1906 Frank Stack Canada, speed skater (Olympics-bronze-1932)
1907 Erich Schmid composer
1908 Kinue Hitoma Japan, 800m runner (Olympics-silver-1928)
1909 Dana Andrews Collins MS, actor (Battle of the Bulge, Laura)
1909 Barry Goldwater (Senator-R-AZ, 1953-65, 69- )/Presidential candidate (R) 1964)
1909 D D Hindlekar cricketer (Indian batsman & wicket-keeper 1936-46)
1910 Russ Bender actor/writer (Amazing Colossal Man, Space Monster)
1911 Hammerin' Hank Greenberg Hall-of-Fame 1st baseman (Detroit Tiger)
1911 Endre Szervanszky composer
1912 Kim Philby British spy/Soviet mole
1912 Victor Reuther Wheeling WV, labor leader
1913 Eliot Janeway financial writer (Economics of Chaos)
1915 François Bondy writer
1915 Lewis Bingham Keeble town planner
1916 Earl Wrightson Baltimore MD, singer (Paul Whiteman's Goodyear Revue)
1918 Willy den Ouden Dutch swimmer, (WR 100m, 1 04.06)
1919 Bernard Drukker Dutch organist/pianist/orchestra leader (Devil's Wheel)
1919 Carole Landis Fairchild WI, actress (One Million BC, Topper Returns)
1919 J[erome] D[avid] Salinger New York City, NY, novelist (Catcher in the Rye)
1920 Elisabeth Andersen [Anna de Bruyn], Dutch actress (Yerma, Titania)
1920 Roger Peacock writer
1921 Alain Mimoun O'Kacha Algerian/French world cross-country champion (Olympics-gold-1956)
1922 Ernest F Hollings (Senator-D-SC, 1966- )
1923 Chalmers Goodlin US test pilot (XS-1)
1923 Milton Jackson US, vibraphonist (Milt of Bags)
1925 George Conner NFL tackle, linebacker (Chicago Bears)
1925 Valentina Cortesa Milan Italy, actress (Kidnap Syndicate)
1926 Claire Polin [Schaff] composer flautist/musicologist
1927 Barbara Baxley Stockton CA, actress (Norma Rae, Countdown)
1927 Juliusz Luciuk composer
1927 Maurice Béjart France, ballet choreographer (Rite of Spring)
1927 Yuri Grigorovich Leningrad Russia, choreographer
1928 Ernest R Tidyman Ohio, novelist/screenwriter (French Connection)
1928 Khan Mohammad cricketer (Paki fast-med bowler, 54 wickets in 13 Tests)
1929 Holling Gustav Vapor character on Northern Exposure
1930 Gaafar Muhammad Nimeiry Premier/President (Sudan)
1930 Werner Heiden composer
1931 Carel Brons composer
1931 Siddig El Nigoumi ceramicist
1932 Giuseppe Patane Naples Italy, conductor
1932 Arnfried G D P Dutch manufacturer (breadcrumbs)/drugs dealer
1933 Joe Orton England, actor/dramatist (Prick Up Your Ears)
1933 Anders Bo Leif Linde composer
1933 James A Abrahamson USAF/astronaut
1935 Harold Martina Netherlands Antilles, pianist/conductor
1935 Valentin Nikolaevich N Benderov Russia, cosmonaut
1936 Eve Queler New York City NY, conductor
1936 Willye B White US long jumper (Olympics-silver-1956)
1938 Beatrix Wilhelmina Armgard Queen of Netherlands (1980- )
1938 Bill Emerson (Representative-R-MO, 1981- )
1940 Frank Langella Bayonne NJ, actor (Dracula, Diary of a Mad Housewife, 12 Chairs)
1940 Jack Kiefer Columbia PA, PGA golfer (1994 Ralphs Senior Classic)
1940 Laszlo Sary composer
1940 Richard Henry Orton composer
1942 Country Joe McDonald California, rock guitarist/vocalist (& the Fish)
1942 Gennadi Vassilyevich Sarafanov USSR, cosmonaut (Soyuz 15)
1942 George Couroupos composer
1942 Martin Frost (Representative-D-TX, 1971- )
1943 Don Novello [Father Guido Sarducci], Ashtabula OH, comedian (SNL)
1943 Jerilyn Britz Minneapolis MN, LPGA golfer (1979 US Women's Open)
1944 Charlie Davis cricketer (West Indies batsman in 15 Tests 1968-73)
1945 Jacques Ickx Belgium, Le Mans auto race (6-time winner)
1946 Manfred Stengl Austria, 2 man lugist (Olympics-gold-1960)
1946 Rick Hurst Houston TX, actor (Dukes of Hazzard)
1947 Alexei Ivanovich Bobrov Russia, cosmonaut
1947 Gary "BB" Coleman blues vocal/guitarist/producer
1947 Peter Lankhorst Dutch MP (PPR)
1947 Vladimir Georgiyevich Titov Russia, cosmonaut (Soyuz T-8, TM-4, STS 63)
1949 Nikolai Tikhonovich Moskalenko Russia, cosmonaut
1949 Peter Dormer arts writer
1950 Morgan Fisher rock keyboardist (British Lions)
1950 Svetlana Georgievna Beregovkina Russia, cosmonaut
1950 Yevgeni Vladimirovich Saley cosmonaut
1951 Frans Kellendonk author (Ruin, The Good for Nothing)
1951 Jaco Pastorius rocker
1953 Alpha Blondy [Seydou Kone], Ivory coast, reggae singer (Jerusalem)
1953 Kevin Hangon composer
1953 Rochelle S Abramson violinist
1954 Fr David Paris France, rocker
1955 Michael James Sullivan Gary IN, PGA golfer (1980 Southern Open)
1956 Anatoli Borisovich Polonsky Russia, Lieutenant-Colonel/cosmonaut
1956 Sergei Vasiliyevich Avdeyev Russian cosmonaut (Soyuz TM-15, SK TM-28)
1958 Ren Woods Portland Oregon, actress (Fanta-Roots)
1958 Grandmaster Flash [Joseph Saddler], New York City, NY, rocker (Message)
1959 Abdul Ahad Mohmand Afghanistan, cosmonaut (Soyuz TM-6)
1960 Michael David Morrison actor (Caleb Snyder-As the World Turns)
1961 Irv Eatman NFL tackle (Houston Oilers)
1961 Marcia Cross actress (Melrose Place)
1962 Ravshanbek Aliyev Kirgiz, cosmonaut
1963 Glenn Trimble cricketer (son of Sam Two ODI's for Australia 1986)
1963 Lance Smith NFL guard (New York Giants)
1965 Andrew O Valmon Brooklyn NY, 400m runner
1965 DeDee Pfeiffer actress (Cybill)
1965 Harry Galbreath NFL guard (Green Bay Packers)
1965 Mark Dewey US baseball player (Pittsburgh Pirates)
1966 Rawley Valberde Oceanside CA, actor (Amado-Santa Barbara)
1966 Mika Nieminen Tampere Finland, hockey forward (Team Finland, Olympics-bronze-1998)
1967 Andy Heck NFL tackle (Seattle Seahawks, Chicago Bears)
1967 Derrick Thomas NFL linebacker (Kansas City Chiefs)
1968 John de Visser soccer player (SC Heerenveen)
1968 Sandy Beasley Richmond BC, softball outfielder (Olympics-96)
1969 Morris Chestnut actor (Boyz N the Hood)
1969 Reemt Pyka Bremerhaven Germany, hockey forward (Team Germany)
1970 Brian Morton Wollongong Australia, canoeist (Olympics-96)
1970 Tom Sier soccer player (SC Heerenveen)
1970 Vadim Glovatskiy hockey defenseman (Team Kazakhstan Olympics-1998)
1971 Beno Bryant WLAF running back (Amsterdam Admirals)
1971 Bobby Holik Jihlava Czechoslavakia, NHL left wing (New Jersey Devils, Team Czech Rep)
1971 Bridget Pettis WNBA guard (Phoenix Mercury)
1971 Kevin Lee NFL wide receiver (New England Patriots)
1971 Kevin Mitchell NFL linebacker (San Francisco 49ers)
1972 Barron Miles NFL defensive back (Pittsburgh Steelers)/WLAF corner (Frankfurt)
1972 Ivan Droppa hockey defenseman (Team Slovakia 1998)
1973 Clyde Wijnhard soccer player (Ajax, RKC)
1973 Fang Li Hunan China, tennis star (1991 Futures-Bilbao-ESP)
1973 Justin Armour NFL wide receiver (Buffalo Bills)
1973 Mercury Hayes wide receiver (Atlanta Falcons)
1974 Johnie Church NFL defensive end (Seattle Seahawks)
1975 Becky Kellar ice hockey defenseman (Canada, Olympics-98)
1975 Chris Anstey NBA center (Dallas Mavericks)
1986 Alexa Ray Joel daughter of Billy Joel & Christie Brinkley

