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The FReeper Foxhole Remembers "Harlem's HellFighters" 369th Infantry - Feb. 27th, 2003 ^ | Emmet J. Scott

Posted on 02/27/2003 5:33:37 AM PST by SAMWolf

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369th United States Infantry,
New York National Guard
The Regiment That Never Lost
a Man Captured, a Trench,
or a Foot of Ground

The first effort to organize a colored National Guard regiment in New York City was sponsored by Charles W. Fillmore, a colored citizen, who afterwards was commissioned a Captain in the "15th" by Col. Hayward. The effort to secure proper approval of such a regiment was more or less abortive until Gov. Charles S. Whitman, following the gallant fight of Negro troops of the Tenth Cavalry against Mexican bandits at Carrizal, authorized the project and named Col. William Hayward, then Public Service Commissioner, to supervise the task of recruiting an organization. It was found that there were more than two hundred Negro residents of the city who had seen service in the regular army, or in the militia of other states. With these as a nucleus the work of recruiting began on June 29, 1916.

Colors of NY 15th Colored Infantry [369th Infantry, AEF; Known as the "Harlem Hellfighters"]

By the first of October, ten companies of sixty-five men each had been formed, and the regiment was then recognized by the State and given its colors. By April 8, 1917, the regiment had reached peace strength, with 1,378 men, and was recognized by the Federal Government. Two weeks later the organization was authorized to recruit to war strength. The 600 men needed were recruited in five days after the applicants had been subjected to a physical examination more stringent than that given in the regular army. The first battalion of four companies was recruited in Manhattan; the second battalion was composed of Brooklyn men, and the third of men from Manhattan and the Bronx. "There is no better soldier material in the world," said Col. Hayward, following the organization of the regiment. "Given the proper training, these men will be the equal of any soldiers in the world."

Training the Regiment

Training the men presented some difficulty. At first they were drilled in Lafayette Hall, 132nd street and Seventh avenue, New York City. But the place was altogether too small and many of the fifty squads which drilled nightly had to take to the streets to carry out the maneuvers of their drill sergeants. Later they went for three weeks to Camp Whitman. An announced plan to send the regiment to train at Camp Wadsworth, Spartanburg, S. C., caused a storm of protest from the citizens of the South Carolina town.

"The most tragic consequences," they insisted, "would follow the introduction of the New York Negro with his Northern ideas into the community life of Spartanburg." The Spartanburg Chamber of Commerce drafted resolutions protesting against the training of Negro troops at Camp Wadsworth, which were sent to New York State officials. The resolutions, however, had less weight than the exigencies of war and, early in October, the 15th Negro Infantry detrained at Camp Wadsworth. The "tragic consequences" did not materialize. Certain stores refused to serve Negro customers and were, in turn, boycotted by the white soldiers, but the chief result of the Fifteenth's visit to Spartanburg was an increased respect in some measure, at least, for the black soldier.

Sergeant Henry Johnson

While at Spartanburg the regiment was supplied with the latest things in trench shoes, heavy underwear, and other overseas supplies. This led the men to expect immediate transfer overseas. They were, indeed, ordered overseas, but as Colonel Hayward's memorandum quoted above indicates, the regiment made three distinct starts for France before it finally got away from America. The accident that caused the first turning back .occurred when still in sight of the Narrows. The vessel was disabled by a bent piston rod and had to put back to the Brooklyn Navy Yard for repairs. Four days later the ship put out again, only to halt when fire was found in the reserve coal bunker. Putting back to Hoboken, the sorely tried Fifteenth counted the hours until a new transport could be obtained. Hours became days, and days ---weeks, but still no other ship offered.

Delayed by Storm and Collision

Finally, oil December 3, 1917, the Navy Department notified the transport's commander to put to sea. But while the pier lines were being cast off a storm started to blow up, and by the time the "Pocahontas"---nameless at the time---reached the outer bay, the greatest blizzard of the year was raging. Clouds of snow, through which nothing could be seen, forced the "Pocahontas" to drop anchor. She had hardly done so when a huge hulk, appearing suddenly through the murk, bore down upon the transport's bow and cut a ten-foot hole in her side. then the storm abated in the bay, but a new one arose below decks, where 3,000-odd exasperated soldiers were maintaining their belief that no such place as France existed. The captain of the transport was for turning back again to the Navy Yard. The hole was above the water-line, be admitted, and there was no great danger impending as a result of the collision, he said. Nevertheless there would be an inquiry, and it was necessary that he be present to state his case.

"I can see no reason for turning back except that of fear," said Col. Hayward to the captain. The captain did not turn back. There was an ambulance assembly unit on board with electric drills. Ten hours, it was said, would suffice to make sufficient repairs to enable the vessel to proceed. The bent plates were drilled out and double planking erected in their place. Concrete was then poured between the planks. The result was not elegant, but the ship was water-tight and best of all, still bound for France.

Brest was reached on December 27 without incident except for an epidemic of German measles which attacked the crew of the transport, but which was escaped by nearly all officers and men of the Fifteenth.

From Brest the regiment was transferred to St. Nazaire, where the troops were put to work constructing a huge railroad yard, building roads, and unloading ships. The fact of being ill the country "where the war is" helped the impatient soldiers to endure their lot for awhile, but before long there was a general feeling that "while stevedoring may be all right, it is not war," and the officers were besieged with apologetic and respectful queries, "When do we fight?"

Guarding German Prisoners

The answer was assumed to have been supplied when, early in January, the Third Battalion was ordered to Colquidan, in Brittany, where there was a big American artillery camp. It turned out, however, that peace was still longer to bear down upon the spirits of the Fifteenth. At Colquidan, they found, as well as an American artillery camp, there was also a large German prison camp, and it was for the purpose of guarding this camp that their services were required.

Three weeks passed, and then the Third Battalion received orders to join the rest of the regiment at Givry-en-Argonne, there to be formally transferred to the French high command and to be known as the 369th Regiment d'Infanterie Etats Unis (United, States Infantry). Actual fighting was still afar off, it seemed to the soldiers, for they were put to training under French officers. One hundred and twenty picked men and a number of officers were sent to the French Divisional Training School, where they were taught to use the French arms, including grenades, French bayonets, rifles and machine guns. Upon the completion of the course others of the former Fifteenth were sent to take this training.

They proved apt pupils. In grenade-throwing they easily outdid their instructors, and in bayonet work they demonstrated great skill. They surprised the French, also, with the manner in which they acquired the French language. Many of them were talking quite fluently after a week with their French comrades. It turned out, however, that many of the soldiers hailed from Louisiana, and that their new environment merely had revived forgotten memories of the French language.

In May the regiment went to the Main de Massiges, a part of the French line which offered the greatest danger as well as the greatest opportunity for training in trench warfare and raiding. A small number of the Fifteenth's men were sent with each French company, with instructions to observe all regulations and familiarize themselves with the tactics of the French. The French "poilus" were delighted with their colored comrades and soon sought to teach them all they knew.

After two weeks' experience obtained in the manner described, the 369th was sent into action in the Bois d'Hauze, Champagne, where the regiment, unassisted by the French, held a complete sector, which in length constituted 20 per cent of all territory held by American troops at the time. In this action, which lasted until July 4, 1918, when the colored soldiers, their ranks thinned by the deadly German fire and completely worn out, were relieved by the 4th French Chasseurs-à-pied.

Fighting Ability Recognized

By this time the fighting effectiveness of the Negro troops from New York was recognized by the high command, and after resting behind the lines for a few weeks they were transferred and placed in the path of the expected German offensive at Minancourt, near Butte de Mesnil, where they bore the brunt of the German attacks of July 15 and thereafter. Against the enemy in this action the old Fifteenth was completely successful, holding against the German fire, repelling German attacks and by counter-attacks becoming possessed of the front line German trenches.

At the end of July the regiment, after a three days march to the rear, went into training for open warfare, but had hardly started work when a hurry call was sent to them to take over the same place in the line which they had left a few days before. Motor lorries were impressed and the New York soldiers hastened back to the front, arriving in time to assist in repelling the most violent German attacks.

Lt. James Reese Europe, famous jazz band leader, back with the 369th Regiment

During the action which followed it was the policy of the French strategists to retreat from the lines then held after having "gassed" all the dug-outs. The advancing Germans thereupon were met with such heavy shell fire that they were forced into the underground shelters and so fell by the hundreds, victims of the noxious fumes released by the French.

The men of the 369th, advancing again after this defeat of the enemy, found enough Mauser rifles lying beside the dead Germans to equip an entire brigade. Finding the German Mauser to resemble the Springfield formerly used by the American troops and preferring it to the French weapon furnished them, the men of the Fifteenth promptly adopted the captured rifle, and it was with considerable difficulty that the French equipment was finally restored to them.

Wins the Croix de Guerre

Early in September the men of the 369th were transferred from the 16th French Division, in which they had been serving, and made an integral part of the 161st French Division. And then, on the morning of September 26th, they joined with the Moroccans on the left and native French on the right in the offensive which won for the entire regiment the French Croix de Guerre and the citation of 171 individual officers and enlisted men for the Croix de Guerre and the Legion of Honor, for exceptional gallantry in action. The action began at Maison-en-Champagne; it finished seven kilometers northward and eastward and over the intervening territory the Germans had retreated before the ferocious attacks of the Fifteenth and its French comrades.

Members of the US 369th Infantry, awarded the Croix de Guerre for gallantry in action

A month later a new honor came to the regiment---the honor of being the first unit of all the Allied armies to reach the River Rhine. The regiment had left its trenches at Thann, Sunday, November 17, and, marching as the advance guard of the 161st Division, Second French Army, reached Blodelsheim, on the left bank of the Rhine, Monday, November 18. The 369th is proud of this achievement. It believes also that it was under fire for a greater number of days than any other American regiment. Its historian will record:

That the regiment never lost a man captured, a trench, or a foot of ground; that it was the only unit in the American Expeditionary Force which bore a State name and carried a State flag; that it was never in an American brigade or division; that it saw the first and the longest service of any American regiment as part of a foreign army; and that it had less training than any American unit before going into action.

Thanks to FReeper Western Phil for suggesting this thread and for providing his Uncle's letters that will be posted during the day.

KEYWORDS: 369thinfantry; freeperfoxhole; harlemshellfighters; veterans; wwi
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Called "Hell Fighters" by the Enemy

The men of the 369th came to be known among the French and the Germans as "Hell Fighters." The regiment participated in the action which followed the German offensive on the 15th of July, 1918, when the Germans were reinforced by released prisoners from Russia, so that they then had their maximum forces.

They had broken through the British line and disaster was at hand. This was east of Rheims. The Germans had also torn through the French at Montdidier and had gone through for 30 or 40 kilometers.

During the 191 days that the regiment was in the trenches there were weeks in that immediate sector when there was nothing between the German army and Paris but these black men from America. It was through the action of the men of the 369th in capturing German prisoners on the night of July 14 that the expected German attack was learned. When the French found out that the great German offensive was coming, their forces did not remain a thin blue line. Gen. Gouraud, who commanded the Fourth French Army, took his troops out of the front line trenches over a front of 50 kilometers, and when the attack occurred he had the 369th on one flank of a 50-kilometer line and the old 69th New York, a part of the Rainbow Division, on the other. When the German fire fell on these front line trenches for five hours and twenty minutes, the shells fell on empty trenches except for a few patrols left in reinforced trenches with signal rockets, gas shells, and a few machine guns. When the hour for the German infantry attack came, these patrol let off their gas bombs and signal rockets and the massed allied artillery let loose on the massed Germans, who were literally smashed and never got through to the second line of the 369th. On the other end they did get through, crashing into the Rainbow Division and the old 69th New York, which met them hand-to-hand in some of the most terrible fighting of the war.

Won the Cheers of the French

Of the 369th it may be stated that although the Germans never captured a single man, they killed nearly 200 of them and wounded more than 800 others, but on the other side of the score were to be found more than 400 Germans captured by the Third Battalion of the 369th alone, and countless men of the enemy killed and wounded.

