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The FReeper Foxhole Remembers Operation Urgent Fury - Grenada - Jan. 26th, 2003 ^

Posted on 01/26/2003 12:01:57 AM PST by SAMWolf

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Operation Urgent Fury

On March 13, 1979, the New Joint Endeavor for Welfare, Education, and Liberation (New Jewel) movement ousted Sir Eric Gairy, Grenada's first prime minister, in a nearly bloodless coup and established a people's revolutionary government (PRG), headed by Maurice Bishop, who became prime minister. His Marxist-Leninist Government established close ties with Cuba, the Soviet Union, and other communist-bloc countries. In October 1983, a power struggle within the government resulted in the arrest and subsequent murder of Bishop and several members of his cabinet by elements of the people's revolutionary army.

Following a breakdown in civil order, U.S. forces, in conjunction with contingents of the security forces of several neighboring Caribbean states, invaded the independent state of Grenada on October 25 in response to an appeal from the governor general and to a request for assistance from the Organization of Eastern Caribbean States. The mission was to oust the People's Revolutionary Government, to protect U.S. citizens and restore the lawful government.

To secure objectives in Grenada and to facilitate operations, the island was operationally split in half. The Marines covered the northern half of the island while Army rangers covered the south. The invasion in the south focused on an unfinished runway at Point Salines. A Navy SEAL team which was to have provided intelligence on the airfield at Salines was unable to get ashore. At 0534 the first Rangers began dropping at Salines, and less than two hours elapsed from the first drop until the last unit was on the ground, shortly after seven in the morning. After the rangers had secured the runway, 800 more troops would land, freeing the rangers to press northward where they were to secure the safety of American medical students and bring under control the capital of St. Georges. At the end of the first day in Grenada, the Rangers had secured the airfield and True Blue Campus at a cost of five dead and six wounded. Once the Rangers had secured the runway, elements of the 82nd Airborne Division landed, and late in the evening of the 26th the 82d Division's 3d Brigade began to deploy across the island. In the north, 400 Marines would land and rescue the small airport at Pearls.

Preceding the operations in the north and south, Navy seal teams were airdropped near St. Georges to secure the safety of the Grenadian Governor General who was being held under house arrest by opposing forces in the governor’s mansion and to capture the government radio station at St. Georges. The 22d Marine Amphibious Unit was diverted to Grenada while en route to Lebanon. The Marine amphibious unit conducted landings as part of Operation Urgent Fury at Grenada on 25 October and at Carriacou on 1 November. By 3 November, the Marine amphibious unit was reembarked aboard its amphibious shipping and had resumed its passage to Lebanon.

In total, an invasion force of 1,900 U.S. troops, reaching a high of about 5,000 in five days, and 300 troops from the assisting neighboring islands encountered about 1,200 Grenadians, 780 Cubans, 49 Soviets, 24 North Koreans, 16 East Germans, 14 Bulgarians, and 3 or 4 Libyans. Within three days all main objectives were accomplished. Five hundred ninety-nine (599) Americans and 80 foreign nationals were evacuated, and U.S. forces were successful in the eventual reestablishment of a representative form of government in Grenada.

That is not to say, however, that the invasion went without challenge. The first challenge was the lack of good intelligence data. For example, at Point Salines operations bogged down because resistance was much greater than expected. In attempting to rescue the Governor General, American forces were stymied by larger Cuban and Grenadian forces than anticipated. By listening to Cuban radio broadcasts, it seemed that the resistance was being directed from a place called Fort Frederick. As it turned out, but not previously known, Fort Frederick was the nerve center for the Cuban and Grenadian forces and once it was destroyed resistance simply melted away.

The invasion force lacked precise data on the location of the American medical students they were to rescue. One account noted that attack planners did not realize that the American medical students were spread out over three locations.

The final challenge to invading forces was the lack of a fully integrated, interoperable communications system. Unlike the fighting elements which were organized to conduct operations independent of one another, communications systems were not allowed such freedom. Communications was to have been the glue that would tie together the operation of the four independent United States military service elements. Unfortunately, communications support failed in meeting certain aspects of that mission. It cannot be said that communications capability itself was abundant. Several participants cite shortages of communications.

Shortages were not the only communications problems found during the invasion of Grenada; interoperability was another. For example, uncoordinated use of radio frequencies prevented radio communications between Marines in the north and Army Rangers in the south. As such, interservice communication was prevented, except through offshore relay stations, and kept Marine commanders unaware for too long that Rangers were pinned down without adequate armor. In a second incident, it was reported that one member of the invasion force placed a long distance, commercial telephone call to Fort Bragg, N.C. to obtain C-130 gunship support for his unit which was under fire. His message was relayed via satellite and the gunship responded.

Several factors have been cited as the cause of the communications problems which were confronted in Grenada. Among them were insufficient planning for the operation, lack of training, inadequate procedures, maldeployment of communications security keying material for the different radio networks, and lack of preparation through exercise realism.

One of the more noted intelligence shortcomings of the operation was the lack of up to date topographical information (maps) on Grenada. When adequate maps were found, they apparently had to be flown to the Grenada task force rather than being sent by electrical transmission.

No journalists were on the island of Grenada to provide live reporting on the invasion, nor had any been taken along with the invading force. Vice Admiral Joseph Metcalf, in charge of the operation, had originally planned to exclude the media completely from the operation until he was convinced that they could do no harm. As word of the imminent invasion spread, hundreds of journalists moved into the area but were blocked from proceeding to Grenada. Indeed, there were no first-hand reports from Grenada until 2½ days after the operation began. The media, citing the American people's right to know, and frustrated at their inability to provide the current reporting that they would have liked, protested loudly about the military's gross oversight in failure to permit journalists to accompany the operation.

An advisory council, named by the governor general, administered the country until general elections were held in December 1984. The New National Party (NNP), led by Herbert Blaize, won 14 out of 15 seats in free and fair elections and formed a democratic government. Grenada's constitution had been suspended in 1979 by the PRG, but it was restored after the 1984 elections.

KEYWORDS: freeperfoxhole; grenada; specialoperations; urgentfury; veterans
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Salinas Airfield Recon/Beacon Emplacement

The most controversial SEAL mission in Grenada was the Salinas Airfield operation. A team of 12 operators from SEAL Team SIX and four Air Force Combat Control Team members were tasked to perform this mission on the night of 23/24 October, 1983.

MISSION: To infiltrate Grenada by sea in the vicinity of Salinas Airfield. Obtain time sensitive intelligence on the conditions of the airfield runway, and the enemy's strength and positions. Additionally, the combat control Team is to emplace radar beacons so that the aircraft carrying the 1/75 and 2/75 Army Ranger Battalions jumping in to secure the airfield could find their mark. The CCT will also act as air traffic controllers from the ground during the paradrop. The combined SEAL/CCT element will link up with friendly troops following the successful assault of the island.


FRIENDLY: SEAL Team SIX, USAF Combat Control Team, 2 USAF Special Operations Squadron MC-130E aircraft, and USS Clifton Sprague.

ENEMY: 1,200 to 1,500 PRA (Army) and 2,000 to 5,000 PRM (Militia), six to twelve Armored Personnel Carriers (APC) and four to six ZU-23 AA guns.

No intel existed on the disposition of troops on or around the airfield itself. The mpression given to the troops was that the op was going to be a cakewalk with little or no opposition. No intelligence existed on any enemy Naval forces, which had a role to play in the Salinas mission. In fact the troops did not even have an accurate map of the island. At the last minute someone at the Pentagon produced a tourist map of Grenada, and this was reproduced and given to the planners until a suitable map could be procured or created.

TARGET: Salinas Airfield is located at the Southern tip of Grenada, in the JTF (Joint Task Force) 123 Area of Operations (AO). The target was found by aerial reconnaissance to be heavily obstructed, but it was not clear how many troops were in the vicinity or if there were any AA gun emplacements. The mission of the SEALs was to find this information out and any other valuable intelligence.

CONCEPT OF OPERATIONS: The combined SEAL/CCT team is tasked to perform a night combat equipment water jump into the ocean about 40 kilometers off the north-northwest tip of Port Salinas, Grenada. They are to use the LAPES (low Altitude Parachute Extraction System) method of exiting the aircraft into the water DZ. Dropping with two zodiac inflatable rubber boats, they are to rendezvous after the drop, and do an Over the Horizon (OTH) transit of approximately 40 kilometers to the vicinity of Port Salinas. Once there, they will scout out a suitable Beach Landing Site, send swimmer scouts ashore, then infiltrate the island and cache the boats. They will patrol to the airfield, emplace the beacons, find a hide site and wait for the Ranger's airdrop. In the meantime, they will send periodic intel reports back to the Head Shed on the USS Guam (called Indications and Warnings). The CCT element will control the air drop from the ground, and the combined element will link up with the Rangers when they have secured the airfield. This is a classic SEAL operation, but complicated immensely by the inclusion of a very high risk night combat water jump, poor intelligence about the Enemy forces and possibly erroneous weather forecasting. The go ahead was given and TOT was in the early evening of 23 October, 36 hours prior to D-day.


Mission Results: Objectives not met, mission was a failure.