Deaths which occurred on January 01:
0379 Basilius the Great of Caesarea, saint (Moralia), dies
0404 Telemachus Roman monk, murdered
0898 Odo Earl of Paris/king of France (888-98), dies at about 39
0962 Boudouin III count of Flanders, dies
1387 Karel de Boze king of Navarra (1349-87), dies
1502 Gregorius XIII [Ugo Buoncampagni], Italy, pope (1572-85), dies
1515 Louis XII Father of People, "the Justified" King of France (1498-1515), dies at 52
1517 Hermann Vischer the Younger, German bronze merchant, dies
1557 Jacques Cartier French explorer (Canada), dies at 65
1559 Christian III king of Denmark/Norway (1534-59), dies
1560 Guillaume du Bellay Sieur de Langey, French soldier, dies
1617 Hendrick Goltzius Dutch painter/cartoonist/engraver, dies
1626 Cornelis Pieterse Hoft Amsterdam merchant/regent, dies at 68
1630 Tetsugen Zen teacher (Jodo sect converted to Obaku Zen), dies
1661 Pieter Claesz Dutch still life painter, dies at about 64
1701 Pietro Sanmartini composer, dies at 64
1716 William Wycherley dramatist (The Country Wife), dies at about 75
1730 Daniel Finch 2nd Earl of Nottingham, dies at 82
1753 Louis-Maurice de La Pierre composer, dies at 55
1758 Johann F von Cronegk German playwright (Codrus), dies at 26
1766 Frans E Jacobus III Old Pretender, king of Great Britain/Ireland, dies
1766 James III Edward Old Pretender/king of Great Britain/Ireland, dies at 77
1768 Jean-Laurent Krafft composer, dies at 73
1777 Emanuele Barbella composer, dies at 58
1780 Johann Ludwig Krebs composer, dies at 66
1782 Johann Christian Bach German composer/Mozart's tutor, dies at 46
1783 Jacobus Enschedé Haarlems printer, dies at 39
1784 Patrice F Earl de Nény South Netherlands Secret Council chairman, dies at 67
1787 Arthur Middleton US farmer (signed Declaration of Independence), dies at 44
1789 Christleib Siegmund Binder composer, dies at 65
1793 Francesco Guardi Italian painter, dies at 80
1800 Louis J M Daubenton France, zoologist, dies at 83
1816 François Alexander Sallantin composer, dies at 60
1817 Martin H Klaproth German chemist (uranium), dies at 73
1818 Fedele Fenaroli composer, dies at 87
1850 Raphael G Kiesewetter Austria musicologist, dies at 76
1887 Johan Hendrik Koelman portrait painter, dies at 66
1901 Ignatius Donnelly US attorney/Lieutenant-Governor (Minnesota), dies at 69
1906 Joseph Miroslav Weber composer, dies at 51
1907 Cyrill Kistler composer, dies at 58
1919 William W Campbell Canadian poet (Ian of the Orcades), dies at 60
1920 Paul Adam French writer (L'enfant d'Austerlitz), dies at 57
1934 Jakob Wassermann writer, dies at 60
1942 Jaroslav Jezek composer, dies at 35
1944 C T B Turner cricket (17 Tests 1886-95, 101 wicket All time great), dies
1945 Vit Nejedly composer, dies at 33
1948 Hermann K J Zilcher German pianist/composer (Liebesmesse), dies at 66
1948 Willem Louis Frederic Landre composer, dies at 73
1949 Malcolm Campbell English cyclist (world speed-record), dies at 63
1953 Hank Williams country singer (Cold Cold Heart), dies at 29
1953 Ludomir Rózycki Polish composer/conductor (Casanova), dies at 68
1957 Ruth Draper US elocutionist, dies at 67
1958 David Broekman musician (Think Fast), dies at 55
1960 Margaret Sullavan actress (Back Street), overdose at 48
1962 Diego Martínez Barrio Spanish president (1939), dies at 76
1964 Alf Hall cricketer (South African lefty quick took 40 wickets in 7 Tests), dies
1964 Otto Emanuel Olsson composer, dies at 84
1964 Rika Hopper Dutch actress (Comedia, Anastasia), dies at about 86
1965 Gertrude Michael actress (Caged, Cleopatra), dies at 53
1965 Juan Bautista Plaza-Alfonzo composer, dies at 66
1966 Vincent Auriol President of France (1947-53), dies at 82
1967 Maurice Leyland cricketer (41 Tests for England, 2764 runs), dies
1967 Moon Mullican rocker, dies at 58
1969 Barton Maclane actor (General Peterson-I Dream of Jeannie), dies at 68
1972 Jane Morgan actress (Mrs Margaret Davis-Our Miss Brooks), dies at 91
1972 Kenneth Patchen US poet/writer (Cloth of Tempest), dies at 60
1972 Maurice A Chevalier French actor (Can Can, Gigi), dies at 83
1975 Arthur Pierson actor/director (Hat Check Girl), dies at 73
1980 Frank Clifford Wykoff sprinter (Olympics-gold-28, 32, 36), dies at 70
1980 Pietro Nenni Italian politician (Socialists), dies at 88
1982 Victor Buono actor (Mr Schubert-Man from Atlantis), dies at 43
1982 Paul Belmondo French sculptor (Bathing Woman, Orléans), dies at 83
1982 Vladimir K Zworykin Russ/American engineer (cathode-ray tube), dies
1987 Gustav Knuth actor (Heidi, Rats), dies at 85
1988 Leo Steiner New York Carnegie Deli's owner, dies
1990 Charles Boost Dutch film critic, dies at 82
1990 Gerhard Schröder West German minister of Defense, dies at 79
1990 Joe Hardstaff Jr cricketer (23 Tests for England, 1636 runs), dies
1990 Suzuki Sochu Zen teacher (Rinzai line)/abbot of Ryutakuji, dies
1991 Charles B Timmer Dutch writer (Russia Black on White), dies at 83
1991 Yvonne Waegemans Flemish author (Gnome Patjoepelke), dies at 81
1992 Constantin Poustochkine jazz critic, dies
1992 Corky Geil dancer, dies in Long Beach CA at 64
1992 Ginette Leclerc actress (Baker's Wife), dies at 79
1992 Grace Hopper computer scientist, dies at 85
1992 Hette G Abma vicar/Dutch MP (SGP), dies
1992 Mike Frankovich US producer (Guess Who's Coming to Dinner), dies
1993 June Clayworth actress (Bodyguard, Criminal Court), dies of lymphoma
1993 Phyllis Hill actress (Singing in the Dark), dies of lung cancer at 72
1994 Cesar Romero US actor (Joker-Batman), dies at 86
1994 Werner Schwab Austrian playwright (Female Presidents), dies at 35
1995 Eugene Wigner physicist (Nobel prize for physics-1963), dies at 92
1995 Frederick West English contractor/serial killer, commits suicide at 53
1995 Jess Stacy US jazz pianist (Great Gatsby), dies at 90
1995 Ted Hawkins US blues singer (Watch Your Step), dies at 58
1996 Arleigh Albert Burke British Admiral, dies at 94
1996 Arthur Rudolph rocket Engineer, dies at 89
1996 Hamish Imlach folk singer/comic, dies at 55
1997 Graham Kersey cricket wicket keeper, dies in car crash
1997 Joan Rice actress (Payroll, Steel Key, Curtain Up), dies at 66
1997 John Burgess rugby administrator, dies at 71
1997 Townes Van Zandt musician, dies at 52
1998 Helen Wills Moody Roark tennis ace (31 Grand Slams), dies at 92