It proved itself to be one of the most efficient military units of all the Allied forces. The officers and men were constantly cheered by the gratitude of the French, who never failed to place in evidence their appreciation for the wonderful fighting prowess of the men of the 369th. The French were amazed not only at the proficiency of the men as soldiers but at their proficiency in laying railroad tracks, which was the first duty assigned them near one of the larger French ports. The 369th laid many stretches of track, pushed them into alignment, gave twists to the bolts, and proceeded half a mile farther down to repeat the performance. "Magnifique!" exclaimed a party of French officers who watched them do the work.

The story of the wanderings of "the old 15th," of its hard fighting in France, of its returning to America, and of the triumphant procession through the streets of New York City, down Fifth Avenue, is one of the proudest possessions of the Negro race and of American arms.

Five colored officers went over with , the 369th Regiment. These officers were afterwards transferred to the 92nd Division. Considerable criticism followed the transfer of these colored officers from a colored regiment which had won such renown as the 369th. Col. Hayward, however, gave the following as reason for the transfer:

"In August, 1918, the American Expeditionary Force adopted the policy of having either all white or all colored officers with Negro regiments, and so ours were shifted away (though Lieut. Europe later was returned to us as bandmaster, whereas he had been in the machine gun force before). Our colored officers were in the July fighting and did good work, and I felt then and feel now, that if colored officers are available and capable, they, and not white officers, should command colored troops. I hope, if the Fifteenth is reconstructed, as it should be, colored men will have the active work of officering it, from top to bottom.

"There is splendid material there. I sent away forty-two sergeants in France who were commissioned officers in other units. I would have sent others, but they declared they'd rather be sergeants in the Fifteenth than lieutenants or captains in other regiments."

Individual Exploits of the 369th

There are many outstanding exploits of the men of the 369th and of Col. Hayward himself. In Belleau Wood on June , 6, 1918, the regiment came up to the German front lines where it met a very heavy counter-attack. Some one suggested that they turn back. "Turn back? I should say we won't. We are going through there or we don't come back," was what Colonel Hayward said as be tore off the eagles of his insignia, grabbed a gun from a soldier, and darted out ahead of the rest of Company "K," which went through a barrage of German artillery that was bearing down upon it. A French General ordered the regiment to retire, but Colonel Hayward, who, of course, was under direct command of this French General said: "I do not understand you."

Then the French General raised his arms above his bead and cried:

"Retire! Retire!"

And then Colonel Hayward, with his hat knocked off, came running up and cried: "My men never retire. They go forward, or they die!"

A Prussian officer captured by the "Black Watch," as the 369th was called after they had reached the Rhine, is said to have remarked: "We can't hold up against these men. They are devils! They smile while they kill and they won't be taken alive."

The regiment was eleven times cited for bravery in action, and Colonel Hayward himself received a citation, reading: "Colonel Hayward, though wounded, insisted on leading his regiment in battle."

A typical story of the dare-devil courage of the men of the 369th is afforded in the exploit of Elmer McCowin of Company

"K, " who won the Distinguished Service Cross. He tells his own story as follows: "On September 26 the Captain asked me to carry despatches. The Germans pumped machine-gun bullets at me all the way. But I made the trip and back safely. Then I was sent out again. As I started with the message the Captain yelled to bring him back a can of coffee. He was joking, but I didn't know it at the time.

"Being a foot messenger, I had some time ducking those German bullets. Those bullets seemed very sociable, but I didn't care to meet up with them, so I kept right on traveling on high gear. None touched my skin, though some skinned pretty close.

"On the way back it seemed the whole war was turned on me. One bullet passed through my trousers and it made me hop, step, and jump pretty lively. I saw a shell hole six feet deep. Take it from me, I dented another six feet when I plunged into it hard. In my fist I held the Captain's can of coffee.

"When I climbed out of the shell hole and started running again, a bullet clipped a hole in the can and the coffee started to spill. But I turned around, stopped a second, looked the Kaiser, in the face, and held up the can of coffee with my finger plugging up the hole to show the Germans they were fooled. Just then another bullet hit the can and another finger had to act as stopgap.

"It must have been good luck that saved my, life, because bullets were picking at my clothes and so many hit the can that at the end all my fingers were hugging it to keep the coffee in. I jumped into shell holes, wriggled along the ground, and got back safely. And what do you think? When I got back into our own trenches I stumbled and spilled the coffee!"

Not only did Lieut. George Miller, Battalion Adjutant, confirm the story, but he added about Private McCowin: "When that soldier came back with the coffee his clothes were riddled with bullets. Yet half an hour later he went back into No-Man's-Land and brought back a number of wounded until be was badly gassed. Even then he refused to go to the rear and went out again for a wounded soldier. All this under fire. That's the reason he got the D. S. C. "

Corporal Elmer Earl, also of Company "K," living at Middletown, New York, also won the Distinguished Service Cross. He explained: "We had taken a hill September 26 in the Argonne. We came to the edge of a swamp, when enemy machine guns opened fire. It was so bad that of the fifty-eight of us who went into a particular strip, only eight came out without being killed or wounded. I made a number of trips out there and brought back about a dozen wounded men."

1 posted on 02/27/2003 5:33:37 AM PST by SAMWolf
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To: MistyCA; AntiJen; Victoria Delsoul; SassyMom; bentfeather; GatorGirl; radu; souris; SpookBrat; ...
How Sergeant Butler Won the D. S. C.

On authority of General Pershing, Colonel Hayward himself presented the Distinguished Service Crosses to the heroes among his regiment. Then, from the hands of General Collardet, of the French Army, he received the medal of the Legion of Honor. But even among this list of distinguished heroes those who knew of the exploits of Sergeant "Bill" Butler insisted upon calling for him and making him the object of their attentions.

It was on the night of August 12, 1918, while the fighting was raging in the Champagne District, that Sergeant Butler's opportunity came to him. A German raiding party had rushed the American trenches and, after firing a few shots and making murderous use of the short trench knives and clubs carried for such encounters, had captured five privates and a lieutenant. The victorious raiders were making their way back to their own trenches when Butler, occupying a lone position in a forward post, saw that it would be necessary for the party to pass him.

US 369th Infantry (Harlem Hellfighters) members wearing French helmets and equipment

The Negro sergeant waited until the Germans were close to his post, then opened fire upon them with his automatic rifle. He kept the stream of lead upon the raiders until ten of their number had been killed. Then he went forth and took the German lieutenant, who was slightly wounded, a prisoner, released the American lieutenant and five other prisoners, and returned to the American lines with his prisoner and the rescued party.

Under the heading, "Trenton Has Nothing on Salisbury," The Afro-American of Baltimore said: "Trenton, New Jersey, may have her Needham Roberts, but it takes Salisbury, Maryland, to produce a William Butler. Roberts had his comrade, Henry Johnson, to help him in repulsing a raiding party of Germans, but Butler took care of a German lieutenant and squad of Boches all by himself. Herbert Corey, a white newspaper correspondent, in telling of the incident said that Butler came 'a-roaring and fogging, through the darkness with his automatic, and 'nobody knows how many Germans he killed.' It was for this that General Pershing awarded him the Distinguished Service Cross recently and the citation read: 'Sergt. William Butler, Company L, 369th Infantry (A. S. No. 104464). For extraordinary heroism in action near Maison de Champagne, France, August 18, 1918. Sergeant Butler broke up a German raiding party which had succeeded in entering our trenches and capturing some of our men. With an automatic rifle he killed four of the raiding party and captured or put to flight the remainder of the invaders. Home address, Mrs. Jennie Butler, Water Street, Salisbury, Maryland.'

"The rest of the State of Maryland and the whole United States now has its hat off to Butler of Salisbury."

And the New York Tribune, on April 28, 1919, said: " 'Bill, Butler, a slight, good-natured colored youth, who until two years ago was a jack-of-all-trades in a little Maryland town, yesterday came into his own as a hero among heroes. More than 5,000 men and women arose to their feet in City College stadium and cheered themselves hoarse while representatives of two Governments pinned their highest medals upon the breast of the nervous youth. Sergeant Butler was one of a list of twenty-three members of the famous 15th Regiment upon whom both France and the United States conferred medals of honor because of extraordinary heroism on European battlefields. But by common consent his name comes first on the list a list that was made up only after a careful comparison of the deeds of gallantry that finally resulted in the breaking of the Hun lines."
2 posted on 02/27/2003 5:34:09 AM PST by SAMWolf (We do not bargain with terrorists, we stalk them, corner them , take aim and kill them)
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To: All
Following is the citation awarded the 369th for its courage and valor in the great offensive in the Champagne, September and October, 1918, by the French Commanding General:






Under command of Colonel HAYWARD, who, though injured, insisted on leading his regiment in the battle, of Lieutenant Colonel PICKERING, admirably cool and brave, of Major COBB, (killed), of Major SPENCER (grievously wounded), of Major LITTLE, a true leader of men; the 369th R. I. U. S. engaging in an offensive for the first time in the drive of September, 1918, stormed powerful enemy positions energetically defended, took, after heavy fighting, the town of, S--------, captured prisoners and brought back six cannons and a great number of machine guns.

3 posted on 02/27/2003 5:34:37 AM PST by SAMWolf (We do not bargain with terrorists, we stalk them, corner them , take aim and kill them)
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To: Western Phil; coteblanche; All
My uncle, Herbert Schabacker, served as an officer for the 369th infantry. As did Col. Hayward, the commander of the 369th , he had Nebraska roots. He entered the service from Ft. Wayne, Indiana. As far as I can tell, his basic training was at Ft. Benjamin Harrison in 1917.

Other places of service included Camp Taylor (at Louisville, Ky.) and Camp Sherman(Chillicothe, Ohio). The evidence points to his arrival in Britain in April of 1918. Apparently there or in France he became one of sixty 1st Lieutenants of the 369th Infantry (From "Harlem to the Rhine, The Story of New York's Colored Volunteers" - Appendix A, published in 1924). I can find no sign of him being associated with this group in the States.

Little, if any, accurate news came from the front, but my mother said that they knew that her brother had been involved in heavy fighting. The war ended and the family in Nebraska did not hear anything from my uncle and thought that he was likely a late fatality in the hostilities. Then on Christmas day a letter arrived from my uncle describing his group's activities at the end of the war.

After my mother passed away, I found among her effects five letters dating from just before the end of the war to their disembarkation from France from my uncle to his parents & family. The letters are all quite interesting to me and I hope others will find them to be so also.

NOTE: Some of the letters have an * embedded, these were words or letters that Andyman was unable to decipher when transcribing from the original letters.

Thank you, Western Phil, for the suggestion and the contributions to this thread on the 369th Infantry.

October 30, 1918

Dear Parents, Brothers & Sisters:

Another letter from me, to let you know, I am still one of the kicking ones & not doing it with a wooden leg neither.

I have been in the front line, but am back again & working hard behind the lines. My first trip to the front lines was very interesting as it was all more or less new to me. The sector we occupied was more or less quiet with but little excitement. I slept for the first time in a dug out with bed companions a million strong, as a Frenchman who was near us put it "Petit Coushet, beaucoup 'Toto'"! Neither did I sleep much on account of the "Cooties" and rats but I got used to them & got away better the second night.

I received a letter from Freda this morning, and it certainly tickled me it was quite ancient, but it was the first I have had from Nebr. since I left Camp Sherman, it was dated Aug. 30 so you see mail is not coming thru very quickly when it takes 2 months to catch up, but from Florence I have been hearing now & then the last one being dated Sept. 5th.

The weather here is still tolerable tho cold nights it warms up pretty nicely during the day, but it is awful wet, in the trenches. I never was without wet feet. Where I am now located we are well off. We train during the day & sleep between sheets, so are more or less in luxury.