Analysis: The air drop occurred later than planned and with marginal weather conditions. Four SEALs were lost during the jump. It is not clear to this day exactly why MM1 John Butcher, QM1 Kevin Lundbergh, HT1 Stephen Morris and ENCS Robert Schamberger drowned during the drop, but the hazards of jumping into the sea with a heavy combat load in high winds is obvious. These men were well trained for this type of operation, but Murphy took an ugly toll this evening. After the jump and the fruitless search for the four lost SEALs, the remainder of the SEAls and CCT Team, dis-heartended by the loss of their shipmates this early in the operation, departed the DZ for the OTH transit. About half way to their insertion point, evasive action was taken to avoid a Grenadan Patrol boat approaching on a direct path to the zodiacs. The coxswains cut power and drifted by the patrol boats undetected, but the wake of the PB swamped the outboard motors, which couldn't be re-started. As the SEALs troubleshot the motor, the Zodiacs drifted far to sea in the strong current. The team limped to an at sea rendezvous with the USS Caron (DD270) The op was aborted due to the lack of time to infil prior to daylight.

The decision was made to send the team in the next evening, that of the 24/25 of October. They performed a surface launch, OTH transit in zodiacs for a second infiltration attempt to Salinas. Regrettably, they met with a huge surf zone upon approach to the Beach Landing Site, and the boats were swamped. The CCT team lost most of it's gear, and the mission was aborted a second time. The team motored back to sea, avoiding the Grenadan patrol boasts cruising the coast, and linked up with friendly forces.

The failure of the teams to complete the mission was a blow to SEAL Team SIX, who were facing their first major test in an armed conflict. The Rangers completed their jump without the CCT acting as air controllers, but the lack of intelligence did not give the planners and operators that warm fuzzy feeling often sought prior to an operation. Further, the operation had the effect of pushing back H hour - first to 0400 on the 25th, then to 0500. The new H hour had far reaching consequences, because the remaining special operations were to be conducted now in daylight, instead of the customary comfort of darkness. To bread this basic tenant of Special Operations warfare was a decision which cost numerous U.S. lives and was probably the biggest screw up of the Grenada invasion.


Friendly KIA/WIA: 4/0

Lessons Learned:

1. Keep It Simple, Stupid. (KISS). The air drop was an unnecessary high speed/low drag insertion method which cost four US lives. The at sea rendezvous could probably have been performed a less risky way (Helo soft duck, or surface launched).

2. Carry back up Outboard motors.

3. Select adequately trained support elements for insertion/extraction & fire support.

4. Do not conduct an op with other units you have not trained together with. SOP's must be coordinated and roles and responsibilities ironed out prior to any operation.

5. Expect the worse weather conditions and prepare for it.

6. Numerous lessons learned regarding the night water combat equipment jump. Have adequate floatation, release from your chute early enough so you don't get entangled or dragged under when you enter the water, use chem lights and/or strobes if the threat level allows, have adequately trained surface support covering the jump (if threat level allows).


Finally, to Petty Officer's (SEAL) Butcher, Lundberg, Morris and Schamberger, Thanks one hell of a lot for trying your best and for giving your lives so that others may live. HOOYAH!

Operation Urgent Fury October 23 - November 25, 1983

To honor those members of the United States Military who,
through commitment and sacrifice,
returned freedom to Grenada.

Veterans of Foreign Wars of the United

1 posted on 01/26/2003 12:01:59 AM PST by SAMWolf
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To: MistyCA; AntiJen; Victoria Delsoul; SassyMom; bentfeather; GatorGirl; radu; souris; SpookBrat; ...
Assault on Governor-Generals Mansion

Another SEAL mission in Grenada was an assault on the Governor-General Paul Scoon's mansion in the St. George area. APC's. The Governor-General was never in dire danger, and the SEALs sustained only one wounded in this action, which led to numerous PRA casualties and WIA. The SEALs were relieved on 26 October by Marines from the 22nd Marine Amphibious Unit embarked on-board the USS Guam.

Analysis: The SEAL Team SIX men arrived in two UH-1 Blackhawk Helos at approximately 0615, an hour and fifteen minutes behind schedule due to the delays imposed by the shifting H-hour. The Blackhawk's came under heavy AA fire as they tried to locate the correct HLZ's. The lead Blackhawk was hit, with the pilot wounded and one SEAL wounded. They dropped their cargo and quickly exited the area. The follow on bird was fired upon but not damaged, and they inserted their payload of SEALs without incident. The SEALs performed a flawless fast rope insertion in eleven man elements from the helos and immediately formed up to assault the Government House where Governor-General Scoon was believed to be held. They met no resistance from the guards or police force, as all had fled upon insertion of the SEALs. They secured the Government House by 0630 on 25 October.

After positively identifying Governor-General Scoon, they bundled him into a locked closet for his own safety. The SEALs then set up firing positions with interlock fields of fire, and the SEAL sniper took position in the upstairs windows. As the PRA began their counterattack, the sniper, using a G3 SG-1 sniper rifle, single-handedly dispatched over twenty one PRA soldiers, making him an instrumental player in the defense of the mansion. The PRA counterattack included a BTR-60 armored personnel carrier and an unknown number of soldiers. They attempted to assault through the eastern gates, but were repulsed by the SEALs with their well aimed fire. They settled for a long stand-off instead. It is reputed that the SEAL team lost it's primary radio to enemy fire upon insert, so were not able to communicate with the command staff on the USS Guam. At one point they utilized the telephone inside the mansion to place a call back to Fort Bragg, NC, asking the Watch Officer to contact the USS Guam and request fire support. I'm not sure of the veracity of this account, and will have to ask some of the operators who were there to verify it. In any event, Adm Metcalf felt the situation serious enough to send two USMC AH-1 Cobra gunships to the mansion to provide fire support. The first Cobra, piloted by Marine Cpt. Tim Howard, was crippled and crash landed in a soccer field.

A team of twenty two SEALs from SEAL Team SIX were tasked to perform this mission on the morning of 25 October, 1983. Governor-General Paul Scoon was being held under house arrest at his mansion on the outskirts of St. Georges. He was considered to be the legitimate governmental authority on Grenada by the US , so his "rescue" was given as high a priority as the rescue of US citizens on the Island. Additionally, US Brigadier General Lewis had in his possession a letter addressed by Governor-General-General Scoon, back dated to the 24th, requesting US intervention to protect it's citizens and to restore law and order. If the Governor -General were not rescued, the political premise for our being there would fizzle. The original plan had the SEALs insert and extract at night using the same air assets, however, the same delays that pushed back the rest of the Special Operations missions pushed this op back to about 0600 on the 25th of October.

MISSION: To infiltrate the Governor-General's Mansion compound by helo NLT 0500 25 October, 1983. Perform Direct Action assault to gain control of the compound and to secure the safe conduct of Governor-General Paul Scoon and his family off of Grenada and into friendly forces protection.


FRIENDLY: SEAL Team SIX, USA Task Force 160 Blackhawks. USAF AC- 130 gunship (?), USMC AH-1T Cobra helicopter gunships. A-7's; USS Independence.

ENEMY: 1,200 to 1,500 PRA (Army) and 2,000 to 5,000 PRM (Militia), six to twelve Armored Personnel Carriers (APC) and four to six ZU-23 AA guns known to be on the island. A small guard force was also known to exist at the compound, but they were not considered a serious threat. Reactionary force actions and times were still unknown.


The Governor-General's mansion and Government House are located on the western side of Grenada in the St. George region. It sits squarely in the JTF 123 AO, and occupies a small hill surrounded by open lawn. This gave the SEAL element a tactical advantage in the likely event of a counter-attack by PRA forces. The target is composed of a series of buildings, the largest being the Government house with several outbuildings, then Coard's and Bishop's houses to the east. A tennis court was due east of the Government house. Upon insertion, it was quickly noted that there was an AA gun emplacement in the woods next to the tennis court, and another near Bishop's residence. The road leading to the Governor's mansion was gated at both ends.

CONCEPT OF OPERATIONS: The SEAL Team SIX element is tasked to perform a pre-dawn fast rope insertion by UH-60 Blackhawks from TF-160 to two HLZ's near the target, one on the tennis court and the other on the lawn in front of the Government house. The SEALs are to perform a direct action raid on the Governor's Mansion. They are to take control of the target and protect Governor-General Scoon and his family from harm. They are tasked to remove the Governor-General from the site by helicopter. If the primary extraction is not feasible, they are to protect the Governor-General inside the mansion and await the arrival of friendly troops.


Mission Results: Objectives met, Primary mission of gaining control of the Government house and protecting the Governor-General met. Heavy AA fire upon insert disabled the Helo assets and prevented the primary extraction from occurring. As a result, the SEALs held their position in the Government house for nearly 24 hours while under assault by PRA troops and Ard was critically wounded. His co-pilot, Cpt Jeb Seagle managed to drag Tim from the burning copter. However, while he was signaling the other Cobra for medivac, he was cut down by enemy fire. The second Cobra was shot down while it was giving covering fire for the Medivac helo rescuing Cpt Howard. They crashed into the harbor with 100% casualties. Cpt Howard was rescued by the Medivac and eventually recovered. The three Marine pilots who lost their lives during this operations were the only Marine fatalities during Operation Urgent Fury. After the Cobras were shot down, the PRA commander ordered a second assault on the Governor's mansion. Within moments, an AC-130 Spectre gunship arrived on-scene, diverted from the Salinas airfield. The Spectre quickly dispatched the APC and scattered the troops again. The AC-130 remained on station for the remainder of the day. Adm. Metcalf also ordered an air strike using A-7's from the USS independence. The A-7's destroyed the AA emplacements that shot down the Cobras and wounded the Blackhawks. The PRA backed off again and continued to send sporadic fire toward the mansion. The SEAL element felt that their position was safest inside the mansion, so they holed up until relieved by the Marines on the 26th of October, a full 24 hours after the initial insertion. The SEAL Team SIX men had only a few rounds of ammunition left when they were relieved by the Marines.