On this day...
5777 -BC- Origin of Solar Cycle
4714 -BC- Origin of Julian Period (Year 0)
4713 -BC- Julian Year 1 begins, at Greenwich mean noon
0045 -BC- Origin of Julian Era; Julian calendar begins
0038 -BC- Origin of Era of Spain (Cesars)
0030 -BC- Origin of Actian Era
0001 -BC- Origin of Era of Pisa
0001 Origin of Christian Era
0069 Roman garrison of Mainz uprising
0089 Gov Lucius Antonius Saturninus of Germany becomes emperor of Rome
0313 Start of Roman (Pontifical) Indiction
0404 Last gladiator competition in Rome
0414 King Ataulf of Narbonne marries emperor Honorius sister Galle Placidia
0722 Hofmeier Charles Martel flees from bishop Willibrord
0990 Russia adopts Julian calendar
1430 Jews of Sicily are no longer required to attend conversionist services
1438 Albrecht II von Habsburg becomes king of Hungary
1494 Juw Dekama elected potentate of Frisia
1502 Portuguese navigators discover Rio de Janeiro
1504 King Louis XII loses last bulwark in Naples, Caeta
1515 Jews are expelled from Laibach Austria
1515 François, Duke of Angoulême succeeds Louis XII as François I of France
1573 Geuzen sets fire to Woudrichem
1583 1st day of the Gregorian calendar in Holland & Flanders
1610 German astronomer Simon Marius 1st discovers the Jupiter moons, but does not officially report it, Galileo does on July 1 1610
1622 Papal Chancery adopts Jan 1 as beginning of the year (was Mar 25)
1651 Charles II Stuart crowned king of Scotland
1660 1st entry in Samuel Pepys' diary
1660 General Moncks army battles with the Tweed on way to London
1660 Thomas Fairfax' New Model-army occupies York
1672 Jean Racine's "Bajazet" premieres in Paris
1673 Regular mail delivery begins between New York & Boston
1675 Don Carlos de Gurrea/Aragón becomes Spanish land guardian of South Netherlands
1689 Pro-James II-Earl of Danby occupies York
1700 Protestant West-Europe (except England) begin using Gregorian calendar
1700 Russia replaces Byzantines with Julian calendar
1701 Great Britain & Ireland union is in effect, creating United Kingdom
1707 Jacob V succeeds his father Pedro II as king of Portugal
1739 J B C Bouvet de Lozier discovers Bouvet Island, near Antarctica
1770 Date of action in the opera "Madeleine"
1772 1st traveler's checks issued (London)
1776 General George Washington hoists Continental Union Flag
1785 "Daily Universal Register" (Times of London) publishes 1st issue
1788 London's Daily Universal Register becomes the Times
1788 Quakers in Pennsylvania emancipate their slaves
1797 Albany replaces New York City as capital of NY
1798 Russia appoints 1st Jewish censor to censor Hebrew books
1800 Dutch East Indies Company dissolves
1801 Ireland & Great Britain (England & Scotland) form United Kingdom
1804 Jean Jacques Dessalines proclaims independence of Haiti from France
1807 Curaçao is taken by English (until March, 1816)
1808 Congress prohibits importation of slaves
1808 African Benevolent Society (education) forms
1808 Sierra Leone becomes a British colony
1809 Holland Brigade under Brigadier General Chassé reaches Madrid
1814 Field marshal Blücher's troops cross the Rhine at Kaub
1818 Official reopening of the White House
1826 Baron Van der Capellen resigns as Governor of Dutch-Indies
1827 Dutch Trade Company NHM gets opium monopoly on Java
1831 William Lloyd Garrison publishes 1st issue of abolitionist journal
1833 British government demands Falkland islands
1833 Curaçao census 2,602 whites, 6,531 free people & 5,894 slaves
1834 German Tolunie goes into effect
1838 1st official horse race in South Australia-Adelaide
1840 1st recorded bowling match in US, Knickerbocker Alleys, New York City NY
1842 1st illustrated weekly magazine in US publishes 1st issue, New York City NY
1844 1st edition of New Rotterdam's Daily (3x per week)
1846 Yucatan declares independence from México
1847 Michigan is 1st state to abolish capital punishment
1847 Netherlands Haarlem's Current newspaper starts publishing
1848 Britain takes Mosquito Coast from Nicaragua
1851 City of Glasgow steamer inaugurates Philadelphia-Liverpool line
1852 1st US public bath opens in New York City NY
1852 Netherlands begins issuing postage stamps
1853 1st practical fire engine (horse-drawn) in US enters service
1854 Lincoln University, a black college, chartered (Oxford PA)
1858 Canada begins using decimal currency system
1860 Slavery ends of in Netherlands Indies
1861 Porfirio Diaz conquers Mexico City
1861 President Lincoln declares slavery in Confederate states unlawful
1862 1st US income tax (3% of incomes > $600, 5% of incomes > $10,000)
1862 Battle of Fort McRee FL, Battle of Port Royal SC (Port Royal Ferry)
1863 1st homestead under the Homestead Act claimed, near Beatrice NE
1863 Battle of Galveston, TX - Confederates recapture the city
1863 Battle of Helena AK
1863 Emancipation Proclamation (ending slavery) issued by Lincoln
1863 Franz Schuberts "Missa Solemnis" premieres in Leipzig
1865 -Apr 26th] Carolinas' campaign
1871 Belgium disbands salt tax
1873 Origin of Japanese Era
1874 New York City annexes the Bronx
1877 England's Queen Victoria proclaimed empress of India
1879 John Brahms' Violin Concerto in D major premieres in Leipzig
1880 Building of Panama Canal, begins
1881 Dr John H Watson is introduced to Sherlock Holmes
1886 1st Tournament of Roses, Pasadena CA
1891 French troops occupy Nioro, West-Sudan, 3000 killed
1891 King Pakketvaart sails to Netherlands Indies
1892 Ellis Island becomes reception center for new immigrants
1893 1st US college extension courses for credit, University of Chicago
1893 Japan adopts the Gregorian calendar
1894 Denmark adopts Mid-European time
1894 Manchester Ship Canal in England opens to traffic
1895 Norway adopts Mid-European time
1896 Wilhelm Röntgen announces his discovery of x-rays
1897 1st football game between black colleges-Atlanta University 10, Tuskegee 0
1897 Brooklyn merges with New York to form present City of New York
1898 Lightship replaces whistling buoy at mouth of San Francisco Bay
1898 d'Annunzio's "Sogno d'un mattino di primavera" premieres in Rome
1899 Cuba liberated from Spain by US (National Day) (US occupies till 1902)
1900 1st date in John dos Passos' USA trilogy (The 42nd Parallel)
1900 British protectorates of Northern & Southern Nigeria established
1900 Compulsory education in Netherlands goes into effect
1901 Australia declares independence from federation of UK colonies
1902 1st Rose Bowl game (Pasadena CA) (University of Michigan-49, Stanford-0)
1902 Nathan Stubblefield makes 1st public demonstration of radio, Pennsylvania
1904 Netherlands Indies colony begins opium production
1905 9 hour work day for diamond miners
1906 Dutch law makes driver's license mandatory
1907 President Theodore Roosevelt shakes a record 8,513 hands in 1 day
1908 1st time, ball signifying new year dropped at Times Square
1908 Jack Hobbs makes his Test debut at the MCG (83 & 28)
1909 Robert Fowler runs then world record marathon (2 52 45.4)
1910 Simpson-Hayward (England) takes 6-43 on debut with underarm lobs
1911 South Australia transfers Northern Territory to federal government
1911 Belgian Mining law introduces 9½-hour work day
1912 1st running of San Francisco's famed "Bay to Breakers" race (7.63 miles/12.3 km)
1912 Sun Yat-sen forms Chinese Republic
1913 Post office begins parcel post deliveries
1914 1st scheduled airline flight, St Petersburg-Tampa (Tony Jannus pilot)
1914 Northern & Southern Nigeria united in British colony of Nigeria
1914 Klaas ter Laan becomes Netherlands' 1st socialist mayor (Zaandam)