I am sending you a few small coins & intend sending you others of as many different denominations as possible for your collection. I am presently not in shape to send you many as I have not drawn any checks since I left the states, but if we stay behind the lines long enough for my mail to catch up I expect to sit quite pretty as I have about $225.00 due me now part of which I have already spent due to my 15 day travels in France. Incidentally I lost a share of my baggage for which I do not expect to be reimbursed.

I am sending you a Xmas package slip but not as a hint for something but thinking that possibly you would be hurt should you not be able to send me anything. I really want nothing as Uncle Sam takes care of us as much as possible of course we have to do without a lot of things but that cannot be remedied. I shall not feel hurt whatever should I not receive anything but your best wishes & greetings.

I must close now

Many regards to all
1st Leut. 369th Inf. U. S.
French Postal Sect. 107
American Exp. F.
Via N.Y.

4 posted on 02/27/2003 5:35:37 AM PST by SAMWolf (We do not bargain with terrorists, we stalk them, corner them , take aim and kill them)
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To: All
The State of the Union is Strong!
Support the Commander in Chief

Click Here to Send a Message to the opposition!

5 posted on 02/27/2003 5:36:00 AM PST by SAMWolf (We do not bargain with terrorists, we stalk them, corner them , take aim and kill them)
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To: All

Thanks, Doughty!

6 posted on 02/27/2003 5:36:23 AM PST by SAMWolf (We do not bargain with terrorists, we stalk them, corner them , take aim and kill them)
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To: SAMWolf
Good Morning Everybody.

Chow time!
NG's and ER's to the front of the line.
Standing Operating Procedures state:
Click the Pics

Click here to Contribute to FR: Do It Now! ;-) Game Summer Summer Sound

7 posted on 02/27/2003 5:36:55 AM PST by SAMWolf (We do not bargain with terrorists, we stalk them, corner them , take aim and kill them)
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To: SAMWolf
Good Morning SAM the coffee man!
8 posted on 02/27/2003 5:38:52 AM PST by Soaring Feather
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To: SAMWolf

Fantastic Donuts !!!!!

Thank you Sam
9 posted on 02/27/2003 5:40:47 AM PST by Soaring Feather
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To: bentfeather
Good Morning Feather.
10 posted on 02/27/2003 5:45:09 AM PST by SAMWolf (We do not bargain with terrorists, we stalk them, corner them , take aim and kill them)
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To: SAMWolf
On This Day In History

Birthdates which occurred on February 27:
0280 Constantine the Great Roman emperor (306-37), adopted Christianity
1539 Franciscus Raphelengius Dutch book publisher
1622 Rembrandt Carel Fabritius Dutch painter
1649 Johann Philipp Krieger composer
1702 Johann Valentin Gorner composer
1745 Silverius Muller composer
1746 Gian Francesco Fortunati composer
1759 Johann Carl Friedrich Rellstab composer
1784 Elias Annes Borger Dutch theologist/poet (To the Rhine)
1784 Job Plimpton composer
1792 Don Joaquin B F Espartero Spanish adventurer/field marshal
1802 William George Frederick Cavendish Bentinck Lord George Bentinck
1807 Henry Wadsworth Longfellow Portland ME, poet (Hiawatha)
1811 [Catherine] Mildred Lee sister of US General Robert E Lee
1822 Eugene Gautier composer
1823 Ferdinand Van Derveer Brigadier General (Union volunteers), died in 1892
1823 William Buel Franklin Major General (Union volunteers), died in 1903
1827 Richard W Johnson Bvt Major General (Union Army), died in 1897
1832 Alfred Pollard Edward Civil War journalist, died in 1872
1835 Charles Cartuyvels Belgian pulpit orator
1835 Richard Garnett English author (Ananda the Miracle Worker)
1841 [Eleanor] Agnes Lee daughter of US General Robert E Lee
1846 Joaquin Valverde composer
1847 Dame Ellen Alice Terry Coventry England, Shakespearian stage actress
1848 Charles Hubert H Parry England, musicologist/composer (Jerusalem)
1850 Henry Edwards Huntington US, railroad exec
1861 Rudolph Steiner Kraljevic Austria, founder (doctrine of anthroposophy movement)
1867 Irving Fisher US economist (compensating dollar)
1867 Wilhelm Peterson-Berger composer
1869 Alice Hamilton physician/writer (workmen's compensation laws)
1870 Louis Coerne composer
1874 Max Ettinger composer
1879 Jose Sancho Marraco composer
1881 Luitzen [Bertus] Brouwers Dutch mathematician
1881 Sveinn Björnsson 1st President of Iceland (1944-52)/poet (Figur ild)
1886 Hugo L Black Alabama, (Senator-D-AL)/78th US Supreme Court justice (1937-71)
1887 James D Innes English painter
1888 Lotte Lehmann Perleberg Germany, soprano (Fidello)
1891 David Sarnoff US, radio/TV pioneer/CEO (RCA)
1891 Georges E Migot French composer
1892 William Demarest St Paul MN, actor (Uncle Charlie-My 3 Sons)
1893 Joseph Messner composer
1893 Ralph Linton US cultural anthropologist (Tree of Culture)
1894 Robert-Lucien Siohan composer
1895 Edward Brophy actor (Champ, Dumbo, Great Guy, Cameraman, Doughboys)
1897 Bernard F Lyot French astronomer (Lyot filter)
1897 G Paul H Schuitema graphic designer/photographer (System-O-Color)
1898 Allison Danzig sports writer (Tennis Pictorial History)
1898 Rutkowski Bronislaw composer
1899 Charles H Best Maine, physiologist/co-discoverer of diabetes treatment (Insulin)
1899 Ian Keith Boston MA, actor (Rochefort-3 Musketeers)
1899 Sulo Nikolai Salonen composer
19-- Stephen Yates actor (Another World, Guiding Light)
19-- Tim Topper Baltimore MD, actor (Evan-Seven Brides for Seven Brothers)
1901 Marino Marini Italian sculptor/painter
1902 Gene Sarazen Harrison NY, PGA golfer (Masters 1935, US Open 1922, 32)
1902 John Steinbeck Salinas CA, author (Grapes of Wrath-Nobel 1962)
1902 Marian Anderson singer, banned by D A R
1902 Ethelda Bleibtrey 100 meter/300 meter US swimmer (Olympics-3 gold-1920)
1903 Reginald Gardiner Wimbledon England, actor (Great Dictator)
1904 James Thomas Farrell US, author (Studs Lonigan trilogy)
1904 Renaat Verheijen Flemish actor/director (Innocent Heart)
1905 Franchot Tone Niagara Falls NY, actor (Dr Freeland-Ben Casey)
1905 Charles de Keukeleire Belgian director (Evil Eye)
1906 Alexander Matheson New Zealand cricket pace bowler (2 Tests 1930-31)
1906 H Algernon F "Algy" Rumbold English diplomat (South Africa/Tibet)
1907 Gerhard Alexander [Veldheer], Dutch actor (Prince Willem of Orange)
1909 Elisabeth Welch singer (Song of Freedom, Over the Moon)
1910 Joan Bennett Palisades NJ, actress (Elizabeth-Dark Shadows, Little Women, Disraeli)
1910 Peter De Vries Chicago IL, author (Reuben Reuben, The Prick of Noon)
1912 Hugues Panassié French jazz saxophonist/author (Hot Club of France)
1912 Lawrence Durrell Darjeeling India, writer (Alexandria Quartet)
1913 Frank Allaun British MP (L)
1913 Irwin Shaw US, novelist (Rich Man Poor Man)
1915 Arthur Gilson Belgian attorney/minister of Defense (1958- )
1917 John Bowden Connally Jr Floresville TX, (Governor/Senator-D/R-TX), Wounded in the 1963 assassination of President John F. Kennedy
1919 Roman Haubenstock-Ramati composer
1920 Jose Melis Havana Cuba, orchestra leader (Jack Paar Program)
1920 David Vere Bendall former diplomat
1920 Reg Simpson cricketer (prolific England opener 1948-55)
1921 Andras Szollosy composer
1921 Michael Fox US, actor (Saul-Bold & Beautiful, Young Frankenstein)
1922 Mervyn Jones author (Nobody's Fault, 5 Hungarian Writers)
1923 Dexter Gordon US, tenor saxophonist/actor (Connection)
1923 Viktor Kalabis composer
1924 M M Shearer former Lord Lieutenant of Shetland
1924 Norman Marshall cricketer (brother of Roy, one Test for West Indies 1955)
1925 Guy Mitchell Detroit MI, singer/actor (Guy Mitchell Show)
1925 Hugh Leggatt art dealer
1925 Michael Kaye director (City of London Festival)
1925 Richard AFM Auwerda Dutch journalist/writer
1926 Sir Peter Emery British MP
1927 Guy Mitchell [Al Cernick], Detroit MI, rocker/actor (Red Garters)
1927 Lord Belhaven & Stenton
1927 Michael Butler Pro-Provost/chairman (Royal College of Art)
1930 Joanne Woodward Thomasville GA, actress (3 Faces of Eve, Rachel)
1930 Lieux Dressler actress (Alice Grant-General Hospital)
1931 Andrew Sloan Chief Constable (Strathcourt)
1932 Elizabeth Taylor London, actress (Cleopatra) violet eyes
1932 Lord Young of Graffham CEO (Cables & Wireless)
1932 Dolf Zwerver Dutch painter
1933 Edward Lucie-Smith poetry critic
1933 Raymond Berry Texas, NFL hall of famer (Baltimore Colts)
1933 6th marquess of Bute Scottish large landowner/bibliophile
1933 Geoffrey Maitland Smith CEO (Sears)
1933 Malcolm Wallop (Senator-R-WY, 1977- )
1934 Van Williams Fort Worth TX, actor (Green Hornet, Tycoon)
1934 [Navarre] Scott Momaday US author (House Made of Dawn, Pulitzer 1969)
1934 Ralph Nader Winsted CT, consumer advocate (Unsafe at Any Speed)
1935 Mirella Freni Modena Italy, lyric soprano (Madame Butterfly)
1935 Alberto Remedios opera/concert singer
1936 Roger M Mahoney Hollywood CA, archbishop of Los Angeles (1985- )
1936 Chuck Glaser Spalding NB, singer (Glaser Brothers-Getting to Me Again)
1936 Timothy Spall actor (1871, Life is Sweet, Crusoe, Remembrance)
1936 Virginia Maskell actress (Suspect, Doctor in Love, Man Upstairs)
1937 L Jay Silvester US, discus thrower (Olympics-silver-1972)
1937 Barbara Babcock Pasadena CA, actress (Dr Quinn, Dallas, Hill St Blues)
1937 Donald MacKay CEO (Scottish Enterprise)
1937 Viscount Head
1938 Pascale Petit Paris, actor (Code Name Jaguar, End of Desire)
1939 Peter Revson auto racer (1971 Indianapolis pole winner)
1939 Antoinette Sibley ballerina (Turning Point)
1939 Kenzo Takada Japanese director (Dream After Dream)
1939 Lester King cricketer (West Indies fast bowler, 2 Tests 1962-68, 9 wickets)
1940 Howard Hesseman Salem OR, actor (Dr Johnny Fever-WKRP, Head of Class)
1940 Barbara Kelly CEO (Scottish Consumer Council)
1941 Paddy Ashdown New Delhi India, 1st leader of Britain's Social/Liberal Democrat Party
1941 Ian McGarry General Secretary (British Actors' Equity Association)
1941 Sandy Wilson director (Harmony Cats, American Boyfriends)
1942 Charlayne Hunter-Gault Due West SC, news reporter (McNeil-Lehrer)
1943 Mary Frann St Louis MO, actress (Joanna-Newhart, Days of Our Lives)
1944 Alan Fudge Wichita KS, actor (Man From Atlantis, Paper Dolls)
1944 Graeme Pollock cricketer (South African batting prodigy)
1944 Roger Scruton philosopher
1945 Daniel Olbrychski Poland, actor (La Truite)
1947 Gidon Kremer Riga Latvia, violinist (Tchaikovsky Prize 1970)
1947 Ashley Woodcock cricketer (one Test Australia vs New Zealand 1974, only knock 27)
1947 Marian G Klaren Dutch mime/actress (Red Cabbage)
1948 Eddie Gray rock guitarist (Tommy James & Shondells-Crystal Blue Persuasion)
1948 Stephen Curtis CEO (DVLA)
1950 Franco Moschino fashion Designer
1950 Julia Neuberger British Rabbi
1951 Lee Atwater Republican National Committee Chairman (1989-91)
1951 Steve Harley London England, rocker (Cockney Rebel-Make Me Smile (Come Up & See Me))
1952 Dwight Elmo Jones Houston TX, basketball player (Olympics-silver-1972)
1952 Henk Westbroek Dutch singer (Good Cause)
1952 Kevin Raleigh rock vocalist/keyboardist (Michael Stanley Band)
1954 Neal Schon rock guitarist (Journey-Open Arms, Bad English)
1955 Garry Christian rocker
1955 Sally Spencer actress (M J McKinnon-Another World)
1957 Adrian Smith heavy metal guitarist (Iron Maiden-Aces High)
1960 Paul Humphreys rock keyboardist/synthesizer player (OMD-Crush, Pacific Age)
1960 Stoney Jackson Richmond VA, actor (White Shadow, Insiders)
1960 Andres Gomez Ecuador, tennis pro (Madrid Grand Prix-1990)
1960 Bolik Dahan Suriname singer/radio host (Radio KBC)
1960 John van Grinsven soccer player (MVV)
1961 James Worthy NBA forward (Los Angeles Lakers, 1988 Playoff MVP)
1961 Grant Shaud actor (Miles Silverburg-Murphy Brown)
1962 Adam Baldwin Chicago IL, actor (Full Metal Jacket, My Bodyguard)
1962 Grant Show Detroit MI, actor (Jake Hanson-Melrose Place)
1962 Kory Tarpenning Portland OR, pole vaulter
1962 Veronica Ribot-Canales Buenos Aires Argentina, US diver (Olympics-96)
1963 Francesco Cancellotti Italy, tennis star
1964 April Heinrichs Littleton CO, US women's soccer coach (Olympics-96)
1964 Ewen Vernal British pop bassist (Deacon Blue-Your Town)
1964 Richard de Vries soccer player (De Graafschap)
1965 Sandra Cecchini Bologna Italy, tennis star (1995 Warsaw doubles)
1966 Gregg Rainwater actor (Buck Cross-The Young Riders)
1966 Chris Howard US baseball catcher (Seattle Mariners)
1966 Pete Smith US baseball player (Atlanta Braves, New York Mets)
1967 Dallas Eakins Dade City, NHL defenseman (Winnipeg Jets)
1967 Frantisek Kaberle Brno Czechoslovakia, hockey forward (Team Czechoslovakian Republic)
1967 Robert Kron Brno Czechoslovakia, NHL right wing (Hartford Whalers)
1968 Loy Vaught NBA forward (Los Angeles Clippers)
1968 Mike Sullivan Marshfield, NHL center (Calgary Flames)
1968 Ron Cox NFL linebacker (Chicago Bears)
1969 Victoria Fair Jackson MI, Miss Michigan-America (1990)
1969 Greg Stevenson Sherbrooke Québec Canada, rower (Olympics-11-92, 96)
1969 Robert Massey NFL cornerback (New York Giants)
1969 Robert Molenaar Dutch soccer player (FC Volendam)
1969 Willie Banks US baseball pitcher (Chicago Cubs)
1970 David White NFL linebacker (Buffalo Bills)
1971 Ivan Robinson Philadelphia PA, US boxer (Olympics-92)
1971 Jaroslav Modry Ceske-budejovice C, NHL defenseman (Ottawa Senators)
1971 Rich Tylski guard/center (Jacksonville Jaguars)
1973 "Pooh" Clark rocker (High-5)
1973 Terence Davis WLAF wide receiver (London Monarchs)
1974 Chris Dishman guard (Arizona Cardinals)
1974 Jim Maher cricketer (Queensland lefty batsman victorious 1995 side)
1975 Christina Nigra actress (Out of This World)
1975 Dana Marie Lane Cheyenne WY, Miss Wyoming-America (1995)
1975 Duce Staley running back (Philadelphia Eagles)
1975 Marcus Robinson wide receiver (Chicago Bears)
1976 Tony Gonzalez tight end (Kansas City Chiefs)
1980 Chelsea Victoria Clinton Daughter of Bill & Hillary Clinton