NOTE: This mission is often given a bad rap for the lack of communication and the SEALs using the telephone to call air support from Fort Bragg. What it was, though, was a poorly conceived operation (senior, non-special operation's types planned most of these goat-ropes) conducted during daylight with inadequate intelligence on the enemy forces. The SEALs, given what they knew and the assets at their disposal, performed brilliantly and with valor. The communications by land-line showed the ingenuity and flexibility of the SEALs, and their ingrained training to do whatever the heck it takes to get the job done - even if it means unusual or unconventional tactics or actions. These men were phenomenally successful at fighting off a far larger and better armed force using only their personal issue weapons. SEALs are not designed to fight sustained battles. Get in, get out quickly without alerting anyone and get out of dodge. That is the modus operand of the SEALs. However, most senior commanders are ill advised or unknowing of the capabilities, strengths and weaknesses of the SEALs, so often mis-use them in a combat role, such as the Grenada invasion ops. The Governor-General operation is a classic SEAL operations, but only if performed under the cover of darkness with not even the slightest hint of compromise. Neither of these was true during Operation Just Cause. The result was another three US deaths and two wounded.

Enemy KIA/WIA: 30+/unk

Friendly KIA/WIA: 3 USMC/1 SEAL, 1 USArmy

Lessons Learned:

1. Have fire support available on every operation.

2. Bring at least one weapon capable of knocking out an armored vehicle (.50 cal sniper, AT-4, stinger etc).

3. Never fight fair. Use whatever means necessary to get the job done.

4. Never underestimate the enemy, no matter how un-trained or disorganized they are reported to be (this lesson was not carried into Panama, where we had to re-learn it. We finally learned it in the Gulf War, but the enemy truly turned out to be weak and ineffective in that conflict).

5. Expect the worse and prepare for it.

6. Don't forget to bring a credit card and money on the operation!

7. A good sniper is worth his weight in gold.

8. A man is no match against armor.

9. Do not perform commando operations during daylight hours if at all possible.

10. Over-reaction often can lead to problems.

11. It is nice to have a kevlar helmet to sit on while inserting.

12. Conserve your rounds - you may need them.

13. Politically motivated missions usually suck.
2 posted on 01/26/2003 12:02:43 AM PST by SAMWolf (To look into the eyes of the wolf is to see your soul)
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To: All
'In summary, history should reflect that the operation was a complete success. All phases of the as signed mission were accomplished. U.S. citizens were protected and evacuated. The opposing forces were neutralized. The situation stabilized with no additional Cuban intervention. U.S. students have returned to resume their studies at the medical school and tourism is steadily increasing. And, most importantly, a lawful, democratic government has been restored.'

-- Admiral McDonald
in an address before the House Armed Services Committee.

3 posted on 01/26/2003 12:03:05 AM PST by SAMWolf (To look into the eyes of the wolf is to see your soul)
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To: All

Thanks, Doughty!

4 posted on 01/26/2003 12:03:30 AM PST by SAMWolf (To look into the eyes of the wolf is to see your soul)
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To: All
Good Morning Everybody.

Hurry Back Fiddlstix!
No one makes Coffee and Donuts like you.
You Know The Drill
Click the Pics
Soldier Boy

Click here to Contribute to FR: Do It Now! ;-) Poetry Moon River

5 posted on 01/26/2003 12:04:20 AM PST by SAMWolf (To look into the eyes of the wolf is to see your soul)
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To: All

6 posted on 01/26/2003 12:04:45 AM PST by SAMWolf (To look into the eyes of the wolf is to see your soul)
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To: SAMWolf

Today's classic warship, USS Oakland (CL-95)

Oakland class light anti-aircraft cruiser
Displacement: 6,000 t.
Length: 541’
Beam: 53’
Draft: 26’6”
Speed: 31.8 k.
Complement: 802
Armament: 12 5”; 8 40mm; 16 20mm; 6 21” torpedo tubes.

USS OAKLAND (CL-95) was laid down by Bethlehem Steel Co., San Francisco, Calif., 15 July 1941; launched 23 October 1942; sponsored by Dr. Aurelia H. Reinhardt; and commissioned 17 July 1943, Capt. William K. Phillips in command.

Following a shakedown and training cruise off San Diego in the summer of 1943, OAKLAND sailed for Pearl Harbor arriving 3 November. Joining with three heavy cruisers and two destroyers, she linked up with carrier Task Group 50.3 near Funafuti in the Ellice Islands to help pave the way for operation "Galvanic," the amphibious push into the Gilberts. The carriers launched initial air strikes 19 November, and in retaliation, a wave of Japanese torpedo-bombers attacked the formation on the afternoon of the 20th. OAKLAND scored two kills and two assists in beating off the raiders.

On 26 November, northeast of the Marshall Islands, OAKLAND again fought off strong coordinated torpedo plane attacks. At 2332 on 4 December, a torpedo tore into the side of LEXINGTON (CV-16) and OAKLAND covered her slow withdrawal, arriving Pearl Harbor 9 December.

OAKLAND departed Pearl Harbor 16 January 1944 with the carriers of TG 58.1 headed for the Marshalls. The task group launched strikes against Maloelap on 29 January and against Kwajalein on the 30th. An amphibious assault was made on Kwajalein 1 February. OAKLAND, with her carriers, supported American operations ashore until they entered Majuro Lagoon on 4 February.

Weighing anchor 12 February, the ships of TG 58.1 sailed from Majuro and launched air strikes against Truk 16 and 17 February, greatly damaging the important Japanese naval base there.

Then, despite a night-long series of Japanese aerial attacks, 21-22 February, to hit the Marianas with damaging blows, OAKLAND's gunners bagged two more enemy planes and assisted in splashing two others before returning to Majuro.

OAKLAND sortied with TG 58.1, 7 March, bound for Espiritu Santo in the New Hebrides. The group skirted the Solomons and covered the occupation of Emirau Island, north of New Britain, on the 20th. On the 27th, the task group swept on to the western Carolines. Heavy air attacks greeted the carriers, but OAKLAND and her partners in the screen beat them off before any damage was incurred. They pounded Palau on 30 March, Yap on the 31st and Woleai 1 April, before returning to Majuro on the 6th April.

Through April, the group carried out similar operations at Wake and Sawar. They again hammered Truk on the 29th and the 30th, as well as hitting Satawan on the later date. Allied surface and aerial bombardment battered Ponape on 1 May, before OAKLAND retired to Kwajalein on 4 May.

Following antiaircraft training, OAKLAND helped to attack Guam 11 June, then steamed north to hit the Volcano and Bonin Islands by the 14th.

West of the embattled Marianas, Task Force 58 sped to intercept a large Japanese surface force approaching from the Philippines. In the ensuing Battle of the Philippine Sea, the famed "Turkey Shoot" took place as the U.S. carrier planes decimated the trained air groups of three Japanese carrier divisions, almost eliminating Japanese naval aviation.

Toward the end of the battle, as darkness was creeping in, the returning American pilots were scanning the sea for their carriers. Admiral Mitscher, on the bridge of his Flagship, concerned about his men, gave the order to "Turn on the lights." In response, OAKLAND's 36-inch search-lights were flicked on helping to light up the Philippine Sea like a motion picture premiere.

TG 58.1 next struck at Pagan on 23 June and Iwo Jima the 24th. On the 27th, the units gathered at Eniwetok Atoll for replenishment and on the 30th nosed northwest to the Bonins. The group delivered a withering air-sea bombardment against Iwo and Chichi Jima 3 and 4 July, and by the 5th, was speeding south for a return engagement in the Marianas.

The carriers then began launching, on 7 July, a series of alternating strikes against Guam and Rota. OAKLAND and HELM (DD-388) teamed up to recover downed pilots off Guam, and fired at targets on Orote Peninsula.

At 0800, 4 August, search planes reported a Japanese convoy zig-zagging out of Chichi Jima, Bonin Islands. Two hours later, the carriers' planes reported they were attacking enemy vessels. A naval assault team was quickly formed, consisting of the light cruisers OAKLAND, SANTA FE (CL-60), MOBILE (CL-63) and BILOXI (CL-80), plus Destroyer Division 91.

Detached from the task group at 1241, the killer band raced at 30 knots between Ototo and Yome Jima and arrived on the scene at about 1730. The destroyers formed an attack group ahead of the cruisers and, at 1845, sank a small oiler. Another straggler from the convoy, later identified as the destroyer MATSU, was sighted at 1924 and subsequently sunk.

At 2145, OAKLAND and company contacted a 7500-ton supply ship and sank her, before turning south to rake Chichi Jima. OAKLAND made three runs, shelling shipping in Chichi's harbor of Funtami Ko, and helped to silence an irksome shore battery before she retired at 1119 on 5 August. Several Japanese ships had been sunk, a seaplane base damaged, and fires started among the wharves and warehouses.