1915 DW Griffith shows "Clansman" at a sneak preview
1915 Jews of Laibach Austria expelled
1916 1st issue of "Journal of Negro History" published
1916 1st football game in Rose Bowl (Washington State-Brown)
1918 Last day of the Julian calendar in Finland
1919 Belorussian SSR established
1922 Vancouver BC starts driving on the right side of road
1923 Union of Socialist Soviet Republics established
1924 Grossdeutsche Völksgemeinschaft/Völkische Block replaces NSDAP
1925 Norway's capital Christiania changes name to Oslo
1926 Flood in Rhine strikes Cologne
1927 Communist uprising in West Java
1927 Dodgers announce release of future Hall of Fame Zack Wheat
1928 1st US air-conditioned office building opens, San Antonio
1928 Algemeene Vereeniging Radio Omroep (AVRO) begins broadcasting (Netherlands)
1929 Roy Riegels runs 60 yards the wrong way with Rose Bowl fumble recovery
1930 Earl Claus von Stauffenberg promoted to 2nd lieutenant
1930 Jurgens & Van den Berg merge with Lever Brothers to form Unilever
1932 Jacob Cocey Sr chosen as mayor of Massillon OH
1932 Rasse und Siedlungshauptamt publishes Himmler's wedding laws
1934 Alcatraz officially becomes a federal prison
1934 Federal Deposit Insurance Corp (US bank guarantor) effective
1934 International Telecommunication Union established
1935 1st Sugar Bowl & 1st Orange Bowl
1935 Associated Press inaugurates Wirephoto
1935 Eastern Airlines hires Eddie Rickenbacker as GM
1935 President Mustapha Kemal Pasha names himself "Atatürk Father of Turkey"
1936 1st newspaper to microfilm its current issues, New York Herald Tribune
1937 US Army Air Corps physiological research laboratory completed, Ohio
1937 Anastasio Somoza becomes President of Nicaragua
1937 Count Claus von Stauffenberg promoted to captain
1941 Netherlands begins taxing wages
1941 Russian General Zhukov appointed chief of General staff
1942 Rose Bowl played in North Carolina due to Japanese threat-Oregon 20, Duke 16
1942 US & 25 other countries sign a united declaration against the Axis
1943 Count Claus von Stauffenberg promoted to Lieutenant-Colonel
1943 Negro League star Josh Gibson suffers a nervous breakdown
1944 1st feature-length foreign movie, African Journey, shown on TV, New York City NY
1944 Army defeats Navy 10-7 in football "Arab Bowl", Oran, North Africa
1944 General Clark replaces General Patton as commander of 7th Army
1945 France joins the UN
1945 German air raid on allied airports at Eindhoven/Saint-Trond/Brussels
1946 Emperor Hirohito of Japan announces he is not a god
1946 National Assembly proclaims Hungary a republic
1946 ENIAC, US 1st computer finished by Mauchly/Eckert
1947 Britain nationalizes its coal industry
1947 Benelux agress to work related issues
1947 WTTG TV channel 5 in Washington, DC (MET) begins broadcasting
1948 1st color newsreel filmed, Pasadena CA
1948 Britain nationalizes its railways
1948 General Agreement on Tariffs & Trade effective
1948 Orissa province accedes to India
1948 Bradman scores 132 in the 1st innings of the 3rd Test vs India
1948 Italy adopts constitution
1949 Tokelau (Union) Islands declared part of New Zealand
1949 KPRC TV channel 2 in Houston, TX (NBC) begins broadcasting
1949 KTTV TV channel 11 in Los Angeles, CA (MET) begins broadcasting
1950 Ho Chi Minh begins offensive against French troops in Indo-China
1951 Massive Chinese/North Korean assault on UN-lines
1952 Dmitri Shostakovich completes his 5th string quartet
1953 Ernest Blochs "Suite Hebraique" premieres
1953 WBRE TV channel 28 in Wilkes-Barre Scranton PA (NBC) 1st broadcast
1954 Rose & Cotton Bowl are 1st sport colorcasts
1954 KSLA TV channel 12 in Shreveport LA (CBS) begins broadcasting
1954 WWTV TV channel 9 in Cadillac-Traverse City MI (CBS) 1st broadcast
1954 Yugoslav parliament chairman/Vice President Milovan Djilas criticize communism
1955 Bhutan issues its 1st postage stamps
1955 WEAT (now WPEC) TV channel 12 in West Palm Beach, FL (CBS) begins
1956 Sudan (Anglo-Egyptian Sudan) gains independence from Britain & Egypt (National Day)
1956 Elvis Presley records Heartbreak Hotel for RCA in Nashville
1956 KHAS TV channel 5 in Hastings NB (NBC) begins broadcasting
1956 KOSA TV channel 7 in Odessa TX (CBS) begins broadcasting
1956 WREC (now WREG) TV channel 3 in Memphis TN (CBS) begins broadcasting
1957 France returns Saar to becomes the 10th state of German Federal Republic
1957 International Geophysical Year begins; ends 6/30/1958 (18-month year)
1957 Benjamin Britten's ballet "Prince & the Pauper" premieres in London
1958 BOAC Britannia flies London to New York in a record 7hours 57minutes
1958 European Economic Community (Common Market) starts operation
1958 Sammy Davis Jr marries Loray White
1958 Treaties establish European Economic Community (Common Market)
1958 WMBD TV channel 31 in Peoria, IL (CBS) begins broadcasting
1959 Castro leads Cuba to victory as Fulgencio Batista flees to Dominican Republic
1959 Chad becomes autonomous republic in French Community
1959 Rohan Kanhai completes 256 vs India at Calcutta
1960 Bank of France issues new franc, worth 20¢
1960 Cameroon (French Cameroon) gains independence from France
1960 Johnny Cash plays 1st of many free concerts behind bars
1960 Montserrat adopts constitution
1960 US census at 179,245,000
1961 Houston Oilers beat Los Angeles Chargers 24-16 in AFL championship game
1961 Largest check issued, National Bank of Chicago to Sears ($960.242 billion)
1961 Russia introduces a new ruble worth $1.11
1961 Briggs Stadium is renamed Tigers Stadium
1962 Rwanda granted internal self-government by Belgium
1962 Beatles' Decca audition is unsuccessful
1962 Western Samoa gains independence from New Zealand; Susuga Malietoa Tanumafili II becomes co-chief of Western Samoa
1963 G Woods succeeds Eugene Black as president of the World Bank
1963 WTEV (now WLNE) TV channel 6 in Providence RI begins broadcasting
1964 Federation of Rhodesia & Nyasaland dissolved
1964 KNMT TV channel 12 in Walker MN (CBS) begins broadcasting
1964 KTVS TV channel 3 in Sterling CO (CBS) begins broadcasting
1965 International Cooperation Year begins
1965 Palestinian al-Fatah organization forms
1966 12 day transit worker strike shuts down New York City NY subway
1966 All US cigarette packs have to carry "Caution Cigarette smoking may be hazardous to your health"
1966 Military coup by Colonel Jean-Bédel Bokassa in Central African Republic
1966 Simon & Garfunkel's "Sounds of Silence" reaches #1
1967 Green Bay Packers beat Dallas Cowboys 34-27 in NFL championship game
1967 Kansas City Chiefs beat Buffalo Bills 31-7 in AFL championship game
1967 CRU becomes the CAFA & turns over the Grey Cup trophy to the CFL
1967 Day's play in the Calcutta Test vs West Indies cancelled by riots
1967 FCC requires AM-FM sister stations to be at least 50% different
1967 St Helena adopts constitution
1967 Tonga revises constitution
1967 WABW TV channel 14 in Pelham GA (PBS) begins broadcasting
1968 ABC radio splits into 4 networks (Info, Entertainment, Contemp & FM)
1968 Evel Knievel fails in his attempt to jump Cæsar's Palace Fountain
1968 Netherlands gets color TV
1968 WDCO TV channel 15 in Cochran GA (PBS) begins broadcasting
1969 Jack Kent Cooke, owner of NHL's Los Angeles Kings, fines each player $100 for "NOT" arguing with the referee
1970 Charles "Chub" Feeney becomes president of baseball's National League
1970 Revised calendar for Western (RC) Church goes into effect
1970 "The Epoch" (Time 0 for UNIX systems, Midnight GMT)