Deaths which occurred on February 27:
1167 Robert of Melun English philosopher/bishop of Hereford, dies
1656 Johan van Heemskerk Dutch lawyer/writer/interpreter, dies
1706 John Evelyn diarist, dies
1731 Angelo Predieri composer, dies at 76
1733 Johann Adam Birkenstock composer, dies at 46
1735 John Arbuthnot physician/mathematician, dies
1779 Jan Nepveu Dutch Governor-General of Suriname (1769-79), dies at 59
1797 Benvenuto Robbio San Rafaele composer, dies at 61
1805 Stefan Paluselli composer, dies at 57
1844 Nicholas Biddle US lawyer/diplomat/statesman/financier, dies at 85
1852 Joseph Drechsler composer, dies at 69
1862 Gabriele dell' Addolorata patron of Italian Catholic youth, dies at 23
1881 George Colley British governor of Natal/General, dies in battle at 46
1887 Alexander Porfir'yevich Borodin Russian composer, dies at 53
1913 Adam Sedgwick English zoologist (Peripatus), dies at 58
1920 Alexandru D Xenopol Romanian historian, dies at 72
1921 Schofield Haigh cricketer (England all-rounder 11 Tests 1898-1912), dies
1923 Charles Francis Abdy Williams composer, dies at 67
1929 Manuel Manrique de Lara y Berry composer, dies at 65
1936 Ivan P Pavlov Russian physiologist (reflexes, Nobel 1904), dies at 86
1939 Nadezjda K Krupskaya Russian revolutionary/wife of Lenin, dies at 70
1940 Peter Behrens German architect, dies
1942 Karel WFM Doorman Dutch Rear Admiral (Java Sea), KIA at 52
1943 Kostís Palamis Greek poet/scholar (Flogera tou Basília), dies at 84
1945 HJ Lochtman Dutch chaplain/resistance fighter, dies in Bergen-Belsen
1947 Mackinnon of Mackinnon cricketer (Tests England vs Australia 1879), dies at 89
1950 Ivan Goll writer, dies at 58
1952 Theodorus Pangalos Greek General/dictator 1926, dies at 74
1955 Tom Howard comedian (It Pays to be Ignorant), dies at 66
1956 Frank Dailey orchestra leader (Music at Meadowbrook), dies at 54
1956 Günther Ramin German organist/composer/choir conductor, dies at 57
1958 Harry Cohn CEO (Columbia Pictures), dies of a heart attack
1960 Adriano Olivetti Italian engineer/manufacturer, dies at 58
1961 Platt Adams high jumper (Olympics-gold-1912), dies
1962 Willie Best actor (Charlie-My Little Margie), dies at 45
1966 Minerva Urecal actress (Apache Rose, Ghost Crazy), dies at 81
1968 Johannes Tralow writer, dies at 85
1968 Ludvik Podest composer, dies at 46
1969 John Boles actor (Stella Dallas, Curly Top), dies at 73
1970 Robert Bruce Lockhart diplomat/writer, dies
1973 Lucijan Marija Skerjanc Yugoslav composer/conductor, dies at 72
1974 Pat Brady Toledo OH, actor (Roy Rogers Show), dies at 59
1975 Neville Cardus writer/cricketer, dies
1977 Allison Hayes actress (Attack of 50 Foot Woman), dies at 47
1978 Vadim Nikolayevich Salmanov composer, dies at 65
1980 George Tobias actor (Abner Kravitz-Bewitched), dies at 78
1982 Malika A Sabirova Russian dancer, dies at 39
1985 J Pat O'Malley actor (My Favorite Martian, Maude), dies at 83
1985 David Huffman actor (FIST, Jane Doe, Firefox, Onion Field), dies
1985 Henry Cabot Lodge (Senator-R)/diplomat, dies at 82
1987 Joan Greenwood English actress (Gentle Sex, Bad Sister), dies at 65
1989 Joe Silver actor (Rage, Rapid, Deathtrap, Shivers), dies at 66
1989 Konrad Lorenz Austria zoologist (Nobel 1973), dies at 85
1991 Artie Mitchell porn producer (Behind the Green Door), shot at 45
1991 H J of Royen manager Dutch (Concertgebouw Orchestra), dies at 52
1991 Robert-Jan Akkerman Dutch diplomat (to Tunis), murdered
1992 Marinus Ruppert Dutch trade union leader (CNV), dies at 80
1992 S I Hayakawa (Senator-CA, 1977-83), dies of a stroke at 85
1993 José Duval actor (Juan Valdez), dies at 72
1993 Lillian Gish US actress (Birth of a Nation), dies at 96
1993 Ruby Keeler actress (42nd Street), dies of cancer at 83
1994 Harold Acton English/Italian historian/art collector, dies at 84
1994 Karl I Pelgrom Dutch sculptor, dies at 66
1994 Laurence "Bill" Craigie jet pioneer, dies at 92
1994 Leopold "Hans" Kohr Austria social philosopher/economist, dies at 84
1995 Bernard Cornfield financier, dies at 67
1995 Philip Sherrington opus Dei Priest, dies at 51
1996 François Chaumette actor (They Never Slept, Christine), dies at 72
1996 George Ian Murray 10th Duke of Atholl, dies at 64
1996 Pat Smythe show jumper, dies at 67
1996 Sylvia Williams museum director/curator, dies at 60