From 6 to 8 September, OAKLAND's task group hit the Palau Islands, Peleliu being the main target. On the evening of the 8th, they steamed west to raid enemy airfields in the Philippines through the 22nd.

On 6 October, OAKLAND departed Ulithi shepherding her own carriers toward the Ryukyus and hit Okinawa on the 10th. They attacked installations on Formosa and the Pescadores 12 October and, at 1835, as they were withdrawing, fought off a Japanese air counter attack.

They hit Formosa again on 13 October, and again the Imperial Air Force lashed out in full fury as the task force withdrew at nightfall. OAKLAND assisted in turning back the aerial opponents but, at 1835, CANBERRA (CA-70) in TG 38.1 was damaged by a torpedo, and on the 14th, HOUSTON (CL-81) received a torpedo hit. OAKLAND then covered the withdrawal of the two hit ships, before participating in the strikes against Luzon 17-19 October and supporting the landings on Leyte the 20th.

Enroute to Ulithi on the 24th, OAKLAND received orders to backtrack at once to help stop the Japanese Fleet which was converging on Leyte Gulf. By the time she arrived on the scene the enemy had been repulsed, and the carriers began long range strikes against the retreating enemy. The Battle for Leyte Gulf wrote a fiery finis to the Imperial Navy as an effective fighting force.

During November and December, OAKLAND operated with various task groups of TF 38 supporting the Philippine liberation campaign. On 18 December, she rode out a raging typhoon in the Philippine Sea, escaping serious damage.

OAKLAND returned to San Francisco 11 January 1945. She remained for repairs and trial runs until sailing for Hawaii 4 March. Arriving Pearl Harbor on the 9th, OAKLAND began additional training south of Oahu. She received movement orders on the 14th and sailed for Ulithi, the staging area for Okinawa.

Reaching Ulithi 30 March, she sailed again with other units the following day. On tap was the most ambitious amphibious assault of the Pacific war. On 2 April the group separated, OAKLAND going ahead to join TG 58.4. For five days she engaged in hitting Sakashima Gunto in the southern Nansei Shoto and then proceeded to Okinawa.

On 10 April, OAKLAND was reassigned to TG 58.3 for the remainder of the Okinawa campaign. She came under air attack again on 11 April with her AA gunners splashing a dive bomber. With other groups of TF 58, OAKLAND moved northward on 15 April to launch strikes against airfields at Kyushu. Enemy planes tried time and again to pierce the task force's protective fighter umbrella. Twice OAKLAND's guns cut loose, aiding in the destruction of one "Frances" and driving off another.

Okinawan defenses were struck again on the 17th. Kamikazes evaded the combat air patrol in the morning and OAKLAND took two under fire as they passed over the ship. Both were dropped within the formation, with OAKLAND scoring one. On the 29th, OAKLAND drove away another enemy aircraft. TG 58.3 had taken the best the Imperial Air Force had to offer during 11 days of April. The rest of the month was utilized in making additional strikes against Okinawa and conducting gunnery exercises with drones and towed sleeves.

Snooper planes began winging near the group early in the morning of 11 May. After breakfast the OAKLAND crew scrambled to General Quarters but an attack failed to materialize at that time. When they did strike, it was like a bolt of lightening. Two kamikazes plummeted into the flight deck of BUNKER HILL (CV-17), 2000 yards from the cruiser. A trio of life rafts were cut loose from OAKLAND to aid in the rescue of BUNKER HILL survivors sighted ahead.

The task force struck again at airfields on Kyushu on 13 May. On the 14th, the Japanese reciprocated. Shortly after breakfast a lone "Zero" was spotted circling through the clouds and OAKLAND's guns quickly opened fire, but their quarry just as quickly disappeared from view. Then he came back like a comet. ENTERPRISE (CV-6) bore the brunt of his crash-dive as he blew up in a blossom of flame on her flight deck.

Shortly, a flock of kamikazes appeared and within the space of fifteen minutes, OAKLAND took four separate suicide planes under fire. OAKLAND's claim of two assists was substantiated by the task group commander.

For the duration of May, OAKLAND remained with the task group off Okinawa. On the 29th, she shifted back to TG 38.1 under Admiral Halsey and made for Leyte Gulf, anchoring in San Pedro Bay on 1 June.

On 10 July, TG 38.1 commenced raids on the Japanese mainland beginning with Honshu and then thundering north to Hokkaido. On 17-20 July, OAKLAND participated in strikes against Tokyo and 24-27 July against Kure and Kobe. Tokyo was hit again on the 30th along with Nagoya. On 7 August, the ships turned north to strike the Honshu-Hokkaido area for a second time. August 15th brought the long awaited "cease all offensive operations" order. OAKLAND then proceeded to her assigned operating area for the occupation of Japan.

Sailing on 30 August to the most important rendezvous of her career, OAKLAND dropped anchor in Tokyo Bay the next day, outside the breakwater of the Yokosuka Naval Base. Berthed several thousand yards away from MISSOURI (BB-63), OAKLAND provided a box seat for her sailors to witness the unforgettable climax to their war.

While OAKLAND lay at anchor in Tokyo Bay, on the night of 27 September, a typhoon swept close to the harbor entrance. A tanker dragged anchor and struck OAKLAND's bow, causing minor damage. On 1 October, OAKLAND sailed for Okinawa to embark homeward bound veterans for a "magic carpet" voyage to San Francisco. Leaving Okinawa on the 3rd, she arrived at San Francisco on the 20th. Navy Day (27 October) observances at Oakland, Calif. were highlighted by the presence of OAKLAND. "Magic carpet" duty in November and December took OAKLAND back to the Pacific twice, first to Eniwetok and then to Kwajalein. At the year's end, the Navy turned the task of bringing home the veterans solely over to its transportation service, and OAKLAND was ordered to an inactivation area at Bremerton, Wash.

Reprieve came in the form of a change in orders and, instead of inactivation, OAKLAND was slated to continue as an active postwar fleet unit. A thorough overhaul was afforded her at the Puget Sound Navy Yard to erase the effects of long months of battle.

From July 1946 through January 1947, OAKLAND operated in and around San Diego as a Fleet Gunnery Training Ship. From 6 January to 8 September, she participated in a Western Pacific training cruise.

On 18 March, OAKLAND was reclassified CLAA-95. On 1 July 1949, OAKLAND decommissioned at San Francisco. Struck on 1 March 1959, she was sold to Louis Simons on 1 December for scrapping.

OAKLAND earned nine battle stars for service in World War II.

7 posted on 01/26/2003 5:22:53 AM PST by aomagrat (IYAOYAS)
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To: SAMWolf
On This Day In History