1970 Afro-American Historical Calendar Series Established
1970 Neth Christian Workers Union (NCW) forms
1971 Cigarette advertisements banned on TV
1972 International Book Year begins
1972 "Company" closes at Alvin Theater New York City NY after 690 performances
1972 "On the Town" closes at Imperial Theater New York City NY after 65 performances
1972 "Promises Promises" closes at Shubert Theater New York City NY after 1281 performances
1972 KDSD TV channel 16 in Aberdeen SD (PBS) begins broadcasting
1972 People's Republic of China performs nuclear test at Lop Nor People's Rebulic of China
1973 Britain, Ireland & Denmark become 7th-9th members of Common Market
1973 West African Economic Community formed (Benin, Ivory Coast, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Senegal, Upper Volta)
1973 47th Australian Women's Tennis Margaret Court beats Goolagong (64 75)
1974 World Population Year begins
1974 Lee MacPhail takes over as AL president, succeeding Joe Cronin
1974 NBC radio begins on the hour news 24 hours a day (following CBS lead)
1975 Haldeman, Ehrlichman, Mitchell & Mardian convicted of Watergate crime
1975 International Women's Year begins
1975 Sweden adopts constitution
1976 NBC replaces the peacock logo
1976 "Musical Jubilee" closes at St James Theater New York City NY after 92 performances
1976 Liberty Bell moves to new home behind Independence Hall
1976 Venezuela nationalizes oil fields
1977 1st woman formally ordained an Episcopal priest (Jacqueline Means)
1977 Czech intellectualus & chinas begin Human Rights Group Chapter 77
1977 Belgium reapportions 2,359 communities into 596
1977 Tony Dorsett runs for record 202 yards in the Sugar Bowl
1978 President Ford signs 1st major revision of copyright law since 1909
1978 "Your Arm's Too Short..." closes at Lyceum New York City NY after 429 performances
1978 Air India B747 explodes near Bombay killing 213
1979 International Year of the Child begins
1979 Jura, 26th canton of Switzerland, established
1979 US & China (People's Republic) begin diplomatic relations
1980 Alabama beats Arkansas in Sugar Bowl for college football championship
1980 Chrysler UK renamed Talbot
1980 International Decade of Water & Sanitation begins
1980 Sweden changes order of succession to throne
1980 54th Australian Womens Tennis Barbara Jordan beats S Walsh (63 63)
1980 Mob storms Russian embassy in Teheran
1980 Premier Adbou Diouf becomes President of Senegal
1981 Georgia beats Notre Dame in Sugar Bowl for college football title
1981 International Year for the Disabled begins
1981 Palau (Trust Territory of Pacific Is) becomes self-governing
1981 Roger Smith becomes CEO of General Motors
1981 Greece is 10th country to join European Economic Community
1982 30 Something stars Ken Olin & Patricia Wettig meet, later they marry
1982 Clemson wins the Orange Bowl for college football championship
1982 Pope John Paul II prays for an end to martial law in Poland
1982 Javier Pérez de Cuellar becomes Secretary-General of UN
1982 MTA launches 5 year capital program to overhaul New York City NY subway system
1983 Penn State beats Georgia in Sugar Bowl for college football title
1983 PGA inaugurates all-exempt tour
1983 World Communications Year begins
1984 AT&T's 22 owned Bell system companies divests into 8 companies
1984 New York City NY transit fare rises from 75¢ to 90¢
1984 Brunei becomes independent of UK
1985 Actress Judith Light (Who's the Boss) marries Robert Desiderio (Knots Landing)
1985 International Youth Year begins
1985 US's 1st manadatory seat belt law goes into effect (NY)
1985 VH-1 made its broadcasting debut
1986 Aruba becomes independent from neighbor island Curaçao (part of Kingdom of the Netherlands)
1986 International Peace Year begins
1986 Iowa's All-American running back, Ronnie Harmon, fumbles the ball 4 times in his last game-the Rose Bowl
1986 New York City NY transit fare rises from 90¢ to $1.00
1986 Oklahoma wins Orange Bowl for college football championship
1986 Spain & Portugal become 11th & 12th members of Common Market (European Economic Community)
1986 Barbra Streisand & Jon Peters relationship breaks up
1987 60 bodies recovered in Dupont Plaza Hotel fire in Puerto Rico
1987 International Year of Shelter for Homeless begins
1987 Year of the Reader begins
1987 China's rudimentary civil code in effect
1988 Actress Kelly McGillis marries Fred Tillman
1988 Miami beats Oklahoma for college football championship
1988 Czech born tennis star Hana Mandikova becomes an Australian Citizen
1989 New York City NY transit fare rises from $1.00 to $1.15
1989 Year of the Young Reader begins
1990 David Dinkins sworn in as 1st black mayor of New York City NY
1990 FCC implements "SYNDEX" giving independent stations more rights over cable TV outlets for exclusive syndicated programs
1990 New York City NY MTA stops token redemption at subway stations
1990 Sports News Network begins operation on cable TV
1990 Mitsuko Nishiwaki beats Nakano to become Japan Women wrestling champ
1991 5% sales tax on consumer goods & services goes into effect in USSR
1991 Iraq rejects peace proposal from Egyptian President Hosi Mubarak
1991 Les Miserables opens at Festival Theatre, Adelaide
1992 Boutros Boutros-Ghali becomes UN Secretary-General
1992 Europe breaks down trade barriers
1992 International Space Year begins
1992 New York City NY transit fare increases from $1.15 to $1.25
1992 Bush is 1st US President to address Australian Parliament
1992 Curaçao becomes 1st in Dutch Antilles to have compulsory education
1993 12 member European Economic Community set up vast free trade zone
1993 Blockbuster Bowl 3 Stanford beats Penn State, 24-3
1993 Cigarette advertisements are banned in New York City NY's MTA
1993 Czechoslovakia separates into Czech Republic (Bohemia) & Slovakia
1993 Harry Connick Jr arrested at a New York airport for gun possession
1994 "Flying Karamzov Brothers" closes at Helen Hayes New York City NY after 50 performances
1994 "Grand Night after Singing" closes at Criterion New York City NY after 52 performances
1994 Aleksandr Popov swims world record 100m free style (47.83)
1994 Carquest Bowl 4 Boston College beats Virginia, 32-13
1994 Howard Stern's New Year's Eve Beauty Pageant
1994 International Year of Family
1994 Jacobs Field opens with "Gateway's New Year's Eve Countdown to '94"
1994 Microsoft CEO Bill Gates (38) marries Melinda French (29)
1994 North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) goes into effect
1995 "Glass Menagerie" closes at Criterion Theater New York City NY after 57 performances
1995 "Shadow Box" closes at Circle in Square Theater New York City NY after 49 performances
1995 "Tuna Christmas" closes at Booth Theater New York City NY 20 performances
1995 Austria, Finland & Sweden act to join European Union
1995 Centennial of Canadian Mounties presence in Canada's Yukon Territory
1995 Fernando Henrique Cardoso installed as President of Brazil
1995 International Year of Tolerance
1995 Last "Far Side" by cartoonist Gary Larson (started 1980)
1995 Raman Lamba & Ravi Sehgal score 464 for 1st wicket for Delhi
1996 After 27 years, Betty Rubble debuts as a Flintstone vitamin
1996 Curaçao gains limited form of self rule (Status Aparte)
1998 All California bars, clubs & card rooms must be smoke-free
1998 Mongolia switches from a 46 hour to 40 hour work week
1998 US Census Bureau estimates population at 268,921,733
1999 International Year of Elderly
2304 Mid-CALENDAR day
6000 1st reversible date since 11/11/1999