On this day...
0837 15th recorded perihelion passage of Halley's Comet
1526 Saxony & Hesse form League of Gotha (league of Protestant princes)
1531 Evangelical German monarchy/towns form Schmalkaldische Union
1557 1st Russian Embassy opens in London
1563 William Byrd is appointed organist at Lincoln Cathedral
1594 Henri IV crowned king of France
1665 Battle at Elmina, Gold Coast Vice-Admiral De Ruyter beats English
1667 Abraham Crijnssen conquerors Fort Willoughby (Zeelandia), Suriname
1670 Jews are expelled from Austria by order of Leopold I
1678 Earl of Shaftesbury freed out of London Tower
1696 English/Welsh nobles lay down Oath of Association
1700 Pacific island of New Britain discovered
1713 French troops bomb Willemstad Curaçao
1801 Washington DC placed under Congressional jurisdiction
1803 Great fire in Bombay, India
1813 1st federal vaccination legislation enacted
1813 Congress authorizes use of steamboats to transport mail
1814 Ludwig von Beethovens 8th Symphony in F, premieres
1816 Dutch regain Suriname
1827 1st Mardi Gras celebration in New Orleans LA
1844 Dominican Republic gains independence from Haiti (National Day)
1854 Composer Robert Schumann saved from suicide attempt in Rhine
1861 US Congress authorizes 1st stamped newspaper wrappers for mailing
1861 Warsaw Massacre Russians fire on crowd demonstrating against Russian rule of Poland
1864 Near Andersonville GA, rebels open a new POW camp "Camp Sumter"
1864 6th & last day of Battle at Dalton, Georgia (about 600 casualties)
1865 Civil War skirmish near Sturgeon MO
1869 John Menard is 1st black to make a speech in Congress
1871 Meeting of Alabama claims commission
1872 Charlotte Ray, 1st Black woman lawyer, graduated Harvard U
1873 Dutch socialist Samuel van Wooden demands law against child labor
1874 Baseball 1st played in England, at Lord's Cricket Grounds
1877 US Electoral College declares R Hayes winner Presidential election
1879 Constantine Fahlberg discovers saccharin (artificial sweetener)
1881 Battle at Amajuba, South Africa Boers vs British army under General Colley
1883 Oscar Hammerstein patents 1st cigar-rolling machine
1890 D Needham & P Kerrigan box 100 rounds (6 hours 39 minutes), San Francisco; match is draw
1900 Conference in London calls for creation of a British labor party
1900 Battle at Pietershoogte; Boer General Cronjé surrenders to English in Pardenberg, South-Africa
1901 NL Rules Committee decrees that all fouls are to count as strikes except after two strikes
1906 France & Britain agree to joint control of New Hebrides
1908 Sacrifice fly adopted (repealed in 1931, reinstated 1954)
1908 Star #46 was added to US flag for Oklahoma
1912 Lord Kitchener opens Khartoum-El Obeid (Nyala) railway
1919 1st public performance of Holst's "The Planets"
1919 American Association for the Hard of Hearing formed (New York NY)
1921 US female Figure Skating championship won by Theresa Weld Blanchard
1921 US male Figure Skating championship won by Sherwin Badger
1922 Supreme Court unanimously upheld 19th amend woman's right to vote
1922 Commerce Secretary Herbert Hoover convenes 1st National Radio Conference
1922 G B Shaw's "Back to Methusaleh I/II" premieres in New York NY
1924 Belgium's Theunis government falls
1925 Hitler resurrects NSDAP political party in Munich
1925 Test Cricket debut of Clarrie Grimmett, who took 5-45 & 6-37 vs England
1927 For 2nd Sunday in a row golfers in South Carolina arrested for violating Sabbath
1929 Turkey signs Litvinov-pact
1929 Russia & US sign trade agreement
1930 Bouvet Island declared a Norwegian dependency
1932 Explosion in coal mine Boissevain, Virginia, USA (38 dead)
1933 German parliament building, Reichstag, destroyed by fire (set by Nazis, blamed on communists)
1933 Jean Genet's "Intermezzo" premieres in Paris
1936 Willy den Ouden swims world record 100 meter free style (1:04.6)
1937 Bradman scores 169 in 5th Test Cricket vs England in 223 minutes
1938 Britain & France recognize Franco government in Spain
1939 Supreme Court outlaws sit-down strikes
1939 Belgian government of Pierlot falls
1939 English Spook house Borley Rectory destroyed in a fire
1942 Battle of Java Sea began 13 US warships sunk-2 Japanese
1942 J S Hey discovers radio emissions from the Sun
1942 1st transport of French Jews to Nazi-Germany
1945 Battle of US 94 Infantry
1946 4th "Road" film, "Road to Utopia" premieres (New York NY)
1947 Paul-Emile Victor French polar expeditions organized
1949 Chaim Weizmann becomes 1st Israeli President
1950 General Chiang Kai-shek elected President of Nationalist China
1951 22nd amendment to the Constitution is ratified, limiting President to 2 terms in office
1955 Betty Jameson wins LPGA Sarasota Golf Open
1956 Elvis Presley's releases "Heartbreak Hotel"
1956 Female suffrage in Egypt
1957 Mao's speech "On the Correct Handling of Contradictions Among People"
1957 Premiere of only prime-time network TV show beginning with an "X" "Xavier Cugat Show" on NBC (until X-Files)
1958 USSR performs nuclear test at Novaya Zemlya USSR
1959 Boston Celtic Bob Cousy sets NBA record with 28 assists Boston Celtics score 173 points against Minneapolis Lakers
1959 Chicago Cards trade running back Ollie Matson to Los Angeles Rams for 9 players
1960 Oil pipe line from Rotterdam to Ruhrgebied opens
1960 US Olympics Ice Hockey Team beats USSR 3-2 en route to gold medal
1962 South-Vietnam President Ngo Dinh Diem's palace bombed, 1st US killed
1963 Mickey Mantle of New York Yankees sign a baseball contract worth $100,000
1964 "What Makes Sammy Run?" opens at 84th St Theater NYC for 540 performances
1965 "High Spirits" closes at Alvin Theater NYC after 375 performances
1965 Dutch Marijnen government resigns
1965 France performs Underground nuclear test at Ecker Algeria
1966 Ice Dance Championship at Davos won by Diane Towler/Bernard Ford Great Britain
1966 Ice Pairs Championship at Davos won by Belousova & Protopopov of USSR
1966 Ladies Figure Skating Championship in Davos won by Peggy Fleming of US
1966 Men's Figure Skating Championship in Davos won by Emmerich Danzer Austria
1967 Antigua & St Christopher-Nevis become associated states of UK
1967 Dominica gains independence from England
1967 Pink Floyd release their 1st single "Arnold Layne"
1967 Rio de la Plata Treaty
1969 General Hafez al-Assad becomes head of Syria via military coup
1969 President Nixon visits West-Berlin
1970 New York Times (falsely) reports US army has ended domestic surveillance
1972 President Nixon & Chinese Premier Chou En-lai issued Shanghai Communique
1973 American Indian Movement occupy Wounded Knee in South Dakota
1973 Dick Allen signs a record $675,000 3-year contract with White Sox
1973 Pope Paul VI publishes constitution motu proprio Quo aptius
1974 "People" magazine begins sales
1974 US performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site
1975 House of Representatives pass $21.3 billion anti-recession tax-cut bill
1975 CDU-politician Peter Lorentz kidnapped in West Berlin
1976 Final meeting between Mao tse Tung & Richard Nixon
1977 Keith Richards gets suspended sentence for heroin possession, Canada
1977 Judy Rankin wins LPGA Bent Tree Golf Classic
1978 France performs nuclear test at Muruora Island
1980 22nd Grammy Awards What a Fool Believe, Streisand-Diamond duet (You Don't Bring Me Flowers)
1980 Robert Mugabe's ZANU-PF wins elections in Zimbabwe
1980 Terrorists occupies Dominican embassy in Bogota
1981 Greatest passenger load on a commercial airliner-610 on Boeing 747
1981 Paul McCartney & Stevie Wonder record "Ebony & Ivory"
1982 Dan Issel (NBA-Nuggets), hits on 63rd consecutive free throw
1982 Earl Anthony becomes 1st pro bowler to win more than $1 million
1982 Wayne Williams found guilty of murdering 2 of 28 blacks in Atlanta GA
1982 France performs nuclear test at Muruora Island
1983 Eamonn Coghlan sets indoor mile record of 3 49.78
1983 Jan Stephenson wins Tucson Conquistadores LPGA Golf Tournament
1984 WRC-AM in Washington DC changes call letters to WWRC
1984 Carl Lewis jumps world record indoor (8,675 meters)
1984 Worker's union leader Billy Nair freed in South Africa
1985 Farmers converge in Washington to demand economic relief
1985 Mauritania's new constitutional charter published
1985 US dollar is worth ƒ3.9355 (Netherlands)
1987 Donald Regan resigned as White House chief of staff
1987 NCAA cancels SMU's entire 1987 football schedule for gross violations of NCAA rules regarding athletic corruption
1987 "Washington Week In Review", 20th anniversary on PBS
1987 Mike Conley triple jumps world indoor record (17.76 meters)
1988 Bonnie Blair (US) wins Olympics 500 meter speed skating in record 39.1
1988 Katarina Witt (GDR) wins 2nd consecutive Olympics figure skating
1988 Ayako Okamoto wins LPGA Orient Leasing Hawaiian Ladies Golf Open
1988 Gulfstream G-IV goes around the world 36 08 34
1989 German war criminals Austria der Fünten/Fischer, freed in Holland
1990 Exxon Corp & Exxon Shipping are indicted on 5 criminal counts (Valdez)
1991 Noureddine Morcelli set 1500 meter mark at 3 34 16
1991 Singer James Brown is released from prison
1991 Ben Elton's "Silly Cow" premieres in London
1991 Gulf War ends after Iraqi troops retreat & Kuwait is liberated
1992 Larry Smith, named 9th Commissioner of the CFL
1992 Tiger Woods, 16, becomes youngest PGA golfer in 35 years
1993 PBA National Championship Won by Ron Palombi Jr
1994 17th Olympics Winter games close in Lillehammer, Norway
1994 Maronite church near Beirut bombed, 10 killed
1995 Car bomb explodes in Zakho, North-Iraq (54-80 killed)
1996 Mark Waugh scores 126 in World Cup against India
1997 "Last Night of Ballyhoo" opens at Helen Hayes Theater NYC
1997 Singer Sade (Helen Folasade), arrested in Jamaica for disobeying a cop
1998 14th Soap Opera Digest Awards
1998 Apple discontinues developing Newton computer
1998 FBI arrests 10 most wanted suspected serial killer Tony Ray Amati
1998 New England Patriot David Meggett arrested in Toronto on sex assault charges

Note: Some Holidays are only applicable on a given "day of the week"

Dominican Republic : Independence Day (1844)
St Christopher-Nevis-Anguilla : Statehood Day (1967)
St Kitts & Antigua : Independence Day (1967)

Religious Observances
Christian : Feast of St Leander
Anglican : Commemoration of George Herbert, priest
Roman Catholic : Commemoration of St Gabriel Possenti [non-leap years]

Religious History
280 Birth of Constantine the Great, the first Roman emperor to be converted (ca. 312) to the Christian faith.
1838 Birth of William J. Kirkpatrick, American Methodist sacred composer. He edited his first collection of hymns at age 21, and is still remembered today for composing the melodies to such hymns as: "He Hideth My Soul," "'Tis So Sweet to Trust in Jesus," "Redeemed, How I Love to Proclaim It" and "Lord, I'm Coming Home."
1839 Scottish clergyman Robert Murray McCheyne wrote in a letter: 'Most of God's people are content to be saved from the hell that is without. They are not so anxious to be saved from the hell that is within.'
1849 William Jewell College was chartered in Liberty, Missouri, under Baptist sponsorship.
1938 English Bible expositor Arthur W. Pink wrote in a letter: 'Slackness and carelessness are inexcusable in a child of God. He should ever present a model and example of conscientiousness, painstaking care, and exactness.'

Thought for the day :
"Let a fool hold his tongue and he will pass for a sage."
11 posted on 02/27/2003 5:52:12 AM PST by Valin (Age and deceit beat youth and skill)
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To: Valin
1942 1st transport of French Jews to Nazi-Germany

Sure is nice the see the French and Germans working together again isn't it? < /sarcasm>

12 posted on 02/27/2003 5:57:40 AM PST by SAMWolf (We do not bargain with terrorists, we stalk them, corner them , take aim and kill them)
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To: SAMWolf
Good morning! Awesome thread.
13 posted on 02/27/2003 6:07:12 AM PST by SpookBrat
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To: SpookBrat
Morning Spooky
14 posted on 02/27/2003 6:33:13 AM PST by SAMWolf (We do not bargain with terrorists, we stalk them, corner them , take aim and kill them)
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To: Western Phil; coteblanche
My uncle, Herbert Schabacker, served as an officer for the 369th infantry. As did Col. Hayward, the commander of the 369th , he had Nebraska roots.

NOTE: Some of the letters have an * embedded, these were words or letters that Western Phil was unable to decipher when transcribing from the original letters.

Nov. 8, 1918

Dear Parents, Brothers & Sisters:

It has been better than a week since I have written you, I believe and as I have a little time I'll let you hear from me.

I am sending you a few German Propaganda slips that Fritz drops over our lines on clear days. It is a lot of "Bunk". But he insists in it. We have our share of fun on them, Have taken them & written in long hand right under them some American Propaganda & sent over to his lines. I am also sending you some more coins, Papa. A Swiss & a Belgian Coin. I would ask one thing tho & that is if you acknowledge every time you get some coins & the next time you write just what coins I have sent you. I can replace such, maybe, that were lost in the mails.

I suppose Dora told you that again I am where you really soldier. Today was quite a clear day and our artillery brought down one of Fritz's Planes who was getting a little to chesty the last week or so. He fell in back of my sector, but I was unable to go & see the wreck.

The nights are unusually long and will get longer as this month & the next goes along. At 4:30 it is dark & it does not light up until 6:00 & on dreary days they are longer yet. It is pretty hard on a man's nerve to be always on the alert especially so at night when you must hear if Fritz comes over as you cannot see him.