Birthdates which occurred on January 26:
1613 Johann Jakob Wolleb composer
1667 Henricus Zwaardecroon Governor-General of Netherland-Indies
1708 William Hayes composer
1714 Jean B Pigalle French sculptor (Child with Bird Cage)
1715 Claude Helvetius Paris France, philosopher
1716 George Sackville Germain 1st Viscount Sackville
1722 Prestonpans
1742 Johann Friedrich Ludwig Sievers composer
1748 Emmanuel Aloys Forster composer
1763 Charles XIV French marshall, king of Sweden & Norway (1818-44)
1770 Alexander Carlyle Moderator of General Assembly
1771 Jacob Andries van Braam colonial director (Suriname)
1778 Ugo Foscolo Italian poet (Ultime lettere di Jacopo Ortis)
1781 Ludwig Joachim "Achim" von Arnim German poet (Des Knaben Wunderhorn)
1786 Benjamin Robert Haydon Plymouth, painter (Waiting for The Times)
1804 Eugane "Marie Joseph" Sue France, novelist (Wandering Jew)
1814 Rufus King Brigadier General (Union volunteers), died in 1876
1816 Lloyd Tilghman Brigadier General (Confederate Army), died in 1863
1826 Julia Dent Grant 1st lady (1869-77)
1828 Johan T Buys Dutch lawyer
1831 Mary Mapes Dodge New York City NY, writer (Hans Brinker & the Silver Skates)
1852 Pierre Brazza explorer/colonial administrator (French Africa)
1852 Frederick Corder composer
1855 Arthur Hervey composer
1871 Warner Fabian [Samuel H Adams], US journalist/writer (Average Jones)
1877 Kees van Dongen Netherlands, French painter
1878 A W "Dave" Nourse cricketer ("Grand Old Man" of South African cricket)
1878 R A Schröcker writer
1879 Ludovicus H [Lode] Baekelmans Flemish (stage)author (Tille)
1880 Douglas MacArthur Little Rock AR, General of the Army (WWII), he did return!
1884 Roy Chapman Andrews US, scientist/explorer
1884 Edward Sapir Germany, linguist/anthropologist (Indians)
1886 Joannes A Veraart Dutch economist/MP (Jews of the Netherlands)
1887 Enrique E Ecker Curaçao, bacteriologist
1887 Marc A "Pete" Mitscher US Lieutenant-Admiral (WWII-Task Force 58)
1891 Ilya G Ehrenburg Kiev Ukraine, writer (Fall of Paris, The Thaw)
1892 Zara Cully Worcester MA, actress (Mother Jefferson-The Jeffersons)
1893 Bessie Coleman 1st black airplane pilot
1899 Wyllis Cooper Pekin IL, TV narrator (Volume One)
19-- Richard Hill Harlan KY, actor (Al Gordean-Today's FBI)
1901 Ervin Major composer
1902 Laurence "Bill" Craigie jet pioneer
1902 Menno ter Braak Dutch writer/essayist (Carnaval of the Citizens)
1902 Romney Brent Saltillo Mexico, actor/writer (Dinner at the Ritz)
1904 Douglas Evans actor (South Pacific Trail)
1904 Sean MacBride Dublin Ireland, statesman/Amnesty International co-founder (Nobel '74)
1905 Charles Lane San Francisco CA, actor (Homer-Petticoat Junction, Lucy Show)
1905 Maria Augusta von Trapp Austria, singer, inspired "Sound of Music"
1905 John Carmel Heenan Essex, cardinal archbishop of Westminster (1963-75)
1905 Marquess of Bath English large landowner/multi-millionaire
1907 Eddie Ballantine Chicago IL, orchestra leader (Don McNeill TV Club)
1907 Henry Cotton English golfer (British Open 1934, 1937, 1948)
1908 Stephane Grappelli French jazz violinist
1910 Elmar Klos Czechoslovakian director (Adrift)
1910 Marijan Lipovsek composer
1911 Norbert Schultze composer
1911 Polykarp Kusch US, nuclear physicist Nobel 1955
1912 Cora Baird New York City NY, puppeteer (Kukla, Fran & Ollie)
1913 Jimmy Van Heusen songwriter (Love & Marriage)
1913 William Prince Nichols NY, actor (City in Fear, Cyrano de Bergerac)
1914 Kaye Webb English writer/publisher (Puffin Club)
1915 William Hopper New York City NY, actor (Paul Drake-Perry Mason)
1916 Lothar Jensch composer
1918 Nicolae Ceausescu Romanian President (1967-90)
1919 K C Ibrahim cricketer (batted in 4 Tests India vs West Indies 1948-49)
1920 Derek Bond Glasgow Scotland, actor (Nicholas Nickleby)
1920 John Logan Gorlay journalist
1921 Akio Morita Kasugaya Japan, CEO (Sony)
1921 Frantisek Chaun composer
1921 Johannes Driessler composer
1922 Michael Bentine England, author/comedian (Reluctant Jester)
1923 Anne Jeffreys North Carolina, actress (Dick Tracy, Topper, General Hospital)
1924 Warren Frank Benson composer
1925 Joan Leslie Detroit MI, actress (Sergeant York, High Sierra, Yankee Doodle Dandy)
1925 Paul Newman Cleveland OH, racer/popcorn mogul/actor (Hud, Hombre, Hustler)
1925 David Jenkins Bishop (Durham)
1925 Desmond Cassidi British admiral
1926 Charles Tidbury former chairman (Whitbread & Company)
1926 Jose Maria Valverde philosopher poet/translator
1926 Ronnie Hilton singer (Moonraker)
1927 William Redfield New York City NY, actor (Jimmy Hughes Rookie Cop, Marriage)
1927 José Simón Azcona Hoyo President of Honduras (1986-90)
1928 Eartha Kitt South Carolina, singer/actress (Catwoman-Batman)
1928 Roger Vadim France, director (And God Created Women, Barbarella)
1928 Gene Snyder (Representative-R-KY, 1963-65, 67- )
1928 Philip José Farmer Indiana, science fiction novelist (Riverworld)
1929 Jules Feiffer New York City NY, cartoonist (Passionella) author (Little Murders)
1929 M R Turner publisher
1930 A N Solomons chairman (Singer & Friedlander)
1930 Anne Macfarlane Master (Court of Protection)
1930 Harry "Buddy" Melges Jr Wisconsin, yachter (Olympics-gold/bronze-1964, 72)
1931 Mary Murphy Washington DC, actress (A Man Alone, Maggie-Investigators)
1932 George H Clements famous African
1932 Christopher Price Director (Leeds Metropolitan U)
1932 Ronald Allison British author/broadcaster
1934 Huey "Piano" Smith pianist (Having a Good Time)
1935 Bob Uecker Milwaukee WI, catcher/actor (Mr Belvedere)
1935 Henry Jordan Emporia VA, NFL defensive tackle (Cleveland, Green Bay)
1935 Peter Ronnefeld composer
1935 Zbigniew Penherski composer
1936 Noel Harrison London, singer/actor (Mark-Girl from UNCLE)
1937 Gerrit Gerritse Dutch MP (CDA)
1937 Joseph Saidu Momoh General/President (Sierra Leone)
1937 S J B Langdale Headmaster (Shrewsbury School)
1938 Margaret Daly British MEP
1939 Marshall Lieb rocker (Teddy Bears)
1941 Henry Jaglom London England, actor (Eating, Lucky Ducks, Always)
1942 Scott Glenn Pittsburgh PA, actor (Right Stuff, Personal Best, Backdraft)
1942 Nigel Walmsley chairman (Carlton UK Television)
1942 William McLennan CEO (Central Statistical Office)
1943 Jean Knight vocalist (Mr Big Stuff)
1943 Peter Kenton Winkler composer
1943 Sherian Grace Cadoria Brigadier General
1944 Angela Yvonne Davis black activist/professor
1945 Jacqueline du Pré Oxford England, cellist
1945 Mick Hill cricketer (New South Wales all-rounder 1964-75)
1946 Gene Siskel movie critic (Siskel & Ebert)
1946 Christopher Hampton Azores, playwright (Oviri, Hotel du Lac)
1946 Timothy Clifford director (National Galleries of Scotland)
1947 Patrick Dewaere [Bordeaux], France, actor (Les Valseuses)
1948 Corky Laing rocker (Mountain)
1949 Derek Holt rocker (Climax Blues Band)
1949 Paul Nurse doctor/director-General elect (Imperial Cancer Research Fund)
1950 David Strathairn actor (LA Confidential, Eight Men Out)
1950 Jorg Haider Austrian political leader (Austrian Freedom Pary)
1951 David Briggs rock guitarist (Little River Band-Help is on it's Way)
1951 Andy Hummell Memphis TN, rock bassist (Big Star)
1951 Jarmila Kratochvilova Czechoslovakia, 400m/800m runner (women's world record holder, Olympics-silver-1980)
1951 Walt Willey Ottawa IL, actor (Joe Novak-Ryan's Hope, Jackson Montgomery-All My Children)
1952 Mario Runco Jr Bronx NY, Lieutenant-Commander USN/astronaut (STS 44, 54, 77)
1952 Thomas Edward Henderson South Carolina, basketballer (Olympics-silver-1972)
1953 Andrée C van Es Dutch MP (PSP)
1953 Bert Heerink Amsterdam, rock vocalist
1953 Lucinda Williams singer
1954 Kim Hughes cricketer (brilliant Australian batsman 1977-84)
1954 Martin Dunn British editor (Today)
1955 Lucia Mendez Mexico, Spanish singer (Lucia es Luna Moreno)
1956 Lisa Boray [Schulte Nordholt], Dutch singer (Lovers Until the End)
1956 Simon Howard English large landowner (Castle Howard)
1957 Ashok Malhotra cricketer (Indian batsman in 7 Tests 1982-84)
1957 Eddie Van Halen Nijmegan Netherlands, rock guitarist (Van Halen-Jump, 1984)
1957 Shivlal Yadav cricketer (Indian off-spinner 102 Test wickets 1979-87)
1958 Anita Baker Toledo OH, singer (Giving You the Best That I Got)
1958 B James Lowry rocker (Boys Band)
1958 Dave Rummells Cedar Rapids IA, Nike golfer (1993 Buick-2nd)
1958 Ellen DeGeneres New Orleans LA, comedienne (Ellen Morgan-Ellen)
1958 Norman Lamont Hassan British reggae musician (UB40-Red Red Wine)
1960 Gary Plummer NFL linebacker (San Diego Chargers, San Francisco 49ers)
1960 Jeanette Bolden Los Angeles CA, 4x100m runner (Olympics-gold-1984)
1961 Wayne Gretzky Brantford Ontario, Edmonton Oilers/Los Angeles Kings/New York Rangers (NHL MVP 1980-1987), Great One
1962 Roshan Guneratne cricketer (wicketless in only Test SL vs Australia 1983)
1962 Tim May cricketer (Australian off-spinner 1987-95)
1962 Tom Keifer rock guitarist/vocalist (Cinderella-Heartbreak Station)
1963 Andrew Ridgeley England, rock guitarist (Wham-Wake Me Up)
1963 Claudia Lonow New York City NY, actress (Diana-Knots Landing)
1963 Jazzie B [Beresford Romeo], English rapper (Soul II Soul-Feel Free)
1963 Simon O'Donnell cricketer (Deniliquin New South Wales ODI all-rounder 1985-90)
1965 Allison Hossack Steinbach Manitoba Canada, actress (Olivia-Another World)
1965 Lou Frazier US baseball outfielder (Montréal Expos)
1965 Tim McDonald safety (San Francisco 49ers)
1967 Jeff Branson US baseball infielder (Cincinnati Reds)
1967 Katie Peterson-Parker Bethesda MD, LPGA golfer (1995 Oldsmobile-5th)
1967 Tim Pugh Lake Tahoe CA, pitcher (Cincinnati Reds, Kansas City Royals)
1968 Eric Davis NFL cornerback (San Francisco 49ers, Carolina Panthers)
1968 Reggie Jordan NBA guard (Minnesota Timberwolves)
1970 Dan Carlson US baseball pitcher (San Francisco Giants)
1970 Dean Malkoc Vancouver, NHL defenseman (Vancouver Canucks)
1970 Ronald Moore NFL running back (New York Jets, St Louis Rams, Arizona Cardinals)
1971 Jon Heidenreich WLAF G (Frankfurt Galaxy)
1971 Lamar Mills WLAF DE (Amsterdam Admirals)
1971 Lee Naylor Australian 400m runner (Olympics-96)
1971 Min Tang Hunan China, tennis star (1995 Futures-Canberra Australia)
1971 Tracy Middendorf Georgia, actress (Beverly Hills 90210, Carrie-Days of Our Life)
1972 Harrison Houston NFL wide receiver (Chicago Bears)
1973 Mark Brook WLAF LB (Rhein Fire)
1973 Tatsuki Katayama hockey defenseman (Team Japan 1998)
1973 Tony Ramirez tackle (Detroit Lions)
1976 Paul Byrne Australian 800m runner (Olympics-96)
1977 Cindy Cesar Miss Mauritius-Universe (1997)
1977 Justin Gimelstob New Jersey, tennis star (1994 doubles USTA Bakersfield)
1978 Reesa Starr Jr
1997 Pasaye Twins Palatine IL, twin born 92 days after his brother (Oct 26)