Note: Some Holidays are only applicable on a given "day of the week"

Alabama : Mobile Carnival
Cameroon : Independence Day (1960)
Cuba : Revolution Day
Haiti : Independence Day (1804)
Japan : New Year (year = AD + 660)
Mozambique : Universal Fraternity
Pasadena CA : Tournament of Roses Parade
Philadelphia : Mummers' Parade
Sudan : Independence Day (1956)
Western Samoa : Independence Day (1962)
Scotland : Handsel Monday - - - - - ( Monday )
Capetown, South Africa : Coon Carnival
Taiwan : Foundation of the Republic

Religious Observances
Anglican, Lutheran : Feast of Holy Name of Jesus
Christian : Feast of St Odilo
old Roman Catholic : Commemoration of Circumcision of Jesus
Roman Catholic : Solemnity of Mary, Mother of God
Unification Church : God's Day
Orthodox : St Basil's Day

Religious History
1780 Pioneer Methodist bishop and circuit rider Francis Asbury wrote in his journal: 'My God, keep me through the water and fire, and let me rather die than live to sin against thee!'
1802 Thomas Jefferson, in a letter written to the Danbury [CT] Baptist Association, coined the metaphor, "a wall of separation between Church and State." From 1947, the "wall of separation" concept gained acceptance as a constitutional guideline.
1832 In Lexington, KY, 12,000 followers of Alexander Campbell, (called "Campbellites") merged with 10,000 followers of Barton W. Stone (known as "Christians") to form the Disciples of Christ (Christian) Church.
1871 The Church of Ireland was formally disestablished. Aligned with Anglicanism from 1537, the Irish Church represented the faith of only 12% of the populace by the mid-19th century.
1977 Jacqueline Means, wife of an Indiana truck driver and mother of four, became the first woman in the U.S. to be ordained a priest in the Protestant Episcopal Church.

Thought for the day :
" The hardest thing to do is to disquise your feelings when sending a large crowd of visiting relatives home. "
23 posted on 01/01/2003 6:09:24 AM PST by Valin
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Comment #24 Removed by Moderator

To: Paulie
One of the factors that helped to contribute to the defeat of the German's in the Battle of the Bulge and it's companion Nordwind was the American GI's habit of fighting in small groups with whatever was handy for as long as they could.

The German's figured theat the GI's would take off and run once the attack got under way and this did happen in many cases. However there where even more cases where a squad, platoon or a comapny would defend some crossroad or village to the best of thier ability and then scoot out if possible.

It was this dogged defense in small pockets that helped to slow the German offensive just enough to enable the Allies to
bring up the reinforcements to halt and ultimately turn back both the Bulge and Nordwind.

Happy New Year Regards

alfa6 ;>}
25 posted on 01/01/2003 6:13:04 AM PST by alfa6
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To: SAMWolf; AntiJen
"Either siscuits and gravy or scrambled eggs, ham and hash browns with white toast. What else is there?"

Happy New Year, Sam and AntiJen and all.

What else is there? Why, grits and redeye of course! :) I cut the ham about 5/8ths of an inch thick and put a lid over it while it fries. Tender and great-tasting ham steak.

26 posted on 01/01/2003 6:19:13 AM PST by Eastbound
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To: AntiJen
Morning All

27 posted on 01/01/2003 6:19:39 AM PST by GailA
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To: coteblanche
Here is a brief bio on Capt Whisner with credit to:

Very Special Ace

Only one Air Force pilot was both an ace in two wars and a three-time winner of the DSC.

Lt. William Whisner joined the 352nd Fighter Group's 487th Squadron at Bodney, England, in the fall of 1943. He had the great good fortune to study air combat under two men who were to become masters of the art: Squadron Commander Maj. John C. Meyer and Capt. George Preddy, whose wing he often flew.

As with many of the top aces, Whisner's score mounted slowly at first. On Jan. 29, 1944, while flying a P-47, he downed his first enemy aircraft, an FW-190. The 352nd converted to P-51s in April. At the end of the following month, Whisner shot down a second -190 in a 15-minute dogfight against the best German pilot he encountered during the war. The next day, he shared an Bf-109 kill with Preddy; then it was home to the States on leave.

Whisner, now a captain, rejoined the 487th Squadron in the fall of 1944 . On Nov. 2, he downed a Bf-109 using the new K-14 gunsight. On Nov. 21 he led a flight of P-51s on an escort mission to Merseburg, Germany. As the bombers left their target, a large formation of enemy fighters struck. Meyer (now a lieutenant colonel) told Whisner to take a straggler in one of the enemy's three six-ship cover flights. In a linked series of attacks, Whisner shot down four FW-190s in the cover flight and probably got another.

With no more than two -190s left in the cover flight he had attacked, Whisner turned his attention to the main enemy formation, exploding a -190 that had not dropped its belly tank. Evading three -190s on his tail, he shot down another that was closing on one of his pilots. Then, low on ammunition, he joined up with Meyer and returned to Bodney.

Whisner was credited with five -190s and two probables that day. His score later was revised by the Air Force Historical Research Center to six destroyed, making that day one of the best for any USAAF pilot in the skies over Europe. For that achievement, Whisner was awarded his first Distinguished Service Cross--second only to the Medal of Honor.

During the Battle of the Bulge, which started on Dec. 16, the 487th Squadron was moved forward to airfield Y-29 near Asche, Belgium. On New Year's Day 1945, Whisner was one of 12 Mustang pilots led by Meyer that had started their takeoff roll when a large formation of FW-190s and Bf-109s hit the field. In the ensuing battle, fought at low altitude and before the 487th had time to form up, Whisner shot down a -190, then was hit by 20-mm fire. With his windshield and canopy covered by oil and one aileron damaged, Whisner stayed in the fight, shooting down two more -190s and an Bf-109. He was awarded a second DSC for that day's work--one of only 14 USAAF men to be so honored in World War II. (Meyer received his third DSC, the only Air Force pilot to receive three DSCs in World War II.) At the end of the war, Whisner had 15.5 victories, which put him in the top 20 USAAF aces of the European Theater.

Bill Whisner returned to combat in Korea, flying F-86s, and becoming the seventh jet ace of the Korean War and the first in the 51st Wing. Whisner was awarded a third Distinguished Service Cross, the only Air Force man other than Meyer to earn that distinction. He also became one of only six Air Force pilots who were aces in both World War II and Korea. In the post-Korea years, Whisner continued his career as a fighter pilot, winning the Bendix Trophy Race in 1953. After retiring as a colonel, he finally settled down in his home state of Louisiana. On July 21,1989, Col. William Whisner died of a yellow jacket sting.