It night I do my share of translating French orders that were turned over to me, writing letters, discussing plans of the war with my new commissioned officers, reading what little English reading matter drips thru to us. Tho a good deal of my time is spent with the men on post. Being Colored men, they are a little scary but let them see that their officers are willing to go there with what they must they will follow him thru anything and you would be surprised at their confidence in me. Like one said to me whin I stood with him on post one night "Lieutenant, sir! I believe there was somebody in the wire, my hand was itching to throw, a grenade at it , but I knew you were just a little ways off & you would have heard it so let it alone." Just such little incidences are every day occurrence. You cannot depend on them when away, but let a white officer lead them & nothing will stop them. So I have heard when this Regiment went over the top and one of the officers was wounded & fell 12 men rushed up to him to help him in spite of the fact that the earth was just being churned by machine gun Bullets. The old officers in this Regiment are the elite of New York City. Col. Hayward in command was Chas. E. Hughes' National Campaign leader. Our Captain is running for State Senator, millionaires & multimillionaires make up a great part of the officer personnel. The old men are all of N.Y. and a fighting Bunch it was originally the 15th N.Y. N.G.

In the day time I do a lot work around my post such that will make the place safe & comfortable not only for me but also for my successor whom we always take into consideration.

Food is good, considering under what difficulties it has to be brought up and cooked. Now & then we officers are able to get somebody into a village behind the lines & have extras such as butter @ 1.25 per lb. Eggs @ .20 each a can of Peaches the other day cost us $1.60 at that rate we are not eating much extra especially so since I have not been paid since I left the States. But it is coming sooner or later.

I'll close now, with many regards to all.

Your son & Brother
369th Inf. U.S.
French Post. Sect. #107
Via N.Y. American E. F.

15 posted on 02/27/2003 6:33:51 AM PST by SAMWolf (We do not bargain with terrorists, we stalk them, corner them , take aim and kill them)
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To: SAMWolf
16 posted on 02/27/2003 6:49:16 AM PST by CholeraJoe
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To: CholeraJoe; Western Phil
Morning CholeraJoe.

It's a real honor for the Foxhole to have Western Phil share his Uncle's letters with us.
17 posted on 02/27/2003 7:06:00 AM PST by SAMWolf (We do not bargain with terrorists, we stalk them, corner them , take aim and kill them)
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Comment #18 Removed by Moderator

To: coteblanche; Western Phil
My uncle, Herbert Schabacker, served as an officer for the 369th infantry. As did Col. Hayward, the commander of the 369th , he had Nebraska roots.

NOTE: Some of the letters have an * embedded, these were words or letters that Western Phil was unable to decipher when transcribing from the original letters.

Nov. 28, 1918

Dear Parents Brothers & Sisters:

I have not fulfilled my wish of writing you weekly for the last 2 weeks, but not because I did not want to, it was because I could not. From what has passed the last 18 days you may know that we are now in Germany and are permitted to say that we are stationed at Fessenheim some 30 Kilometers from Muchlhouse along the Rein. We claim to be the first division of the Allied Army who reached the Rein 11:30 A.M. Nov. 19. I dipped my hands in the River & the next day I was ordered out to establish a guard on the front of the river & my Company was the first one called "Die Wacht am Rein" I was in command of the Co. We stayed out there for some few nights Froze our share and came out in a nice autumn snow storm. We had no shelter except a thin tent and 3 Blankets but as soldiers we came out. Now we are enjoying home comforts as far as sleeping is concerned, Eating tho not like at home, is plentiful thanks to Uncle Sam's good work in building up the Railroads and roads across No Mans Land.

What a grand and glorious feeling I had when the "runner" brought to me a message at 9:30 A.M. Nov. 11 ordering me to cease all hostilities after 11;00 A.M. same date it certainly relieved me of a lot of anxiety and for the first time in 9 nights I took off my shoes that night & slept. But more of this when I come to visit you upon my return which is my one ambition and along with me will come Florence.

Rumor has it that we will be going home very shortly in fact one of the first ones. So now I am looking ahead and wondering where I will be making my living and how. A certainty is that nothing is settled by any means.

I received today a letter from Henry which I will endeavor to answer if at all possible. Freda's Cousin Lena and your letter of Oct. 18 came at the same time with 5 from Florence, but as this is the first mail received since we left the line I feel that I was not unusually swamped.

I see, Mother, you are still writing in English and having your share of trouble which is not necessary. German is satisfactory to the censor.

Today is Thanksgiving day and we expect to have 2 roosters for dinner which is the best we could do under the existing circumstances but good they will taste.

Must close now. With much love & many regards to all

Your Son & Brother
369th Inf. U.S .
Fr. Post. Sect. #107
American E. F.

19 posted on 02/27/2003 9:04:07 AM PST by SAMWolf (We do not bargain with terrorists, we stalk them, corner them , take aim and kill them)
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To: coteblanche
Mr. Hughes sounds very angry and frustrated in this poem.

20 posted on 02/27/2003 9:10:05 AM PST by SAMWolf (We do not bargain with terrorists, we stalk them, corner them , take aim and kill them)
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To: All
Letter from Colonel Hayward

A highly significant letter written by Col. Hayward to the author shortly after the 369th reached France and went into training.


"Am writing this from away up on the French front where the 'Fighting Fifteenth,' now the 369th U. S., is really fighting in a French Division. We are known to the French as 369 R. I. M. S. and our Secteur Postal is No. 54, France.

"I have two battalions in the trenches of the first line and the third in relief at rest just behind our trenches. The three rotate. Our boys have had their baptism of fire. They have patrolled No Man's Land. They have gone on raids and one of my lieutenants has been cited for a decoration. Of course, it is still in the experimental stage, but two questions of the gravest importance to our country and to your race have, in my opinion, been answered.

"First: How will American Negro soldiers, including commissioned officers (of whom I still have five), get along in service with French soldiers and officers---as for instance a Negro regiment of infantry serving in a French combat division?

"Second: Will the American Negro stand up under the terrible shell fire of this war as he has always stood under rifle fire and thus prove his superiority, spiritually and intellectually, to all the black men of Africa and Asia, who have failed under these conditions and whose use must be limited to attack or for shock troops?

"We have answered the first question in a most gratifying way. The French soldiers have not the slightest prejudice or feeling. The poilus and my boys are great chums, eat, dance, sing, march and fight together in absolute accord. The French officers have little, if any feeling about Negro officers. What little, if any, is not racial but from skepticism that a colored man (judging of course by those they have known) can have the technical education necessary to make an efficient officer. However, as I write these lines, Capt. Napoleon Bonaparte Marshall and Lieut. D. Lincoln Reed are living at the French Officers' Mess at our division Infanterie School, honored guests.

"The program I enclose gives you an idea of the way I've cultivated friendship between my boys and the poilus. You should have seen the 500 soldiers French and mine, all mixed up together, cheering and laughing at the show arranged while the Boche shells (boxcar size) went screaming over our heads.

"Now, on the second question, perhaps I am premature. But both my two battalions which have gone in have been under shell fire, serious and prolonged once, and the boys just laughed and cuddled into their shelter and read old newspapers. French company got shelled and it was getting very warm around the rolling kitchen. The cooks went along about their business in absolute unconcern until the alarmed French soldiers ran to them and told them to beat it. One of the cooks said, 'Oh, that's all light, boss. They ain't hurting us none.' They are positively the most stoical and mysterious men I've ever known. Nothing surprises them. And we now have expert opinion. The French officers say they are entirely different from their own African troops and the Indian troops of the British, who are so excitable under shell fire. Of course, I have explained that my boys are public school boys, wise in their day and generation, no caste prejudice, accustomed to the terrible noises of the subway, elevated and street traffic, of New York City (which would drive any desert man or Himalaya mountaineer mad) and are all Christians. Also, that while the more ignorant ones might not like to have a black cat hanging around for fear it would turn into a fish or something, they have no delusions about the Boche shells coming from any Heathen Gods. They know the child-killing Germans are firing at them with pyrocellulose, and they know how the breech mechanism works.

"I am very proud of what we've done and are doing. I put the whole regiment through grenade (live grenade) practice. Nasty, dangerous business. They did it beautifully. I found one rank arrant coward, who refused to throw. Said he couldn't. Another threw prematurely after igniting the bomb. We asked him why he did not wait for the command to throw (barrage). He said, 'Kunnel, that old grenade, she begun to swell right in my hand.' The boys keep writing home that the 'war is not so bad if you just go at it right.' Well, a very wise command somewhere, I don't know where, has let us go at it right. You know I've always told these boys I'd never send them anywhere I would not go myself, so I went first to the trenches, prowled around, saw it all and came back to the regiment to take in the battalion which was to go in first. When they saw me covered with mud, but safe and sound they said 'How is she, Kunnel?' 'She's all right,' I said. They all laughed and then the sick and the lame of that battalion began to get well miraculously and begged to go. Captain Clark called for twelve volunteers for a raid and the company fell in to the last man---all wanted to go, and he had to pick his twelve after all.

"Do you wonder that I love them, every one, good, bad and indifferent?

"Personally I am well, strong, and the happiest man in the world. I've learned more about the military game, at least the fighting of this war, since I have been here with the French than I learned in all the years as drummer boy, private, Sergeant, Captain, Major and Colonel Second Nebraska Infantry, Spanish War, Maneuvers, Officers' School, Gettysburg and Leavenworth problems, etc., etc., and all the time I spent with my present regiment in the New York National Guard. "And another thing, I believe I know more about Negro soldiers and how to handle them, especially the problem of Negro and white officers, than any other man living today. Of course, the other regiment I commanded for three years was a white regiment, so I had a lot to learn, but I've learned it and I wouldn't trade back now.

"Suppose after I've held my sector up here by blood and iron two or three months, some National Guard Brigadier, who has just arrived in France, will come along and point out all the mistakes I've made and tell me just how to do it. Well, 'C'est la guerre' as we French say.

"Brother Boche doesn't know who we are yet, as none of my men have been captured so far, and the boys wear a French blue uniform when they go on raids. I've been thinking if they capture one of my Porto Ricans (of whom I have a few) in the uniform of a Normandy French regiment and this black man tells them in Spanish that he is an American soldier in a New York National Guard regiment it's going to give the German intelligence department a headache trying to figure it out.

"We a proud to think our boys were the first Negro American soldiers in the trenches. Jim Europe was certainly the first Negro officer in. You can imagine how important he feels! In addition to the personal gratification at having done well as a regiment I feel it has been a tremendously important experiment, when one considers the hosts of colored men who must come after us. I wish I had a brigade, yes, a division or a corps of them. We'd make history and plant the hob-nailed boots of the 'Heavy Ethiopian Foot' in the Kaiser's face all right.

"We were so disappointed that the Secretary didn't get up to see us. The town we were holding then had been named by me 'Bakerville' and it is so on our maps.

"Regards and good wishes to you.


21 posted on 02/27/2003 11:07:24 AM PST by SAMWolf (We do not bargain with terrorists, we stalk them, corner them , take aim and kill them)
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To: All
My uncle, Herbert Schabacker, served as an officer for the 369th infantry. As did Col. Hayward, the commander of the 369th , he had Nebraska roots.

NOTE: Some of the letters have an * embedded, these were words or letters that Western Phil was unable to decipher when transcribing from the original letters.

Dec. 25/18
Chateuvis, France

Dearest Parents, Brothers & Sisters:

This is one day of all where our thoughts ramble across the sea more than usual. Last night I had 3 other officers in my room and our entire conversation was of home. One of us made the remark early in the evening: "Gentlemen! This is the night, when folks at home miss you more than you them." I think he was right at that. My main regret is that I am unable to attend services, the first time, as much as I know, since I was born, that a Xmas passes without attending some services. But I am confined to my room or near there with a bad stomach that has bothered me for a week but which became acute yesterday and the doctor put me to bed last night. But this morning I feel pretty *chip* again except seem littler weak as I have eaten nothing since Yesterday morning. If it were that I could get out I would attend Catholic services which are the only one in the village.