Deaths which occurred on January 26:
1109 Albericus of Cîteaux French saint, dies
1706 Guillaume Poitevin composer, dies at 59
1795 Johann Christoph Friedrich Bach composer, dies at 62
1798 Christian Gottlob Neefe German organist/composer, dies at 49
1803 Georg von Pasterwiz composer, dies at 72
1824 Edward Jenner discoverer (vaccination), dies
1824 Théodore Géricault French painter (Grand Derby d'Epsom), dies
1849 Thomas Lovell Beddoes English poet (Death's Jest-Book), suicide at 45
1850 Francis Jeffrey Baron Jeffrey, judge/literary critic, dies
1855 Gérard de Nerval [Labrunie], French poet/writer, dies at 46
1870 Cesare Pugni composer, dies at 67
1885 Charles George Gordon British Governor-General, executed (slain with troops by Sudanese in Khartoum) at 51
1891 Nicholaus Otto auto pioneer (internal combustion engine), dies
1893 Abner Doubleday credited with inventing baseball, dies on 74th birthday
1895 Arthur Cayley mathematician, dies
1904 John P R Tak Dutch liberal politician, dies at 64
1911 Charles Wentworth Dilke English undersecretary of State, dies at 67
1920 Matthias Enzberger German minister of finance, murdered
1922 Luigi Denza composer, dies at 75
1932 William K Wrigley owner (Wrigley Gum, Chicago Cubs), dies
1939 Professor Cristescu Romania's iron guard leader, murdered
1939 Armand Calinescu Romania's PM, assassinated by the iron guard
1942 Gerard L F Philips Dutch manufacturer (Philips), dies at 83
1943 Nikolai Vavilov geneticist, Saratovv labour camp, dies
1947 Grace Moore US soprano/actress (One Night of Love), dies at 45
1947 Gustav Adolf crown prince of Sweden, dies in air crash
1948 Ignaz Friedman composer, dies at 65
1949 Victor Fleming director (Wizard of Oz, Gone With Wind), dies at 65
1950 Betsy van den Arend Dutch [Betje], actress (Miss Hobbs), dies at 78
1952 Louis van Deyssel Dutch writer (Diary of Franc Rozelaar), dies at 87
1953 Martinus Nijhoff Dutch poet/translator (spelling), dies at 58
1954 Carl J Eldh Swedish sculptor, dies at 80
1961 Morris Nichols cricketer (41 wickets in 14 Tests for England 1930-39), dies
1962 Charles "Lucky" Luciano New York City NY Mafia gangster, dies at 65
1962 Fran Lhotka composer, dies at 78
1963 John Sigvard Olsen comedian (Olsen & Johnson), dies at 70
1965 Ali Mansoer premier of Persia, murdered
1967 Albert Remy actor (Blows), dies at 55
1967 Kenneth Thomson actor (White Gold), dies of emphysema at 68
1973 Edward G Robinson [Goldenberg], actor (Little Caesar), dies at 79
1973 Meijer Sluyser Dutch journalist/commentator (VARA), dies at about 71
1974 S v Vegesack writer, dies at 85
1974 Wiktor Labunski composer, dies at 78
1975 Lubov Orlova actress (Moscow Laughs, Man of Music, Tanya), dies at 72
1977 Margaret Hayes actress (Robert Montgomery Presents), dies at 61
1978 Leo Genn actor (Lady Chatterley's Lover, Henry V), dies at 72
1979 Nelson Rockefeller former Vice President & 4 time Governor of NY, dies at 70
1983 Paul "Bear" Bryant college football coach, dies in Alabama at 69
1985 James Cameron journalist, dies
1989 Paul Daels Flemish chairman (IJzerbedevaart committee), dies
1989 Stéphane Steinier Belgian journalist, kidnapped & murdered
1990 FHP "Boy" Trip Dutch minister, dies
1991 Johnny van Doorn Dutch writer/poet, dies at 46
1992 José Ferrer Puerto Rico, actor/director (Cyrano de Bergerac), dies at 80
1992 Okke Jager Dutch theologist/writer/poet, dies at 63
1993 Axel Von Dem Bussche German aristocrat, dies
1993 Jan Gies Dutch resistance fighter (helped Anne Frank), dies at 87
1993 Robert Jacobsen Danish sculptor (large iron sculptures), dies at 80
1995 Bernardo Leighton Chilean politician (1964-70), dies
1995 Geoffrey Penwill Parsons Australian/British piano accompanist, dies at 65
1995 Louis Heren journalist, dies at 65
1995 Vic Buckingham English soccer player/trainer (Ajax), dies at 79
1996 David Schultz wrestler (Olympics-Gold-84), killed by John Du Pont
1996 Harold Brodkey writer, dies at 65
1996 Henry Jay Lewis conductor, dies at 63
1997 Margaret Hesse princess of Hesse/the Rhine, dies at 83
1997 Sarah Lucas theatre Administrator, dies at 53
1998 S P Leary Texan Blues drummer (Muddy Waters), dies at 67
1998 Shinichi Suzuki music teacher (Suzuki Method), dies at 99
1998 Walter Edmonds writer (Drums Along the Mohawk), dies at 93