The writer is indebted to William Hess, author of Whizz: Two-War Ace, for information not available from the USAF Historical Research Cente

Best Regards

alfa6 ;>}
28 posted on 01/01/2003 6:21:23 AM PST by alfa6
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To: coteblanche
This was Capt. Whisner's fourth victory for the day, bringing his total to 155.
Should read 15.5. No small feat in it's self.
29 posted on 01/01/2003 6:23:01 AM PST by Valin
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Comment #30 Removed by Moderator

Comment #31 Removed by Moderator

To: coteblanche
Yes, I was struck by that as well. Here you go fighting the Nazi's and the Communists in high speed aircraft and end up cashing in your chips over a lousy wasp sting. Such is life I guess.

With deepest respect for Col. Whisner's service.


alfa6 ;>}
32 posted on 01/01/2003 6:42:34 AM PST by alfa6
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To: Eastbound
grits! No No No. We have a firm policy never eat anything that's been socked in lye.
Tell you what I hereby give you my share of the worlds grits.
33 posted on 01/01/2003 6:53:01 AM PST by Valin
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Comment #34 Removed by Moderator

To: coteblanche
with Irish acent on

As me sainted high school freshman English teacher Mr. Cundiff would have said: "That's two thirds of pun, cotebalnche,...PU... " Irish accent off

Well I need to go out and get my road work in for the day.

Keep smilin. people will wonder what you are up to :-)

Best Regards

alfa6 ;>}
35 posted on 01/01/2003 7:23:51 AM PST by alfa6
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To: SAMWolf
Happy New Year, Sam.

Battles like this, where the combatants are desperate, valiant, and resolved, always make me think of how wasteful war is, with so many brave people dying.

36 posted on 01/01/2003 7:47:48 AM PST by Jalapeno
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To: SAMWolf
Happy New Year

37 posted on 01/01/2003 7:53:44 AM PST by Fiddlstix
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To: SAMWolf
Medal of Honor recipients from Operation Nordwind

as well as others from the Alsace-Lorraine during that time. As usual, all citations are from the Army Center for Military History  


Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company I, 71st Infantry, 44th Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Woelfling, France, 1 January 1945. Entered service at: Boston, Mass. Birth: Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island, Canada. G.O. No.: 77, 10 September 1945. Citation: He led a squad when his unit moved forward in darkness to meet the threat of a breakthrough by elements of the 17th German Panzer Grenadier Division. Assigned to protect the left flank, he discovered hostile troops digging in. As he reported this information, several German machineguns opened fire, stopping the American advance. Knowing the position of the enemy, Sgt. MacGillivary volunteered to knock out 1 of the guns while another company closed in from the right to assault the remaining strong points. He circled from the left through woods and snow, carefully worked his way to the emplacement and shot the 2 camouflaged gunners at a range of 3 feet as other enemy forces withdrew. Early in the afternoon of the same day, Sgt. MacGillivary was dispatched on reconnaissance and found that Company I was being opposed by about 6 machineguns reinforcing a company of fanatically fighting Germans. His unit began an attack but was pinned down by furious automatic and small arms fire. With a clear idea of where the enemy guns were placed, he voluntarily embarked on a lone combat patrol. Skillfully taking advantage of all available cover, he stalked the enemy, reached a hostile machinegun and blasted its crew with a grenade. He picked up a submachine gun from the battlefield and pressed on to within 10 yards of another machinegun, where the enemy crew discovered him and feverishly tried to swing their weapon into line to cut him down. He charged ahead, jumped into the midst of the Germans and killed them with several bursts. Without hesitation, he moved on to still another machinegun, creeping, crawling, and rushing from tree to tree, until close enough to toss a grenade into the emplacement and close with its defenders. He dispatched this crew also, but was himself seriously wounded. Through his indomitable fighting spirit, great initiative, and utter disregard for personal safety in the face of powerful enemy resistance, Sgt. MacGillivary destroyed four hostile machineguns and immeasurably helped his company to continue on its mission with minimum casualties.



Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Army, Battery C, 499th Armored Field Artillery Battalion, 14th Armored Division. Place and date. Philippsbourg, France, 3 January 1945. Entered service at: Los Angeles, Calif. Born: 27 June 1899, Longview, Tex. G.O. No.: 79, 14 September 1945. Citation: At Phillippsbourg, France, he was cut off from his artillery unit by an enemy armored infantry attack. Coming upon a friendly infantry company withdrawing under the vicious onslaught, he noticed 2 German tanks and approximately 75 supporting foot soldiers advancing down the main street of the village. Seizing a rocket launcher, he advanced under intense small-arms and cannon fire to meet the tanks and, standing in the middle of the road, fired at them, destroying 1 and disabling the second. From a nearby half-track he then dismounted a machinegun, placed it in the open street and fired into the enemy infantrymen, killing or wounding a great number and breaking up the attack. In the American counterattack which followed, 2 supporting tanks were disabled by an enemy antitank gun. Firing a light machinegun from the hip, Pfc. Turner held off the enemy so that the crews of the disabled vehicles could extricate themselves. He ran through a hail of fire to one of the tanks which had burst into flames and attempted to rescue a man who had been unable to escape; but an explosion of the tank's ammunition frustrated his effort and wounded him painfully. Refusing to be evacuated, he remained with the infantry until the following day, driving off an enemy patrol with serious casualties, assisting in capturing a hostile strong point, and voluntarily and fearlessly driving a truck through heavy enemy fire to deliver wounded men to the rear aid station. The great courage displayed by Pfc. Turner and his magnificently heroic initiative contributed materially to the defense of the French town and inspired the troops about him.



Rank and organization: Master Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company A, 242d Infantry, 42d Infantry Division. Place and date: Hatten, France, 9-10 January 1945. Entered service at: Decatur, 111. Born: 1 December 1916, Decatur, 111. G.O. No.: 5, 10 January 1946. Citation: He fought with extreme gallantry while guarding 2 command posts against the assault of powerful infantry and armored forces which had overrun the battalion's main line of resistance. On the close approach of enemy soldiers, he left the protection of the building he defended and set up his gun in the street, there to remain for almost 12 hours driving back attacks while in full view of his adversaries and completely exposed to 88-mm., machinegun and small-arms fire. He moved back inside the command post, strapped his machinegun to a table and covered the main approach to the building by firing through a window, remaining steadfast even in the face of 88-mm. fire from tanks only 75 yards away. One shell blasted him across the room, but he returned to his weapon. When 2 enemy personnel carriers led by a tank moved toward his position, he calmly waited for the troops to dismount and then, with the tank firing directly at him, leaned out of the window and mowed down the entire group of more than 20 Germans. Some time later, removal of the command post to another building was ordered. M/Sgt. Bertoldo voluntarily remained behind, covering the withdrawal of his comrades and maintaining his stand all night. In the morning he carried his machinegun to an adjacent building used as the command post of another battalion and began a day-long defense of that position. He broke up a heavy attack, launched by a self-propelled 88-mm. gun covered by a tank and about 15 infantrymen. Soon afterward another 88-mm. weapon moved up to within a few feet of his position, and, placing the muzzle of its gun almost inside the building, fired into the room, knocking him down and seriously wounding others. An American bazooka team set the German weapon afire, and M/Sgt. Bertoldo went back to his machinegun dazed as he was and killed several of the hostile troops as they attempted to withdraw. It was decided to evacuate the command post under the cover of darkness, but before the plan could be put into operation the enemy began an intensive assault supported by fire from their tanks and heavy guns. Disregarding the devastating barrage, he remained at his post and hurled white phosphorous grenades into the advancing enemy troops until they broke and retreated. A tank less than 50 yards away fired at his stronghold, destroyed the machinegun and blew him across the room again but he once more returned to the bitter fight and, with a rifle, single-handedly covered the withdrawal of his fellow soldiers when the post was finally abandoned. With inspiring bravery and intrepidity M/Sgt. Bertoldo withstood the attack of vastly superior forces for more than 48 hours without rest or relief, time after time escaping death only by the slightest margin while killing at least 40 hostile soldiers and wounding many more during his grim battle against the enemy hordes.