You can see that we are again in France. We left Putrershein on the morning of the 18th. Stayed over night at Seutheim. Next day marched to Frais between Faulaine & Bessaucourt. On the 20 we marched thru Belfert to Essert about 3 miles west of Belfert. On the 23rd we came here on a march of about 8 miles directly south of Belfort. Chateuvis is a real nice little French village of 325 families. I was billeting officer for the entire trip and billeted the entire Battalion every day. But I got here and assigned myself a room and when I wanted to take it after I had every body fixed up. I was out of luck as the family's sow had come home and occupied the room. But I found one above a cafe in fact 3 rooms 2 of which had stoves 3 other officers had similar experiences so I put them *ise and now we are finely situated.

We have had some hard marches the last week as every day it rained & we never dried up but now we are well fixed & dry thru & thru.

We have had a touch of Xmas as going thru Belfert I met a Red Cross man & I gave hm a tale of woe, how this Regiment had seen some hard fighting & *rkes were coming them miserable. So he gave some cigarettes and my billeting party & promised to fix the Battalion up were I willing to furnish transportation? I did. Every man & officer of this Battalion was giving 3 packs of Taxedo, Some gum, candy & a Xmas package which consisted of a lot of small articles needed by every soldier. I found in my kit a sewing outfit consisting of buttons, needles pins, thread, scissors, etc. 25 Envelopes 1 pad of paper 5 sticks of Gum, Tooth paste, shaving soap, Bouillon cubes, folding cup, Xmas candy, a box of cookies, 5 cigars and some few other small articles that I cannot now recall. May be that wasn't a treat for our men who certainly needed it.

The folks here baked us a nice cake last night & 2 pies today of which I could not partake as much as I liked to.

I must close now as I wish to drop Freda a line yet.

Regards & the seasons greetings to all

369th Inf.
American E. F.

22 posted on 02/27/2003 12:07:32 PM PST by SAMWolf (We do not bargain with terrorists, we stalk them, corner them , take aim and kill them)
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To: Western Phil; All
My uncle, Herbert Schabacker, served as an officer for the 369th infantry. As did Col. Hayward, the commander of the 369th , he had Nebraska roots.

NOTE: Some of the letters have an * embedded, these were words or letters that Western Phil was unable to decipher when transcribing from the original letters.

Brest, France
Jan. 19 1919

Dear Parents, brothers & Sisters:

I have before me 3 letters received from you since I have last written, but I had hoped to be on board ship before this so I have delayed answering them.

From the heading you can see that I am still headed westward (in fact as far west ss I possibly can without getting out of France or on water. Just when we sail I cannot say it may be tomorrow & it may be a week or a month but only 3 hours notice is given us so we are in hopes. We left from near Belfort on Dec 31/18 & Le Mans after a 2 day & 2 night trip on a cold troop train. At Le Mans we were deloused of which both officers and men had a lot. From there we left again on the 9th and arrived at Brest after a night and a day on a cold American troop train. Here we lived for 4 days in tents were deloused again * moved into Barracks where we are now waiting for the good ship that is to take us over. That it cannot leave to soon you can imagine. We are having now the rainy season and we are living in our rain coats & trying to find the bottom of the mud which is in places actually knee deep. But we do but little work & eat well in spite of which I am getting home-sicker every day.

Ich habe Erich's Brief mit Interse gelesen. The Photographs I have sent to Florence & she will return them in her first letter to you. Thank you for them.

Your Xmas box arrived safely at Le Mans. I certainly appreciated it very much every bit of it was of use & I shared willing with my comrades they all marveled at your thoughtfulness. I also received one from Freda which was highly welcomed. Especially the sox. I had only 2 pair left as it is the French & for that German wash women delight to steal sox as wool yarn cannot be bought at any price. One of the pair that I have left is only ½ as long as they were when given to me. The other half is now possibly adorning some Frenchmen's feet.

It certainly is too bad that Florence could not come for the Holidays, but I assure you, if at all possible, I am going to bring her home once I get out of the Army, this is the height of my ambition.

Bis jetzt sind kein Munzen verloren gegangen. As much as I feared for which I am certainly thankful. I sent some few pieces from Germany & saving more to bring with me. I am getting to be quite a *crank on that & look over every piece I lay my hands on. Ich habe auch French Propaganda slips which I picked up in no mans land after the armistice which I will give you when I get back. These are written in German and are very interesting. The German slips I could not quite make out as my French is not of the best tho I figured out that they suggested rebellion. You certainly made a showing with your war activities of which you can be justly pleased for years to come when arguments come up regarding the German settlements in the States. I never fail to point with pride on the settlement in Friedensau.

I am glad to hear that Capt. Hall was elected in the last election. Remember me to him also Mr. Fitzpatrick. We are now in the 93rd Div. Entirely a colored unit tho thru the entire war we were with the French 161st Div. The only American Reg. in that. The 369th is a National Guard outfit & never was in a U.S. Division coming over separately & when it gets back will again sever its connection with the 93rd. Just what will become of us N. Army officers we know not yet.

Florence wrote of the many presents received from you. I thank you sincerely for them all. My big regret is that I cannot reciprocate now. I also received a letter from Cordula. Thank you very much.

Wenn es mein Unglick sein sollte noch langer hier zu bleiben ware ich hochst wahrscheinlich einmal noch Koln gekommen es ware mir sehr lib gewesen verwante hier aufzusuchen. Ware ich wohl willkommen gewesen?

Only under exceptional circumstances do officers & men get discharged over here, thus preventing an overflow of labor in this country of which the Governments are afraid. I received a very nice letter from my old firm the Ft. Wayne Printing Co. urging me to have an interview with them before I accept any position in civil life. Now the future has no * for me.

I must close now with many regards to all.

Your Son & Brother

23 posted on 02/27/2003 1:29:51 PM PST by SAMWolf (We do not bargain with terrorists, we stalk them, corner them , take aim and kill them)
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To: SAMWolf

Today's classic warship, USS Quincy (CA-71)

Baltimore class heavy cruiser
Displacement: 13,600 t.
Length: 673’5”
Beam: 70’10”
Draft: 20’6”
Speed: 33 k.
Complement: 1,142
Armament: 9 8”; 12 5”; 48 40mm; 24 20mm

The USS QUINCY (CA-71), a heavy cruiser, was authorized 17 June 1940; laid down by Bethlehem Steel Co., Shipbuilding Div., Quincy, Mass., as ST. PAUL 9 October 1941; renamed QUINCY 16 October 1942 to perpetuate that name after destruction of the USS QUINCY (CA-39) at the Battle of Savo Island 9 August 1942; launched 23 June 1943; sponsored by Mrs. Henry S. Morgan, a daughter of Charles Francis Adams; and commissioned at the U.S. Naval Drydock, South Boston, Mass., 15 December 1943, Capt. Elliot M. Senn in command.

After shakedown cruise in the Gulf of Paria, between Trinidad and Venezuela, the new cruiser was assigned, 27 March 1944, to Task Force 22 and trained in Casco Bay, Maine until she steamed to Belfast, Northern Ireland with TG 27.10, arriving 14 May and reporting to Commander, 12th Fleet for duty. General Dwight D. Eisenhower, Supreme Commander, Allied Expeditionary Force, accompanied by Rear Admiral Alan G. Kirk, inspected the ship's company in Belfast Lough 15 May 1944.

QUINCY stood out of Belfast Lough 20 May for the Clyde and anchored off Greenock, Scotland to begin special training in shore bombardment. She then returned to Belfast Lough and began final preparations for the invasion of Europe. At 0537, 6 June 1944, she engaged shore batteries from her station on the right flank of Utah Beach, Baie de la Seine.

During the period 6 through 17 June, in conjunction with shore fire control parties and aircraft spotters, QUINCY conducted highly accurate pinpoint firing against enemy mobile batteries and concentrations of tanks, trucks, and troops. She also neutralized and destroyed heavy, long range enemy batteries, supported minesweepers operating under enemy fire, engaged enemy batteries that were firing on the crews of CORRY (DD-463) and GLENNON (DD-620) during their efforts to abandon their ships after they had struck mines and participated in the reduction of the town of Quineville 12 June 1944.

QUINCY steamed to Portland, England 21 June and joined TF 129. She departed Portland 24 June for Cherbourg, France. The bombardment of the batteries surrounding the city commenced in conjunction with the Army's assault at 1207. Nineteen of the twenty-one primary targets assigned the task force were successfully neutralized or destroyed thus enabling Army troops to occupy the city that day.

The heavy cruiser sailed for Mers-el Kebir, North Africa 4 July, arriving there the 10th. She proceeded to Palermo, Sicily, 16 July, arriving two days later. QUINCY, based at Palermo through 26 July, conducted shore bombardment practice at Camarota in the Gulf of Policastro. She then steamed to Malta via the Straits of Messina. Between 27 July and 13 August, the cruiser participated in training exercises at Malta and Camarota, Italy.

On the afternoon of 13 August, in company with four British cruisers, one French cruiser, and four American destroyers, QUINCY departed Malta for the landings on the southern coast of France, arriving Baie de Cavalaire 15 August. For three days the group provided fire support on the left flank of the 3rd U.S. Army. QUINCY transferred 19 August to TG 86.4, and until the 24th, engaged the heavy batteries at Toulon, St. Mandrier, and Cape Sicie. She steamed westward the afternoon of 24 August to support minesweepers clearing the channel to Port de Bouc in the Marseilles area.

QUINCY was detached from European duty 1 September and steamed for Boston, arriving one week later. She remained at Boston for the installation of new equipment through 31 October, when she got underway for training in Casco Bay. After fitting out at Boston for a Presidential cruise, QUINCY steamed for Hampton Roads, Va. 16 November.

President Roosevelt and his party embarked in QUINCY 23 January 1945 at Newport News, Va. for passage to Malta, arriving 2 February. After receiving calls by Prime Minister Winston Churchill and other dignitaries, President Roosevelt departed QUINCY and continued on to the Crimea by air.

QUINCY departed Malta 6 February and arrived Great Bitter Lake in the Suez Canal two days later, after calling at Ismalia, Egypt. The President and his party returned 12 February and the next day received Farouk I, King of Egypt, and Haile Selassie, Emperor of Ethiopia. President Roosevelt received Ibn Saud, King of Saudi Arabia, 14 February. After a call at Alexandria and a final meeting between President Roosevelt and Prime Minister Churchill, QUINCY steamed for Algiers, arriving 18 February. Following a presidential conference with the American ambassadors to Great Britain, France, and Italy, the cruiser steamed for the United States arriving Newport News, Va. 27 February.

QUINCY stood out of Hampton Roads 5 March 1945, arriving Pearl Harbor the 20th. After training in the Pearl Harbor area, she steamed for Ulithi via Eniwetok, joining the 5th Fleet there 11 April. Two days later, she departed Ulithi and joined Rear Admiral Wiltse's Cruiser Division 10, in Vice Admiral Mitscher's Fast Carrier Task Force. From 16 April, QUINCY supported the carriers in their strikes on Okinawa, Amami Gunto, and Minami Daito Shima. She returned to Ulithi with units of the task force 30 April.

In company with units of TF 58, QUINCY departed Ulithi 9 May for the area east of Kyushu, arriving 12 May for carrier strikes against Amami Gunto and Kyushu. Before dawn on 14 May, the cruiser splashed a Japanese plane. Her own aircraft strafed targets in Omonawa on Tokune Shima 19 May. QUINCY continued to support carrier aircraft strikes against Okinawa, Tokuno Shima, Kikai Jima, Amami Gunto, and Asumi Gunto until the force returned to base 13 June. Enroute, QUINCY safely rode out the severe typhoon of 5 June.