On this day...
0066 5th recorded perihelion passage of Halley's Comet
1340 English king Edward III proclaimed king of France
1531 Lisbon hit by Earthquake; about 30,000 die
1654 Portuguese troops conquer last Dutch base on Recife
1666 France declares war on England & Münster
1689 Jean Racine's "Esther" premieres in Saint-Cyr
1697 Isaac Newton receives Jean Bernoulli's 6 month time-limit problem, solves problem before going to bed that same night
1699 Venice, Poland & Austria sign peace treaty with Turkey
1736 Stanislaw Lesczynski flees Polish throne
1748 England, Netherlands, Austria & Sardinia sign anti-French treaty
1784 Ben Franklin expresses unhappiness over the eagle as America's symbol
1788 Captain Arthur Phillip forms English colony at Sydney, Botany Bay New South Wales as a penal colony
1789 John Odell signs contract for £336 to build St Peter's church (Bronx)
1790 Mozart's opera "Cosi Fan Tutte" premieres in Vienna
1797 Russia, Prussia & Austria sign treaty
1802 Congress passes an act calling for a US Capitol library
1833 Gaetano Donizetti's opera "Lucrezia Borgia" premieres in Milan
1837 Michigan admitted as 26th US state
1838 Tennessee becomes 1st state to prohibit alcohol
1841 Hong Kong proclaimed a sovereign territory of Britain
1850 1st German-language daily newspaper in US published, New York City NY
1861 Louisiana becomes 6th state to secede
1862 Lincoln issues General War Order #1, calling for a Union offensive McClellan ignores order
1863 War Department authorizes Massachusetts Governor to recruit black troops
1863 54th Regiment (Black) infantry forms
1870 Virginia rejoins the US
1871 US income tax repealed
1871 British Rugby Union forms
1875 Electric dental drill is patented by George F Green
1881 Union of Baptists Communities forms in Foxholl
1882 France government of Gambetta falls
1884 1st Dutch Wagner version of Elizabeth aria
1885 Muhammad Ahmed ("Mahdi") rebels conquer Khartoum
1886 Karl Benz patents 1st auto with burning motor
1887 Battle of Dogali Abyssinian Emperor John IV defeats Italians
1891 Oscar Wilde's "Duchess of Padua" premieres in New York City NY
1897 Battle at Bida Gold Coast British troops beat Nupe's army
1900 Henrik Ibsen's "Naar vi Dode Vaaguer" premieres in Stuttgart
1905 Arnold Schönberg's "Pelleas und Melissande" premieres in Vienna
1905 Han Yong-woon [Bongwan, Manhae] (1879-1944) ordained a monk in Korea
1905 World's largest diamond, the 3,106-carat Cullinan, is found in South Africa
1907 1st federal corrupt election practices law passed
1907 J M Synge's "Playboy of the Western World" opens; police are called
1910 Heavy rains cause floods in Paris
1911 Glenn Curtiss pilots 1st successful hydroplane, San Diego CA
1911 Richard Strauss's opera "Die Rosenkavalier" premieres, Dresden
1913 Jim Thorpe relinquishes his 1912 Olympic medals for being a pro
1914 600 Dutch textile workers go on strike
1914 Vatican puts Belgian Nobel winner Maeterlinck's works in their index
1915 Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado established
1918 US food administrator Hoover calls for "wheatless" & "meatless" days for war effort
1920 Amadeo Modigliani's mistress jumps out of a window
1921 Toronto St Pat Corb Denneny scores 6 goals vs Hamilton Tigers
1921 Soccer team GVAV of Groningen Netherlands forms
1922 Ralph Vaughan Williams' "Pastoral Symphony" premieres in London
1924 Charles Jewtraw, US 500m skater, takes 1st Winter Olympics gold medal
1926 Television 1st demonstrated (John L Baird, London)
1927 Maxwell Anderson's "Saturday's Children" premieres in New York City NY
1929 Indian National Congress proclaims goal for India's independence
1930 Cleveland's Terminal Tower opens (52 stories)
1931 Hungary-Austria sign peace treaty
1931 Lynn Riggs' "Green Grow the Lilacs" premieres in New York City NY
1932 KUT-AM in Austin Texas changes call letters to KNOW
1932 British submarine M-2 sinks in Channel (60 dead)
1934 Bradman scores 128 New South Wales vs Victoria, 96 minutes, 17 fours 4 sixes
1934 Nazi Germany & Poland sign non-attack treaty for 10 years
1939 Federal Hall National Monument established
1939 Filming begins on "Gone With the Wind"
1939 Franco conquers Barcelona
1940 Nazis forbid Polish Jews to travel on trains
1942 1st US force in Europe during WWII goes ashore in Northern Ireland
1942 Italian supreme command demands dismissal of German marshal Rommel
1945 Soviet forces reach Auschwitz concentration camp
1947 KLM Dakota crashes near Copenhagen, 22 die
1948 Executive Order 9981, end segregation in US Armed Forces signed
1949 WHIO TV channel 7 in Dayton, OH (CBS) begins broadcasting
1950 India becomes a republic ceasing to be a British dominion
1951 Mel Ott & Jimmie Foxx elected to Baseball Hall of Fame
1954 Ground breaking begins on Disneyland
1956 7th Winter Olympic games open in Cortina d'Ampezzo, Italy
1956 Porkkala military base returned to Finland by USSR
1956 Buddy Holly's 1st formal recording session
1956 Hank Greenberg & Joe Cronin are elected to Baseball Hall of Fame
1957 Bernanos & Poulenc's opera "Dialogue des Carmelites" premieres
1957 Dutch PSP, Pacifist Socialistic Party, forms
1957 India annexes Kashmir
1957 Joseph F Cairnes succeeds Lou Perini as president of Milwaukee Braves
1958 Jack Smith takes over for Art Baker as TV host of "You Asked for It"
1958 H Laskow replaces Moshe Dayan as Israeli minister of Defense
1958 Marlene Hagge wins LPGA Lake Worth Open Golf Invitational
1959 Italy government of Fanfani resigns
1959 KOKH TV channel 25 in Oklahoma City OK, (IND/PBS) begins broadcasting
1960 Danny Heater scores 135 points in basketball game (Boys' High School)
1960 Oakland enters the AFL
1960 Pete Rozelle elected NFL commissioner on the 23rd ballot
1961 1st woman "personal physician to President"-JG Travell
1961 "Are You Lonesome Tonight?" by Elvis Presley peaks to #1
1962 US launches Ranger 3, misses Moon by 22,000-mile (37,000-km)
1962 Bishop Burke of Buffalo Catholic dioceses declares Chubby Checker's "Twist" is impure & bans it from all Catholic schools
1962 Canadian Marine Service renamed Coast Guard
1962 David Diamond's 7th Symphony, premieres in Philadelphia
1963 "Milk & Honey" closes at Martin Beck Theater New York City NY after 543 performances
1963 Major League Rules Committee votes to expand strike zone
1965 South Vietnam military coup under General Nguyen Khanh
1966 Ard Schenk skates world record 1500m (2 06.2)
1967 USSR performs nuclear test at Sary Shagan USSR
1968 Israeli submarine Dakar crashes in Mediterranean Sea, 69 die
1969 "Red, White, & Maddox" opens at Cort Theater New York City NY for 41 performances
1970 Pendleton, Ford & Cryer's "Last Sweet Days of Isaac" premieres in New York City NY
1971 Dutch 2nd Chamber accept law against limitation of war crimes
1972 Stewardess Vesna Vulovic survives 10,160m fall without parachute
1973 Belgium government of Leburton forms
1975 Edward Albee's "Seascape" premieres in New York City NY
1976 Israel opens "Good Fence" to Lebanon
1976 6th NFL Pro Bowl NFC beats AFC 23-20
1976 Belgium catholic elite start amnesty campaign for war criminals
1976 David Mamet's "American Buffalo" premieres in New York City NY
1977 Soviet figure skaters Sergei Shakrai & Marine Tcherkasova are 1st to perform a quadruple twist lift, Helsinki
1978 Frank Herbert completes his novel "Destination Void"
1978 International Ultraviolet Explorer placed in Earth orbit
1978 Mario Soares forms Portuguese government
1978 Strikers riot in Tunisia, killing about 40
1979 "The Dukes of Hazzard" premieres on CBS's vast wasteland
1979 Music Center Vredenburg opens in Utrecht Netherlands
1980 175,000 pay to hear Frank Sinatra sing in Rio de Janeiro!
1980 Islanders & Whalers play a NHL penalty-free game
1980 Israel & Egypt establish diplomatic relations
1980 Mary Decker became 1st woman to run a mile in under 4½ minutes
1981 Sandeep Patil scores memorable 174 vs Australia at Adelaide Oval
1982 Islanders score 4 goals within 1 38, 5 within 2 37 vs Penguins
1982 Mauno Koivisto elected President of Finland
1983 Dutch/British infrared satellite IRAS launched from California
1984 Nordiques' Michel Goulet scored on 9th penalty shot against Islanders
1984 US navy exhibits Piasecki helistat-4 helicopters & a blimp able to lift 26 tons-Lakehurst New Jersey
1985 Edmonton Oiler Wayne Gretzky scores 50th goal in 49th game of season
1985 42th Golden Globes Amadeus wins
1986 Hein Vergeer becomes European skating champ
1986 Super Bowl XX Chicago Bears beat New England Patriots, 46-10 in New Orleans; Super Bowl MVP Richard Dent, Chicago, Defensive End
1986 Val Skinner wins LPGA Mazda Golf Classic
1986 Yoweri Museveni's rebel army conquerors Kampala Uganda
1987 14th American Music Award Whitney Houston, Lionel Richie & Alabama
1987 Hart Foundation beat British Bulldogs for WWF tag team title
1988 Australia's 200th anniversary-parade of tall ships in Sydney Harbor
1988 "Phantom of the Opera" opens at Majestic Theater New York City NY for 4,000+ performances
1989 AT&T reports 1st loss in 103 years; $1.67 B in 1988
1989 Madison Square Garden announces 2-year $100 M renovation plan
1989 US computer security expert warns of catastrophic virus
1989 "Black & Blue" opens at Minskoff Theater New York City NY for 829 performances
1989 Allan Border takes 7-46 against the West Indies at the SCG
1989 Test debut of Mark Taylor, Australia vs West Indies, Sydney
1990 Annular eclipse visible over Antarctica & South Atlantic
1990 Boston Red Sox hires Elaine Weddington as assistant GM (highest-ranking black female in a major-league front office)
1991 "Few Good Men" closes at Music Box Theater New York City NY after 497 performances
1991 65th Australian Womens Tennis Monica Seles beats J Novotna (57 63 61)
1991 Alfaro Vive guerrilla group of Ecuador gives arms to Catholic church
1991 Houston guard Vernon Maxwell is 4th NBAer to score 30 points in a quarter
1991 Jan Stenerud becomes 1st pure placekicker to make NFL Hall of Fame
1991 New York Lotto pays $90 million to nine winner (#s are 5-15-30-35-46-50)
1992 "Little Hotel on the Side" opens at Belasco Theater New York City NY for 41 performances
1992 80th Australian Mens Tennis Jim Courier beats Stefan Edberg (63 36 64 62)
1992 Americans with Disabilities Act went into effect
1992 Super Bowl XXVI Washington Redskins beat Buffalo Bills, 37-24 in Minnesota; Super Bowl MVP Mark Rypien, Washington, Quarterback
1993 West Indies defeat Australia by one run in 4th Test at Adelaide
1995 New Jersey Governor Christine Whitman, dedicates a rest stop to Howard Stern
1996 "Les Miserables" opens at Musichall Theatre, Duisburg
1997 "Ideal Husband" closes at Barrymore Theater New York City NY after 308 performances
1997 85th Australian Mens Tennis Pete Sampras beats Carlos Moya (62 63 63)
1997 Brunswick World Bowling Tournament of Champions won by John Gant
1997 Super Bowl XXXI Green Bay Packers beat New England Patriots, 35-21 in New Orleans; Super Bowl MVP Desmond Howard, Green Bay, Kick Returner
1998 25th American Music Award Spice Girls & Babyface win
1998 Intel launches 333 MHz Pentium II chip
1998 President Clinton says "I want to say one thing to the American people, I did not have sexual relations with that woman, Miss Lewinsky"