Rank and organization: Technical Sergeant, U.S. Army, 397th Infantry, 100th Infantry Division. Place and date: Rimling, France, 8-9 January 1945. Entered service at: Cheyenne, Wyo. Birth: Canadian, Okla. G.O. No.: 53, July 1945. Citation: He was in command of an antitank platoon when about 200 enemy infantrymen and 12 tanks attacked his battalion, overrunning part of its position. After losing his guns, T/Sgt. Carey, acting entirely on his own initiative, organized a patrol and rescued 2 of his squads from a threatened sector, evacuating those who had been wounded. He organized a second patrol and advanced against an enemy-held house from which vicious fire issued, preventing the free movement of our troops. Covered by fire from his patrol, he approached the house, killed 2 snipers with his rifle, and threw a grenade in the door. He entered alone and a few minutes later emerged with 16 prisoners. Acting on information he furnished, the American forces were able to capture an additional 41 Germans in adjacent houses. He assembled another patrol, and, under covering fire, moved to within a few yards of an enemy tank and damaged it with a rocket. As the crew attempted to leave their burning vehicle, he calmly shot them with his rifle, killing 3 and wounding a fourth. Early in the morning of 9 January, German infantry moved into the western part of the town and encircled a house in which T/Sgt. Carey had previously posted a squad. Four of the group escaped to the attic. By maneuvering an old staircase against the building, T/Sgt. Carey was able to rescue these men. Later that day, when attempting to reach an outpost, he was struck down by sniper fire. The fearless and aggressive leadership of T/Sgt. Carey, his courage in the face of heavy fire from superior enemy forces, provided an inspiring example for his comrades and materially helped his battalion to withstand the German onslaught.



Rank and organization: Technical Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company I, 30th Infantry, 3d Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Kayserberg, France, 8 January 1945. Entered service at: Brighton Ill. Born: 23 February 1920, East Carondelet, Ill. G.O. No.: 37, 11 May 1945. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at risk of life above and beyond the call of duty. At about 1430 hours on 8 January 1945, during an attack on Hill 616, near Kayserberg, France, T/Sgt. Dunham single-handedly assaulted 3 enemy machineguns. Wearing a white robe made of a mattress cover, carrying 12 carbine magazines and with a dozen hand grenades snagged in his belt, suspenders, and buttonholes, T/Sgt. Dunham advanced in the attack up a snow-covered hill under fire from 2 machineguns and supporting riflemen. His platoon 35 yards behind him, T/Sgt. Dunham crawled 75 yards under heavy direct fire toward the timbered emplacement shielding the left machinegun. As he jumped to his feet 10 yards from the gun and charged forward, machinegun fire tore through his camouflage robe and a rifle bullet seared a 10-inch gash across his back sending him spinning 15 yards down hill into the snow. When the indomitable sergeant sprang to his feet to renew his 1-man assault, a German egg grenade landed beside him. He kicked it aside, and as it exploded 5 yards away, shot and killed the German machinegunner and assistant gunner. His carbine empty, he jumped into the emplacement and hauled out the third member of the gun crew by the collar. Although his back wound was causing him excruciating pain and blood was seeping through his white coat, T/Sgt. Dunham proceeded 50 yards through a storm of automatic and rifle fire to attack the second machinegun. Twenty-five yards from the emplacement he hurled 2 grenades, destroying the gun and its crew; then fired down into the supporting foxholes with his carbine dispatching and dispersing the enemy riflemen. Although his coat was so thoroughly blood-soaked that he was a conspicuous target against the white landscape, T/Sgt. Dunham again advanced ahead of his platoon in an assault on enemy positions farther up the hill. Coming under machinegun fire from 65 yards to his front, while rifle grenades exploded 10 yards from his position, he hit the ground and crawled forward. At 15 yards range, he jumped to his feet, staggered a few paces toward the timbered machinegun emplacement and killed the crew with hand grenades. An enemy rifleman fired at pointblank range, but missed him. After killing the rifleman, T/Sgt. Dunham drove others from their foxholes with grenades and carbine fire. Killing 9 Germans--wounding 7 and capturing 2--firing about 175 rounds of carbine ammunition, and expending 11 grenades, T/Sgt. Dunham, despite a painful wound, spearheaded a spectacular and successful diversionary attack.

38 posted on 01/01/2003 8:18:38 AM PST by JAWs
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To: coteblanche; alfa6

The shot of Capt. Whisner is a PR shot for the mission of Nov. 21 '44 when he claimed to have scored 6 kills. Final assestment of his gun camera footage revealed that he had actually gotten 5.

Thanks Cote. I appreciate you taking the time to find Capt. Whisner's story.

It was 15.5, but I checked the site where Cote found the story and they list it as 155.

39 posted on 01/01/2003 8:43:47 AM PST by SAMWolf
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To: Paulie
Don't feel bad, this is a battle that isn't mentioned at all in your "Standard" history books.
40 posted on 01/01/2003 8:45:21 AM PST by SAMWolf
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To: Valin
Hey Valin, I was just sitting here asking myself, what happened On This Day In History and I scroll down and what do I see?

Valin's "On this Day in History".

Thanks for the daily post, we appreciate it.
41 posted on 01/01/2003 8:49:21 AM PST by SAMWolf
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To: alfa6
The stove's still warm, I can whip you up some ham and eggs if you like.
42 posted on 01/01/2003 8:50:14 AM PST by SAMWolf
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To: Eastbound
LOL! I just knew someone was gonna mention grits! I tried them but never acquired the taste. But I could almost live an biscuits and sausage gravy.
43 posted on 01/01/2003 8:52:52 AM PST by SAMWolf
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To: alfa6; coteblanche
Thanks for finding and posting more info on Capt Whisner, alfa6.

Thanks Cote, you got a interesting discussion going.
44 posted on 01/01/2003 8:55:58 AM PST by SAMWolf
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To: Valin
Hahaha. Reminds me of the old joke,

Waiter to diner: "We have fresh boiled tongue on the blueplate special today."
Diner: "Oh my, No! I wouldn't eat anything that came out of an animals mouth."
Waiter: "In that case, how about some nice scrambled eggs?"

45 posted on 01/01/2003 8:57:28 AM PST by Eastbound
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To: Jalapeno
Happy New Year, Jalapeno.

It's a shame that sometimes war is necessary because as horrible and wasteful that it is, there are things worse.
46 posted on 01/01/2003 9:00:35 AM PST by SAMWolf
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To: GailA
Good Morning GailA. Hope you had a good New years eve yesterday.
47 posted on 01/01/2003 9:01:40 AM PST by SAMWolf
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To: Fiddlstix
Hi Fiddlstix. Happy New Year to you!
48 posted on 01/01/2003 9:02:21 AM PST by SAMWolf
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To: JAWs
Thanks JAWS.

Every time I read those citations, I can't help but get a tear in my eye. It makes me so proud to know about the kind of men America has always been able to count on in her hour of need.
49 posted on 01/01/2003 9:05:14 AM PST by SAMWolf
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To: SAMWolf
RE #42: The little diner up the street from me closed about a month ago, they had really good biscuits and gravy. I am going to have to find a new source for B & G.

I am fixin to put in a nice spiral sliced ham in the oven about noon or so. Some New Years dinner, mmmmm

Best Regards

alfa6 ;>}
50 posted on 01/01/2003 9:07:15 AM PST by alfa6
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