During the period of replenishment and upkeep at Leyte Rear Admiral Wiltse, ComCruDiv 10 transferred to QUINCY. The cruiser departed Leyte 1 July with Task Force 38 to begin a period of strikes at Japan's home islands which lasted until the termination of hostilities. She supported carriers in strikes in the Tokyo Plains area, Honshu, Hokkaido, and Shikoku.

QUINCY joined the Support Force, 23 August, and four days later, helped occupy Sagami Wan, Japan, and entered Tokyo Bay 1 September.

Rear Admiral Wiltse transferred his flag 17 September to VICKSBURG (CL-86), and 20 September QUINCY joined the 5th Fleet as a unit of the Eastern Japan Force, TF 53, basing in Tokyo Bay.

QUINCY decommissioned 19 October 1946 in the Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Bremerton, Wash. She was assigned to the Bremerton Group, Pacific Reserve Fleet until 31 January 1952, when she recommissioned to serve in the 7th Fleet in support of United Nations Forces in Korea. Following fitting out and readiness training, she served in the screen of the Fast Carrier Task groups ranging off the coastline of Korea 25 July through 1 December 1953.

She again decommissioned 2 July 1954; and was berthed at Bremerton, Wash., in the Pacific Reserve Fleet. Stricken on 1 October 1973, QUINCY was sold for scrap on 20 August 1974.

QUINCY received four battle stars for World War II service.

Big Guns in Action!

24 posted on 02/27/2003 2:41:10 PM PST by aomagrat (IYAOYAS)
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To: aomagrat
Nineteen of the twenty-one primary targets assigned the task force were successfully neutralized or destroyed thus enabling Army troops to occupy the city that day.

Good shooting and spotting.

25 posted on 02/27/2003 2:45:05 PM PST by SAMWolf (We do not bargain with terrorists, we stalk them, corner them , take aim and kill them)
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Comment #26 Removed by Moderator

To: coteblanche
That's what a lot of us hope for, that my children will have a better Country.
27 posted on 02/27/2003 6:01:46 PM PST by SAMWolf (We do not bargain with terrorists, we stalk them, corner them , take aim and kill them)
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To: Don Diego; Warrior Nurse; JAWs; DryLandSailor; NikkiUSA; OneLoyalAmerican; Tester; U S Army EOD; ...
FALL IN to the FReeper Foxhole!

To be removed from this list, please send me a blank private reply with "REMOVE" in the subject line! Thanks! Jen
28 posted on 02/27/2003 6:04:25 PM PST by Jen (The FReeper Foxhole - Can you dig it?)
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To: SAMWolf
I love old letters SAM. Thanks for posting them.
29 posted on 02/27/2003 6:14:02 PM PST by SpookBrat
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To: AntiJen
30 posted on 02/27/2003 6:15:23 PM PST by manna
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To: AntiJen
I feel into the Foxhole. How is your mom?
31 posted on 02/27/2003 6:15:49 PM PST by SpookBrat
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To: AntiJen; All
My PC is slow today bump. Good thread.
32 posted on 02/27/2003 6:17:41 PM PST by Dubya (Jesus saith unto him, I am the way, the truth, and the life: no man cometh unto the Father,but by me)
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To: SpookBrat; Western Phil
Thanks Western Phil, he provided them to me.
33 posted on 02/27/2003 6:22:02 PM PST by SAMWolf (We do not bargain with terrorists, we stalk them, corner them , take aim and kill them)
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To: AntiJen
Evening Jen
34 posted on 02/27/2003 6:23:00 PM PST by SAMWolf (We do not bargain with terrorists, we stalk them, corner them , take aim and kill them)
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To: AntiJen; SAMWolf; Western Phil
Remarkable thread today.
The letters remind us that these were real people with homes and families and friends, just like us.
35 posted on 02/27/2003 6:27:47 PM PST by sistergoldenhair (Don't be a sheep. People hate sheep. They eat sheep.)
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To: SAMWolf
Jim Europe's music is available again on CD. It was recorded with vertical instead of laterial undulations in the grooves. The booklet that comes with this CD describes how it was retrieved from the original. The music is quite good. It was a shame that he was lost at a young age.
36 posted on 02/27/2003 6:37:27 PM PST by Western Phil
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To: AntiJen
37 posted on 02/27/2003 6:52:09 PM PST by Eastbound
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To: SAMWolf
Thank you for another fine history lesson, Sam.
38 posted on 02/27/2003 6:56:58 PM PST by Samwise
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To: Western Phil
Thanks for the link to Jim Europe's music. And thanks again for providing your Uncle's letters
39 posted on 02/27/2003 7:00:17 PM PST by SAMWolf (We do not bargain with terrorists, we stalk them, corner them , take aim and kill them)
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To: Samwise; Andyman; Western Phil; AlabamaRebel
Thanks Samwise, it's people like you, Andyman, Western Phil and Alabama Rebel and others who make suggestions, provide leads and material that help a lot.
40 posted on 02/27/2003 7:03:15 PM PST by SAMWolf (We do not bargain with terrorists, we stalk them, corner them , take aim and kill them)
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To: sistergoldenhair; AntiJen; SAMWolf; Western Phil
Yes, those letters are remarkable. It is truly difficult to fully appreciate all of the sacrifices that brave men have made for us. What a wonderful legacy they have left us. The only way we can truly say thank you is to preserve that legacy.
41 posted on 02/27/2003 7:06:11 PM PST by Samwise
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To: SpookBrat
Hi Spookie. Did you skin your knee when you fell into the Foxhole? I may be able to find a bandaid if you need one.

My mom is doing OK. My dad died a month ago today so that was on her mind all day, but she held up well. We gathered some clothes and stuff to donate to the courthouse rummage sale to benefit cancer research. And we went out for breakfast, and did some shopping. I'm tired, but OK. Need to soak for awhile in the hot tub tonight to relax sore muscles.

My mom did something that I think is terrific - she started an 'Accomplishment List' of things she has learned to do that my dad always took care of. Like crank the leaf blower, and light the gas logs in the fireplace, and how to remove the gas cap on a diesel truck and where to take it for an oil change.

How are YOU? Hope you are feeling better tonight.

42 posted on 02/27/2003 7:28:42 PM PST by Jen (The FReeper Foxhole - Can you dig it?)
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To: SAMWolf; AntiJen; SpookBrat; MistyCA; GatorGirl; SassyMom; All
Good evening, everyone!

Paris, 1917
Army 1st Lt. James Reese Europe was a World War I hero and famous ragtime composer, arranger, performer and bandmaster of the 369th Infantry Regiment "Harlem Hellfighters" band.


Interest Grows in Music Pioneer James Europe, WWI Hero
By Rudi Williams
American Forces Press Service

The name "Lt. James Reese Europe" etched into a graying, weathered tombstone doesn't mean anything to most visitors to Arlington (Va.) National Cemetery. It's just an obscure name among thousands on grave markers throughout the huge military burial ground. Of Europe, the late ragtime and jazz composer and performer pianist Eubie Blake once said, "People don't realize yet today what we lost when we lost Jim Europe. He was the savior of Negro musicians … in a class with Booker T. Washington and Martin Luther King Jr."

The French government called him a battlefield hero. Before the war, however, he was a household name in New York's music world and on the dance scene nationwide. According to books about ragtime and early jazz, James Reese Europe was the most respected black bandleader of the "teens" when the United States entered World War I. Both his battlefield heroism and his music fell into obscurity after his untimely and tragic death at 39 on May 9, 1919.

The son of a former slave father and a "free" mother, Europe was born in Mobile, Ala., on Feb. 22, 1881. Europe's compositions and arrangements of familiar tunes were played with a jazz twist long before the "Jazz Age." His style was between the syncopated beat of ragtime and the syncopated improvisation of jazz. He became popular in France using that same style as leader of the 369th Infantry Regiment band during World War I. He enlisted as a private in the 15th Infantry, a black New York National Guard outfit, on Sept. 18, 1916. Europe accomplished something only a few African Americans did in those days: He attended officers training and was commissioned a lieutenant.

The 15th Infantry was later redesignated the 369th Infantry, which the French nicknamed "The Harlem Hellfighters" after the black soldiers showed their mettle in combat. Europe's regimental commander, Col. William Hayward, asked the new lieutenant to organize "the best damn brass band in the United States Army." With the promise of extra money to attract first-class musicians, Europe recruited musicians from Harlem and reportedly put together one of the finest military bands that ever existed. He even recruited woodwind players from Puerto Rico because there weren't enough in Harlem. Europe also recruited singers, comedians, dancers and others who could entertain troops. He recruited the best drum major he could find -- Harlem dancer Bill "Bojangles" Robinson.

When the 369th and its band arrived in France, they were assigned to the 16th "Le Gallais" Division of the Fourth French Army because white U.S. Army units refused to fight alongside them. Trained to command a machine gun company, Europe learned to fire French machine guns and became the first American officer and first African American to lead troops in battle during the war.

The Harlem Hellfighters would serve 191 days in combat, longer than any other U.S. unit, and reputedly never relinquished an inch of ground. The men earned 170 French Croix de Guerres for bravery. One of their commanding officers, Col. Benjamin O. Davis Sr., would become the Army's first black general in 1940.

Europe was gassed while leading a daring nighttime raid against the Germans. While recuperating in a French hospital, he penned the song "One Patrol in No Man's Land." Europe and his musicians were ordered to the rear in August 1918 to entertain thousands of soldiers in camps and hospitals. They also performed for high-ranking military and civilian officials and for French citizens in cities across France. After Germany surrendered, the Hellfighters Band became popular performing throughout Europe. When the regiment returned home in the spring of 1919, it paraded up New York's 5th Avenue to Harlem led by the band playing its raggedy tunes to the delight of more than a million spectators. Back in America, Europe found himself even more popular than before he went to war. He recorded "One Patrol in No Man's Land"; it became a nationwide hit.

Europe ironically survived being shot at and gassed in the trenches of France only to die on May 9, 1919, at the hands of one of his own men. A deranged drummer named Herbert Wright cut Europe's jugular vein with a penknife while the bandleader was preparing for a show at Mechanics Hall in Boston. Wright had been angry because he thought Europe favored his twin brother over him.

"One Patrol in No Man's Land"

43 posted on 02/27/2003 7:45:34 PM PST by Victoria Delsoul
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To: Victoria Delsoul
Thanks for the bio on James Reese Europe and the sample of his music. See I told you I leave stuff for you to post.
44 posted on 02/27/2003 7:53:23 PM PST by SAMWolf (We do not bargain with terrorists, we stalk them, corner them , take aim and kill them)
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To: SAMWolf
A small number of the Fifteenth's men were sent with each French company, with instructions to observe all regulations and familiarize themselves with the tactics of the French.

I don't know what the French could have tought these brave men. They never did learn to retreat, and that's all the French know how to do. LOL

45 posted on 02/27/2003 8:00:06 PM PST by The Real Deal
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To: The Real Deal
Evening real deal.

French and British tactics at that time were to get up from behind cover, run into the barbed wire and get mowed down by German machine guns in the thousands. Not good tactics.
46 posted on 02/27/2003 8:03:37 PM PST by SAMWolf (We do not bargain with terrorists, we stalk them, corner them , take aim and kill them)
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To: SAMWolf
See I told you I leave stuff for you to post.

LOL, I just have to find it, and it ain't easy.

47 posted on 02/27/2003 8:06:11 PM PST by Victoria Delsoul
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To: AntiJen
Today's graphic, better late than not at all..fits the cold snowy days we've been having.

48 posted on 02/27/2003 8:06:39 PM PST by GailA (THROW AWAY THE KEYS
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To: The Real Deal
Evening RD. Good to see you.
49 posted on 02/27/2003 8:07:09 PM PST by Victoria Delsoul
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To: SAMWolf; Western Phil; All

(The difference in color of the envelopes is due to PhotoShop editing I did to make the writing more legible.)

50 posted on 02/27/2003 8:08:15 PM PST by Jen (The FReeper Foxhole - Can you dig it?)
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