Note: Some Holidays are only applicable on a given "day of the week"

Arkansas : General Douglas MacArthur Day
China : Chinese New Year-The Year of the Ox (2009/4707)
Dominican Republic : Duarte's Day/Dia de Duarte
India : Republic Day (1950)
Michigan : Admission Day (1837)
Australia : Australia Day (1788 - 1993) - - - - - ( Monday )
Australia : Australia Day (1794 - Present)

Religious Observances
Roman Catholic : Feast of St Paula
Roman Catholic, Anglican, Lutheran : Memorial of SS Timothy & Titus, companions of Paul
old Roman Catholic : Feast of St Polycarp, bishop/martyr (now 2/23)

Religious History
1564 Following the closing of the Council of Trent, Pius IV ratified its enactments by the bull "Benedictus Deus." Included among the Tridentine decisions were decrees concerning the creation of an Index of Prohibited Books (a list of condemned authors and their works).
1779 Pioneer American Methodist bishop Francis Asbury wrote in his journal: 'We should so work as if we were to be saved by our works; and so rely on Jesus Christ, as if we did no works.'
1906 The first General Assembly of the Church of God convened. Headquartered today in Cleveland, TN, the Church of God is the oldest Pentecostal Church denomination in the U.S., with roots going back to 1886.
1951 The Temple Beth Israel of Meridian, Miss. became the first Jewish congregation to allow women to perform the functions of a rabbi.
1967 Swiss Reformed theologian Karl Barth wrote in a letter: 'What God has done is well done.'

Thought for the day :
" You're smart when you only believe half of what you hear, Wise is when you know which half to believe. "

8 posted on 01/26/2003 6:02:41 AM PST by Valin (Place your ad here!)
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To: SAMWolf
Good Morning Sam
9 posted on 01/26/2003 6:19:15 AM PST by Soaring Feather
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To: SAMWolf

Dr. Robert Shapiro and Maj. Jason Altchek meet for the first time in nearly 18 years at Nellis Air Force Base, Nev. The two met previously on the island of Grenada when Altchek's C-141 Starlifter flew Shapiro and other American medical students to safety during Operation Urgent Fury.

Memories of war reunite rescuer, doctor

by 2nd Lt. Carla Pampe
Air Warfare Center Public Affairs

07/18/01 - NELLIS AIR FORCE BASE, Nev. (AFPN) -- Nearly 18 years after Maj. Jason Altchek's C-141 Starlifter evacuated a group of American medical students, among them Robert Shapiro, from Grenada during Operation Urgent Fury, a chance meeting between the two men's wives reunited the pair.

In October 1983, Altchek, now the Red Flag chief of staff at the Air Warfare Center here, was a navigator on a C-141 stationed at Charleston Air Force Base, S.C. Robert Shapiro was a young medical student in his first year of training, looking forward to the day he would become a doctor. The men were worlds apart, but the U.S. invasion of Grenada would tie the two together.

Earlier that month, a Marxist group with ties to Cuba arrested and murdered Grenada's prime minister and several members of his cabinet. In response to an appeal for assistance from the governor general and the Organization of Eastern Caribbean States, U.S. forces, along with forces from several other Caribbean states, began an invasion of Grenada Oct. 25 dubbed Operation Urgent Fury.

The mission's objective was to protect U.S. citizens on the island and restore the lawful government. Among the hundreds of American citizens on the island was a group of medical students attending St. George's Medical School, there.

"I was in my first year of medical school, and there was a coup going on in Grenada," said Shapiro, now a surgeon in Las Vegas. "As students, we were pretty immune to the whole thing at first, but then these rebels grabbed the prime minister and his cabinet and executed them.

"We found out what was going on that afternoon, when they declared martial law and said that anyone caught outside of their homes would be shot on sight," he said. "The U.S. government kept trying to negotiate our release, but there was no way to get us off the island, because the rebels wouldn't give permission for any military planes to come in and get us."

Shapiro said all that the students could do was sit and wait.

Meanwhile, at Charleston, then-1st Lt. Altchek, just eight months out of flight school, was given deployment orders along with the rest of his C-141 crewmates to fly to Grenada.

"We really didn't know what was going on when we left Charleston," Altchek said. "We didn't have any intelligence at all. I'm proud to say that wouldn't happen today, but at the time, we were relying on the folks who lived there to tell us what was going on when we got there."

The C-141 and its crew were part of the second wave of the operation, carrying a group of Army Rangers from the 82nd Airborne Division who would go in to rescue the medical students.

"As we were coming in to land at Point Salinas, we could see the ground fire, because it was at night," Altchek said. "My first thoughts were 'This isn't happening to me,' but after that initial shock, I remembered my training for small-arms fire, and took appropriate action, which turned out to be very effective. I put my faith in the tactics which my instructors had shown me."

Initially, the crew was told to wait for the upload of cargo, which turned out to be captured Soviet equipment. Altchek said he didn't know anything about the medical students until his crew was told to stay and wait for them.

"We really didn't have any idea what these folks had gone through until we got there, and then we found out how serious things were," he said.

While Altchek and his crewmates waited, the Army Rangers were busy getting the medical students out and safely on board CH-46 Sea Knight Marine helicopters where they were flown back to the waiting C-141 in Point Salinas.

After several delays due to rebel ground fire, the C-141 and its passengers took off and headed for Charleston. During the flight, Shapiro said, he begged his way up into the flightdeck to visit with the crew.

"I remember going into the cockpit, and seeing that their 'intelligence' map was just a little Xerox copy of a tourist map," he said.

Altchek remembered how happy the young medical student was to be on his way back to the United States.

"I could tell he was a little frazzled," Altchek said. "He had just witnessed numerous people being murdered. Our conversation focused on what he had been through and how deeply happy he was for our efforts."

After the operation, Altchek continued his Air Force career and Shapiro resumed his medical training, eventually becoming a surgeon. Nearly 18 years after the rescue, a conversation between the two men's wives led to their reunion.

"My wife, Sharon, who is a nurse, was talking to (Dr. Shapiro's) wife, who is an OB/GYN, and somehow the subject came up that her husband had a very warm spot in his heart for the military, as they had rescued him from Grenada," Altchek said. "My wife said I was one of the aircrew who took part, and we spoke to each other."

Altchek invited Shapiro and his wife to Nellis and the two men shared memories of that day in October 1983.

"This is so exciting to me, because I was just 23 years old at the time, but Grenada is something that has always been in the back of my mind," Shapiro said. "I'm so very grateful to all those people who came in and got us out of there."

The major was pleased that Shapiro remembered him after all this time.

"I would have thought that after 17 years and him becoming a doctor, that he would have forgotten," Altchek said. "Not only did he remember, but he brought me photos he had framed of the rescue. It somehow made me feel like I had really made a difference."

Altchek said the two men have forged a friendship they plan to continue.

"You never really know how what happens to you today can have a profound effect on you or others down the road," he said.

10 posted on 01/26/2003 6:27:20 AM PST by facedown (Armed in the Heartland)
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Comment #11 Removed by Moderator

To: aomagrat
Thanks for opening the Foxhole this morning, aomagrat.
12 posted on 01/26/2003 7:57:02 AM PST by SAMWolf (To look into the eyes of the wolf is to see your soul)
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To: Valin
1871 US income tax repealed

Hey! No one told me!!! Were's all my money been going????

13 posted on 01/26/2003 8:00:30 AM PST by SAMWolf (To look into the eyes of the wolf is to see your soul)
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To: bentfeather
Good Morning Feather
14 posted on 01/26/2003 8:00:53 AM PST by SAMWolf (To look into the eyes of the wolf is to see your soul)
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To: facedown
"I remember going into the cockpit, and seeing that their 'intelligence' map was just a little Xerox copy of a tourist map," he said.

Amazing isn't it? Thanks facedown.

15 posted on 01/26/2003 8:03:34 AM PST by SAMWolf (To look into the eyes of the wolf is to see your soul)
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To: coteblanche
"Follow Me"

This kind of poem always brings a tear to my eye and swells up chest a bit, Thanks Cote.

As for W.D.Ehrhart ,

What I wanted
was an end to monuments.

I also want an end to monuments, but I want an end to them because they are no longer necessary, because we as a nation no longer need to send our young people in harms way, because the world knows we have the strength and the resolve to use it so they don't screw with us anymore.

Peace through Superior Firepower

16 posted on 01/26/2003 8:13:48 AM PST by SAMWolf (To look into the eyes of the wolf is to see your soul)
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To: SAMWolf
Heartbreak Ridge
17 posted on 01/26/2003 8:20:57 AM PST by top of the world ma
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To: top of the world ma
Good movie, Thanks top of the world ma.
18 posted on 01/26/2003 8:28:11 AM PST by SAMWolf (To look into the eyes of the wolf is to see your soul)
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To: SAMWolf
Always my pleasure when I can think of one, Sam. I've missed a few in the past.
19 posted on 01/26/2003 8:32:38 AM PST by top of the world ma
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To: top of the world ma
Don't worry about, it's always nice to see you post whenever you can.
20 posted on 01/26/2003 8:45:53 AM PST by SAMWolf (To look into the eyes of the wolf is to see your soul)
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